2 Language and Culture Language: _________________________ Importance of language for human life1. only animal capable of _______________2. avenue of communication & thought concerning abstract concepts, and concrete persons, places, things, actions, & events3. _____________of culture aided by _________
3 Linguistic Anthropology Focus on language________________________Generally interested in how language changesExamples:ComparisonsWorld economyGenderComparisonsWorldviewPatterns of thoughtMultilingualismWorld economyCross-cultural differences in language use“differences in context and/or frequency of occurrence”Implications:Same language structures with different functions across languages
4 Language and Communication What is the difference between language and communication?Communication: Act of transferring information to others1.2.Language can be thought of as a way of communicating
5 Human Language Distinctive 1. Openness (a.k.a. ________)_________________ to create totally novel sentences and a ___________ to comprehend themA language’s __________________ can be combined into a infinite number of meaningful sentences
6 Human Language Distinctive 2. DisplacementOur ability to talk about __________ __________________________________Due to usage of symbols to transmit meanings
7 Human Language Distinctive 3. Arbitrariness___________________________ between particular linguistic sounds & particular linguistic meaningsEvidence in the design feature of language known as ________________ and ______________Phonomes: small set of meaningless soundsMorphomes: meaning-bearing units (which have been patterned together with phonomes)Grammar: a set of rules that aim to describe fully the patterns of linguistic usage observed by speakers of a particular languageDuality of PatterningSound and meaningSemanticityAssociation of linguistic signals with aspects of social, cultural, and physical world of a speech communityExample: US & computers as well as Aymara & potatoesPrevaricateMake or ask statements that violate convention Consequence of open symbolic systems
8 Communication Among Non-Human Primates Primates don’t ______Parts of calls are not ___________ to get new informationTheir calls are _____________Communication can signal:submission, reassurance, aggression, etc.Communication can include:vocalizations, body language, scent, and displays.
9 Language, Thought, and Culture Coined by _______________Mastery of adult grammarCommunicative _________________Coined by ______________Mastery of adult rules for socially & culturally appropriate speech
10 Language, Thought, and Culture Noam ChomskySet of rules – ___________________________Human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing languageAll Languages = ________________________
11 Language, Thought, and Culture Sapir-Whorf HypothesisIdea that different languages produce _______________________________English & Hopi languages
12 Language, Thought, and Culture Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, continuedInitial ideas centered on ‘all thoughts being constrained, or determined, by language’Various studies have:1.2.Moderate Whorfianism differs from extreme Whorfianism in these ways:the emphasis is on the potential for thinking to be 'influenced' rather than unavoidably 'determined' by language;it is a two-way process, so that 'the kind of language we use' is also influenced by 'the way we see the world';any influence is ascribed not to 'Language' as such or to one language compared with another, but to the use within a language of one variety rather than another (typically a sociolect - the language used primarily by members of a particular social group);emphasis is given to the social context of language use rather than to purely linguistic considerations, such as the social pressure in particular contexts to use language in one way rather than another.
13 Language, Thought, and Culture __________ VocabularySet of words describing particular domains of experienceExamples:1.2.
14 Pragmatics Study of language in context of its use Discourse 1. 2. ____________________________________Series of verbal exchanges in conversation
15 Ethnopragmatics Study of language use: Relies on ethnography to illuminate the ways in which speech is both constituted by and constitutive social interactionFocus on practice - how are rules of grammar, cultural values, and physical action conjoined
16 Language Revitalization Collaboration between linguistic anthropologists and fluent speakers of indigenous languages