Who: Hipparchus When: Circa 130 B.C. Equipment: His own knowledge of mathematics and observations of the movements of the stars.
Who: Galileo Galilei When: 1609 Equipment/Technology: Making improvements on the first telescope, was able to magnify objects 3-30 times; used this telescope to discover 4 of Jupiter’s moons, the cycles of Venus, and was one of the first to study sunspots
Who: The Sputnik Satellite; USSR When: October 4, 1957 Equipment/Technology: A satellite about 58 cm in diameter, about 83.6g weight, travelled 29,000 km/hr (96 minute orbit), beeping radio beacon
Who: Yuri Gagarin; USSR When: April 12, 1961 Equipment/Technology: USSR- developed Vostok 1 spacecraft
Who: NASA, Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin When: July 20, 1969 Equipment/Technology: Apollo 11 space craft with Moon lander, “Eagle”
Who: NASA When: September 5, 1977 Equipment/Technology: U.S. robotic space probe, 722 kg, farthest man-made object in space, first to leave our solar system, detailed photo study of Jupiter/Saturn systems, also carries a golden record with details of life on Earth in case it is discovered by intelligent life.
Who: NASA When: Launched 1990 Equipment/Technology: Launched from a shuttle; array of cameras capable of taking photos, such as the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, which is the deepest look into the universe (image contains ~ 10,000 galaxies and goes back approximately 13 billion years); allows scientists to take sharp images of distant objects in space
Who: American, European, Japanese, Russian space programs When: In orbit assembly began in 1998 and was scheduled to end in 2012 (has been extended) Equipment/Technology: Largest artificial satellite to orbit Earth, can be seen from the ground with naked eye, has a microgravity environment for carrying out research
Who: Richard Branson, Virgin Group When: ~ 2010 testing, future flights Equipment/Technology: $200,000 per ticket, 6 passenger 2-pilot craft, SpaceCraft Two is carried atop a carrier aircraft called White Knight II, will go 100km into space for 6 minutes of weightlessness