Presentation on theme: "Near what geographic feature did early civilizations begin?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Near what geographic feature did early civilizations begin? What do you think happened after those first civilizations either became bigger or collapsed? Why?
2 Introduction to Unit 3 What is this a photo of? Why is this movie titled the way it is? Explain.How do you think it relates to the civilizations we will be talking about?
3 What is the nickname of New York State? The Empire StateWhy?In 1784, during a tour of the State's harbors, waterways and fertile interior, George Washington referred to New York as the "Seat of Empire." Since then, New Yorkers have worked ambitiously to live up to the State's motto and to make "The Empire State" the national leader it is today.What is an empire?
15 Medicine herbal remedies form of plastic surgery for the treatment of facial injuries. vaccinations against smallpox, a practice later used in China (10th century) and Europe (17th century.)
16 Architecture Hindus built stone temples for various Hindu gods. Buddhists built shrines to house the remains of select holy people – called Stupas, which became pagodas in China
17 Literature fables and folktales written in Sanskrit stories spread west to Persia, Egypt, and GreeceThrough cultural diffusion became the basis for many Islamic literary worksAli Baba and theForty ThievesAladdin and hisMagic Lamp
18 India’s “Golden Age” is said to have been during the Gupta Empire India’s “Golden Age” is said to have been during the Gupta Empire. This may be because the Guptas developed the most important concepts in the field ofA. MathB. MedicineC. PoliticsD. Philosophy
19 The Maurya Empire and the Gupta Empire in India both accomplished this during their success They both raised the acceptance of Buddhism by the peopleThey both unified the country of IndiaThey both raised large sums of money to buy more landNeither Empires were successfulThe Gupta Empire expanded the Empire through war and latter through diplomacy and marriage. They also increased cultural diffusion and the Indian economy throughTrade with other countriesSmall battles at the bordersReligious toleranceClosed borders
20 What are two geographic facts about India that had a significant affect on its culture? 1. The Alps and the Indian Ocean 2. The Himalaya Mountains and the deserts 3. The Himalaya Mountains and the monsoons 4. The Alps and the deserts
21 Location: IndiaHinduism and Caste System flourished (became stronger) under Gupta ruleGupta Empire was one of India’s “Golden Ages”Contributions:Guptas were good at Math, they createdconcept of “Zero”decimal systemnumbers we use today – Arabic Numerals (“Arabs” took them and introduced them to the Europeans)GUPTA
22 Gupta Empire – don’t copy Gupta Dynasty ( CE) - lead Golden Ageestablished a strong central governmentallowed a degree of local controlFollowed Hindu beliefs strict caste system, or class system. Had time to pursue scientific and artistic endeavorsLater declined due to weak rulers & a series of invasions
25 Tang: Influence on Japan and Korea Much of Japanese and Korean culture was borrowed from the Chinese during the Tang DynastyBuddhismConfucianism - “5 Relationships”Writing SystemRespect for Nature
26 Tang Influence continued: Silk Road:Helped the dynasty extend westwardConnected China with western cultures (Muslim and Byzantine Empires)
27 Contributions to our Society GunpowderPorcelainCompassSpinning WheelMechanical ClockBlock Printing
28 Other Contributions and Inventions of the Tang Dynasty (approx A. D.)TeaPo Chu-i (poet)Scroll paintingThree Doctrines (Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism)GunpowderCivil Service ExamsBrandy and whiskeyFlame-throwerDance and Music
29 Art in Tang DynastyVery Rich and Opulent (Wealthy) era in Chinese historyflourishingPainting, pottery, calligraphy, sculpture, music, dance and literature importantart being appreciated in every day life.art found in the homesArt was no longer only appreciated by the church or Royal Family, but was now appreciated by those from all walks of life.Doctors, lawyers, scholars, craftsman, businessmen and wealthy merchants all afforded themselves works of art.
35 Mathematics in Tang Dynasty Solved cubic equationsTranslations of Indian mathematical works.angle measurement (360 degrees)table of sines for angles from 0 to 90 degrees in 24 steps (3 3/4 degree) increments.Hindu decimal numerals also introduced, but not adopted.Tangent table.
36 Which of the following events took place during the rule of the Tang Dynasty in China: A. China expanded to take over IndiaB. Japan borrowed much of the Chinese cultural ways such as writing and BuddhismC. The Mongols took over China and created the largest land empire everD. Russia invaded China and forced them to become Communists
37 TANG – don’t copy Location: China Contributions: first use of paper moneyporcelain: hard shiny potteryJapan studied the Tang Dynastycopied much of the Chinese culture (language, Buddhism, etc.)Silk Road begantrading routes between China and the western lands
40 Byzantine: Ties to the Roman Empire How it was created:It was the eastern half of the old Roman EmpireThe Byzantine Empire, AD [Source: Libyan National Atlas, 1978.]
41 How the Byzantine Empire Compared with the Roman Empire CapitalReligionLanguageOther InformationRomanRomeCatholic(Christian)LatinThe western half of the old Roman EmpireFell into the “Dark Ages”ByzantineConstan-tinopleEastern (Greek) OrthodoxGreekThe eastern half of the old Roman EmpireGrew strong and lasted 1000 years
42 Impact on Russia Religion: Eastern Orthodox spread to Russia (known as Russian Orthodox)no longer Roman CatholicTrade: Many Byzantine ideas were introduced into Russia through trade.Cyrillic alphabetArt work (mosaics)ReligionArchitecture
43 Contributions to our society Justinian’s Code:The laws of the Byzantine Empire based on the Twelve Tables of Roman law, became a basis for laws in many European nationsArt and Architecture: slide show::Usually supported the ChristianChurchPreservers of Greek and Roman culture:The Byzantine Empire saved the knowledge, art, and ideas of the old Roman and Greek culturesHagia Sophia Orthodox Church
45 After the fall of Rome, the eastern half of the empire became known as the: A. Persian EmpireB. Byzantine EmpireC. Mongol EmpireD. Gupta Empire
46 One of the great accomplishments of the Byzantine Empire was: A the take over of all of the Roman EmpireB. the emergence of a merchant middle classC. the domination of trade with the MongolsD. the code of laws created by Emperor Justinian
47 Much of the traditional culture of Russia is linked to which of the following cultures: Byzantine EmpireMuslim EmpireTang DynastyGupta Empire
48 BYZANTINE Empire Summary Location: “Eastern” half of the old Roman EmpireGreat Leader: Justiniancreated Justinian’s Code - a written set of lawsLanguage: GreekImportance:preserved old Greek and Roman culture while barbarians destroyed Rome“in between” invaders from Asia and rest of Europespread learning and culture to Russia and influenced Russian life a great dealMore Detailed Information about Byzantine
50 How it SpreadOrigins: Out of Mecca, east to India, west across North Africa and on into SpainGrowth: to spread Islam to other people 1. Military conquest – took about 100 years to expand most of their empireThey were great fighters, if they died in battle, they believed they would go directly to heaven (Jihad)They treated conquered people fairly – better than previous rulers2. Trade
51 Their Expansion was Stopped: Battle of Tours: (732 A.D.) In Southern France The French Christians, under Charles Martel, defeated the Muslims and stopped their advance into Europe
52 The Muslim Empire had a Golden Age: (700-900 A. D The Muslim Empire had a Golden Age: ( A.D.) – A time of great learning and cultural diffusion
53 Which of the following is one reason why the Muslims were able to spread their empire so quickly: A they had the use of aircraft in battle B their God was more powerful than the God of their enemies C they tolerated other religions and this made conquest easier D they had more horses than other cultures of the Middle East
54 Contributions to our Society by Muslim Empire mathematics:Spread Gupta math ideasCreated Algebra and Trigonometryastronomy:Learned from Greek ideasStudy of the stars; created astronomical tablesmedicine:Created hospitalsWrote medical textbooksDoctors required to pass exams to practice medicineIslamic Law:Based on Islamic religious laws in the Qur’anBecame the basis for political laws in the empirearchitecture:Influenced by Byzantine and Indian stylesbanking:Used moneyAllowed credit (money borrowing) to be used
55 Preservers of Greek and Roman culture: Preserved Roman and Greek ideas that they got from their contacts with the Byzantine Empire, who also preserved them - They improved upon them (i.e. translated Roman writings, etc.)
56 An important achievement of the Golden Age of Muslim culture was the: A preservation of the ancient Greek and Roman ideasB development of gunpowderC establishment of trade with South AmericaD emergence of feudalism as a unifying force
57 MUSLIM Empire Summary Location: Muslims: “Golden Age”: Middle East Spread throughout the Middle East, Northern Africa, and into India as Muslims spread the religion of IslamArabs were great fightersMuslims (Arabs) tolerated Judaism and Christianity (they were “of the book”) - but others had to convertMuslims:Arabs who worshipped the religion of Islam (Later - anyone who worshiped Islam)“Golden Age”:a time of peace (no more expansion) and great learningthey preserved Greek and Roman learning (they got it from contact with the Byzantine Empire)created algebradeveloped advanced medical knowledge and practicesgreat astronomers and scientists
58 What do you think were the most influential contributions from one of the four Empires we talked about?What empire had the most influence on life today? Why?
59 Essential Question 1 Technology Learning Laws Mechanical clock What would be the most influential contributions from these Empires?TechnologyLearningLawsMechanical clockGunpowderBlock printingCompassMathematicsScienceMedicinePreservation of Greek and Roman culture by the Muslim and Byzantine EmpiresJustinian Code
63 Essential Question 2Why did the Muslim Empire become the most influential Empire on European culture?Their geographic nearness to Europe(they were centrally located among these empires and the Muslims shared the ideas they obtained from other cultures with Europeans)Great traders with EuropeThe Crusades