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Ch. 13.4: DNA Technology Applications

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 13.4: DNA Technology Applications"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 13.4: DNA Technology Applications
Objectives: Describe the technique that enables scientists to mass-produce specific segments of DNA in a test tube. Describe a technique used to compare DNA samples. Vocabulary PCR Gel electrophoresis Genetic Marker DNA fingerprint

2 PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction
Technique used to MAKE COPIES of a SEGMENT OF DNA. Start with 1 microgram DNA --> billions of copies Need enough DNA to analyze.

3 PCR Ingredients PRIMERS (short strands of DNA that will pair w/ target sequence) Nucleotides DNA Polymerase

4 PCR Steps 1. Add heat to separate strands. 2. Cool & add primers
3. Primers bind to target strand. 4. DNA polymerase adds nucleotides.

5 Comparing DNA Gel Electrophoresis
Sorts molecules or fragments of DNA BY LENGTH. Used to compare DNA fr. different people.

6 Gel Electrophoresis DNA is (-)charged.
DNA fragments move thru. gel to (+) end of gel bed. Shorter fragments travel farthest.


8 DNA Fingerprinting Pattern of DNA fragments produced by restriction enzymes. Each person has unique patterns Compare genetic markers between samples. Genetic Markers = Stretches of DNA that are variable among individuals. Differences due to different alleles, mutations in intron sequences

9 Summary PCR --> Make copies of DNA from a drop of blood or hair follicle. Gel electrophoresis --> Separate fragments DNA fingerprinting --> Look for genetic markers to identify. Each person has unique DNA sequence = different fragments = diff. banding pattern (Fingerprint)

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