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RESEARCH WRITING Introductions, Citations, Quotations and Conclusion.

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Presentation on theme: "RESEARCH WRITING Introductions, Citations, Quotations and Conclusion."— Presentation transcript:

1 RESEARCH WRITING Introductions, Citations, Quotations and Conclusion.

2 Introductions Introductions are important. They arouse a reader's interest, introduce the subject, and tackle the So What? factor. In short, they're your paper's "first impression."So What? factor

3 How should I begin my Intro Begin with a quotation. Just make sure you explain its relevance Begin with a question Begin with an acknowledgment of an opinion opposite to the one you plan to take Begin with a very short narrative or anecdote that has a direct bearing on your paper Begin with an interesting fact Begin with a definition or explanation of a term relevant to your paper Begin with irony or paradox Begin with an analogy. Make sure it's original but not too far-fetched

4 Thesis Statements The thesis statement is often the last sentence in the introduction. It clearly states the main idea of the essay, expresses your opinion or point of view towards the topic, and indicates the structure of the essay

5 Writing Introductions The introduction does not have to be the first thing you write!!! You can start with the body and come back to it

6 Conclusions The final section of the paper that brings closure to the essay and gives the reader something to think about. Conclusions are often the most difficult part of an essay to write, and many writers feel that they have nothing left to say after having written the paper. A writer needs to keep in mind that the conclusion is often what a reader remembers best.

7 What Strategies can I use? Make a prediction about the future. Sure, you convinced us that hybrid cars are terrific, but do you think they will become the standard transportation source? When? Give specific advice. If your readers now understand that education (on teen suicide, diabetes, vegetarianism, plastic surgery, child abuse, etc.) has great advantages (or disadvantages, or both--whatever your opinion might be), what should they do? Whom should they contact? Put your topic in a larger context. Once you have proven that physical education should be part of every school's curriculum, perhaps we should consider other "frill" courses which are actually essential. A final, important reminder : just as a conclusion should not be just a re-statement of your thesis and summary of your body, it should also not be an entirely new topic, a door opened that you barely lead your reader through and leave them there lost.

8 What Strategies Can I Use? Echoing the introduction Echoing your introduction can be a good strategy if it is meant to bring the reader full-circle. If you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay was helpful in creating a new understanding. Challenging the reader By issuing a challenge to your readers, you are helping them to redirect the information in the paper, and they may apply it to their own lives. Looking to the future: Looking to the future can emphasize the importance of your paper or redirect the readers' thought process. It may help them apply the new information to their lives or see things more globally. Posing questions: Posing questions, either to your readers or in general, may help your readers gain a new perspective on the topic, which they may not have held before reading your conclusion. It may also bring your main ideas together to create a new meaning.

9 Conclusions – How Do I start Restate Thesis Statement

10 Wrapping up the Semester 2 In your conclusion you must connect your topic to the theme of equality or government control.

11 Body Paragraphs In the body of the essay, all the preparation up to this point comes to completion. The topic you have chosen must now be explained, described, or argued. Each supporting argument/main idea that you wrote down in your diagram or outline will become one of the body paragraphs. If you had three or four main ideas, you will have three or four body paragraphs

12 Body Paragraph – Basic Structure Write each supporting argument (Statement) Include two quotes that support each argument and your thesis Make sure you evaluate each supporting argument and evidence.

13 Formal Writing Rules Do not use first-person No use of “I, me, we…” No contractions No use of “can’t, won’t, isn’t” Times New Roman, 12 pt, 1 inch margins, 2x Spacing Correct Grammar, Punctuation, Capitalization

14 Paraphrase: Write it in Your Own Words A paraphrase is... your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source. a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.

15 In-Text Citations Parenthetical Citation - In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text. Immediately following a quotation from a source or a paraphrase of a source's ideas, you place the author's name followed by a space and the relevant page number(s).

16 What Does This Look Like? Single Author – (Last Name page #) Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3). Corporation/Organization – (Organization Name page #) The federal government has funded research concerning consumer protection and consumer transactions with online pharmacies (Food and Drug Administration 125). No author – (“1 st word or two of Title” page #) Several critics of the concept of the transparent society ask if a large society would be able to handle the complete loss of privacy ("Surveillance Society" 115). No Page # - (last name, organization OR title) A spa chemistry expert recommends adding spa shock after using the spa "in order to help assure a sanitizer level in the water" (Schuster).

17 Quotes Some of the material should not be paraphrased because the author expressed it perfectly. The citation needs to go outside of the quote, the punctuation goes after the citation According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184). According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).

18 Long Quotations If you have a quote that is longer than three lines you should use a hanging indent. You can only use 1 of these in your paper Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78).

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