9 Air pollution sick building syndrome global warming ozone depletion acid depositionsmog\thermal inversion
10 Sustainable Development SolutionsPopulation ControlConservationefficiencySustainable DevelopmentEnvironmental Legislation(NEPA)Renewable EnergyWaste Managementrecycling
11 Key PointsDifferentiate between cornucopianism and environmentalismBe able to apply the concept of sustainabilityDescribe conservation strategies for endangered speciesDifferentiate between the types of symbiosisDescribe the role of energy in ecosystemsDiscuss factors affecting fertility rateDescribe key points of population growth curveDiscuss the environmental effects of agriculture.
12 Key PointsDescribe processes in the water, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon cycles.Discuss activities, such as deforestation and agriculture, that are impacting on the water and carbon cycles.Define eutrophicationLink pollutants to their effects especially global warming and ozone depletion.
13 Sample case with questions and sample answers. Iraq is a desert country in the Middle East with 10% of the world’s oil reserves. The United States and Great Britain have invaded Iraq. One strategy used by Saddam Hussein was to set oil wells and pits filled with oil on fire. Since the war there has been increases in oil prices and global instability. Jamaica’s oil bill was US$700 million in 2002 and is expected to rise significantly this year.
14 Sample case with questions and sample answers Mesopotamia the cradle of civilization lies within Iraq on the flood plains of the Tigris and the Euphrates. Both of these rivers originate in Turkey and international agreements govern their use. The history of irrigation started here 7500 years ago when flood irrigation was used to grow wheat and barley. Today, greater than 70% of irrigated lands cannot be used due to problems caused by irrigation.
15 Discuss two reasons why flood irrigation has proven to be unsustainable. [4 marks] Flood irrigation has proven to be unsustainable because:It results in salinisation which is the buildup of salts in the soil due to evaporation of irrigation water. The high level of salt makes the soil infertile and incapable of supporting agriculture. This is unsustainable because future generations are being deprived of this resource. (2 marks)Iraq is a desert country and water is very scarce. Flood irrigation wastes water that could be used for some other purpose such as drinking. It depletes water supplies reducing future availability. (2 marks)
16 Discuss two possible long-term environmental effects of the burning of fossil fuels on the Caribbean [4 marks]Burning of fossil fuels produce carbon dioxide, which contributes to global warming. Global warming causes glaciers to melt. This is resulting in rising sea levels which may submerge coastal towns of Caribbean Islands in the future. (2 marks)Global warming may also disrupt weather patterns resulting in more severe hurricanes, floods and droughts. (2 marks)
17 Discuss two effects of the war on the sustainability of Iraq’s water resources. [4 marks] Bombs dropped by the United States have destroyed the sewage infrastructure resulting in contamination of scarce water resources. This has reduced the future availability of water. (2 marks)The presence of American and British troops has placed additional pressure on Iraq’s scarce water supplies reducing future availability. (2 marks)
18 Differentiate between conservation and efficiency and discuss how each can be used by Jamaica to reduce the impact of the high oil bill [4 marks]Conservation is any activity that reduces use of a resource (such as turning off lights not being used) while efficiency, a form of conservation, is the use of technology to accomplish the same task using less of a resource (eg. using energy efficient bulbs to produce the same illumination using less power). (2 marks)Since conservation and efficiency both result in reduced use of electricity then they will result in less oil being used and a lower oil bill. (2 marks)
19 Recycling waste oil would: Discuss two possible ways that recycling waste oil in Jamaica would be a sustainable activity [4 marks]Recycling waste oil would:reduce the amount available to pollute the environment thus preserving resources for future use. (2 marks)reduce the amount of raw oil that needs to be drilled thus extending the future availability of this resource. (2 marks)