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Near what geographic feature did early civilizations begin?

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Presentation on theme: "Near what geographic feature did early civilizations begin?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Near what geographic feature did early civilizations begin?
What do you think happened after those first civilizations either became bigger or collapsed? Why?

2 Introduction to Unit 3 What is this a photo of?
Why is this movie titled the way it is? Explain. How do you think it relates to the civilizations we will be talking about?

3 What is the nickname of New York State?
The Empire State Why? In 1784, during a tour of the State's harbors, waterways and fertile interior, George Washington referred to New York as the "Seat of Empire." Since then, New Yorkers have worked ambitiously to live up to the State's motto and to make "The Empire State" the national leader it is today. What is an empire?

4 Unit 5 Empires 1

5 Timeline Map Important Empires I Gupta Empire Tang Dynasty
Muslim Empire Gupta Empire Tang Dynasty Byzantine Empire

6 Europe Asia Africa Gupta Empire Byzantine Empire Tang Dynasty
Muslim Empire

7 Golden Age: Time of peace and prosperity

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9 Gupta Empire

10 Geography played a big role in where the Gupta located in India
Himalayas blocked travel north and the Ocean stopped travel to the south.

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12 India’s “Golden Age”: Came during the Gupta Empire Chandra Gupta started the empire golden age: time in a culture’s history of peace and prosperity many great cultural contributions

13 Gupta Contributions to our Society
Decimal System Arabic Numerals {1, 2, 3, …,} Concept of Zero - Ø

14 Other Contributions of Gupta Empire

15 Medicine herbal remedies
form of plastic surgery for the treatment of facial injuries.  vaccinations against smallpox, a practice later used in China (10th century) and Europe (17th century.)

16 Architecture Hindus built stone temples for various Hindu gods.
Buddhists built shrines to house the remains of select holy people – called Stupas, which became pagodas in China

17 Literature fables and folktales written in Sanskrit
stories spread west to Persia, Egypt, and Greece Through cultural diffusion became the basis for many Islamic literary works Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves Aladdin and his Magic Lamp

18 India’s “Golden Age” is said to have been during the Gupta Empire
India’s “Golden Age” is said to have been during the Gupta Empire. This may be because the Guptas developed the most important concepts in the field of A. Math B. Medicine C. Politics D. Philosophy

19 The Maurya Empire and the Gupta Empire in India both accomplished this during their success
They both raised the acceptance of Buddhism by the people They both unified the country of India They both raised large sums of money to buy more land Neither Empires were successful The Gupta Empire expanded the Empire through war and latter through diplomacy and marriage. They also increased cultural diffusion and the Indian economy through Trade with other countries Small battles at the borders Religious tolerance Closed borders

20 What are two geographic facts about India that had a significant affect on its culture? 1. The Alps and the Indian Ocean 2. The Himalaya Mountains and the deserts 3. The Himalaya Mountains and the monsoons 4. The Alps and the deserts

21 Location: India Hinduism and Caste System flourished (became stronger) under Gupta rule Gupta Empire was one of India’s “Golden Ages” Contributions: Guptas were good at Math, they created concept of “Zero” decimal system numbers we use today – Arabic Numerals (“Arabs” took them and introduced them to the Europeans) GUPTA

22 Gupta Empire – don’t copy
Gupta Dynasty ( CE) - lead Golden Age established a strong central government allowed a degree of local control Followed Hindu beliefs  strict caste system, or class system.  Had time to pursue scientific and artistic endeavors Later declined due to weak rulers & a series of invasions

23 Tang Dynasty

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25 Tang: Influence on Japan and Korea
Much of Japanese and Korean culture was borrowed from the Chinese during the Tang Dynasty Buddhism Confucianism - “5 Relationships” Writing System Respect for Nature

26 Tang Influence continued:
Silk Road: Helped the dynasty extend westward Connected China with western cultures (Muslim and Byzantine Empires)

27 Contributions to our Society
Gunpowder Porcelain Compass Spinning Wheel Mechanical Clock Block Printing

28 Other Contributions and Inventions of the Tang Dynasty
(approx A. D.) Tea Po Chu-i (poet) Scroll painting Three Doctrines (Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism) Gunpowder Civil Service Exams Brandy and whiskey Flame-thrower Dance and Music

29 Art in Tang Dynasty Very Rich and Opulent (Wealthy) era in Chinese history flourishing Painting, pottery, calligraphy, sculpture, music, dance and literature important art being appreciated in every day life. art found in the homes Art was no longer only appreciated by the church or Royal Family, but was now appreciated by those from all walks of life. Doctors, lawyers, scholars, craftsman, businessmen and wealthy merchants all afforded themselves works of art.

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32 Seated Buddha, Tang dynasty (618–906), ca. 650 China
Buddhist stele, Tang dynasty (618—906), ca. 700 China

33 Night-Shining White, Tang dynasty (618–906), 8th century Attributed to Han Gan (Chinese, active 742–56) China

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35 Mathematics in Tang Dynasty
Solved cubic equations Translations of Indian mathematical works. angle measurement (360 degrees) table of sines for angles from 0 to 90 degrees in 24 steps (3 3/4 degree) increments. Hindu decimal numerals also introduced, but not adopted. Tangent table.

36 Which of the following events took place during the rule of the Tang Dynasty in China:
A. China expanded to take over India B. Japan borrowed much of the Chinese cultural ways such as writing and Buddhism C. The Mongols took over China and created the largest land empire ever D. Russia invaded China and forced them to become Communists

37 TANG – don’t copy Location: China Contributions:
first use of paper money porcelain: hard shiny pottery Japan studied the Tang Dynasty copied much of the Chinese culture (language, Buddhism, etc.) Silk Road began trading routes between China and the western lands

38 Chinese House - - modern with some history

39 Byzantine Empire

40 Byzantine: Ties to the Roman Empire
How it was created: It was the eastern half of the old Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire, AD [Source: Libyan National Atlas, 1978.]

41 How the Byzantine Empire Compared with the Roman Empire
Capital Religion Language Other Information Roman Rome Catholic (Christian) Latin The western half of the old Roman Empire Fell into the “Dark Ages” Byzantine Constan-tinople Eastern (Greek) Orthodox Greek The eastern half of the old Roman Empire Grew strong and lasted 1000 years

42 Impact on Russia Religion:
Eastern Orthodox spread to Russia (known as Russian Orthodox) no longer Roman Catholic Trade: Many Byzantine ideas were introduced into Russia through trade. Cyrillic alphabet Art work (mosaics) Religion Architecture

43 Contributions to our society
Justinian’s Code: The laws of the Byzantine Empire based on the Twelve Tables of Roman law, became a basis for laws in many European nations Art and Architecture: slide show:: Usually supported the Christian Church Preservers of Greek and Roman culture: The Byzantine Empire saved the knowledge, art, and ideas of the old Roman and Greek cultures Hagia Sophia Orthodox Church

44 ByzantineVirtual Architecture
Byzantine Coin ByzantineVirtual Architecture

45 After the fall of Rome, the eastern half of the empire became known as the:
A. Persian Empire B. Byzantine Empire C. Mongol Empire D. Gupta Empire

46 One of the great accomplishments of the Byzantine Empire was:
A the take over of all of the Roman Empire B. the emergence of a merchant middle class C. the domination of trade with the Mongols D. the code of laws created by Emperor Justinian

47 Much of the traditional culture of Russia is linked to which of the following cultures:
Byzantine Empire Muslim Empire Tang Dynasty Gupta Empire

48 BYZANTINE Empire Summary
Location: “Eastern” half of the old Roman Empire Great Leader: Justinian created Justinian’s Code - a written set of laws Language: Greek Importance: preserved old Greek and Roman culture while barbarians destroyed Rome “in between” invaders from Asia and rest of Europe spread learning and culture to Russia and influenced Russian life a great deal More Detailed Information about Byzantine

49 Muslim

50 How it Spread Origins: Out of Mecca, east to India, west across North Africa and on into Spain Growth: to spread Islam to other people 1. Military conquest – took about 100 years to expand most of their empire They were great fighters, if they died in battle, they believed they would go directly to heaven (Jihad) They treated conquered people fairly – better than previous rulers 2. Trade

51 Their Expansion was Stopped:
Battle of Tours: (732 A.D.) In Southern France The French Christians, under Charles Martel, defeated the Muslims and stopped their advance into Europe

52 The Muslim Empire had a Golden Age: (700-900 A. D
The Muslim Empire had a Golden Age: ( A.D.) – A time of great learning and cultural diffusion

53 Which of the following is one reason why the Muslims were able to spread their empire so quickly: A they had the use of aircraft in battle B their God was more powerful than the God of their enemies C they tolerated other religions and this made conquest easier D they had more horses than other cultures of the Middle East

54 Contributions to our Society by Muslim Empire
mathematics: Spread Gupta math ideas Created Algebra and Trigonometry astronomy: Learned from Greek ideas Study of the stars; created astronomical tables medicine: Created hospitals Wrote medical textbooks Doctors required to pass exams to practice medicine Islamic Law: Based on Islamic religious laws in the Qur’an Became the basis for political laws in the empire architecture: Influenced by Byzantine and Indian styles banking: Used money Allowed credit (money borrowing) to be used

55 Preservers of Greek and Roman culture: Preserved Roman and Greek ideas that they got from their contacts with the Byzantine Empire, who also preserved them - They improved upon them (i.e. translated Roman writings, etc.)

56 An important achievement of the Golden Age of Muslim culture was the:
A preservation of the ancient Greek and Roman ideas B development of gunpowder C establishment of trade with South America D emergence of feudalism as a unifying force

57 MUSLIM Empire Summary Location: Muslims: “Golden Age”: Middle East
Spread throughout the Middle East, Northern Africa, and into India as Muslims spread the religion of Islam Arabs were great fighters Muslims (Arabs) tolerated Judaism and Christianity (they were “of the book”) - but others had to convert Muslims: Arabs who worshipped the religion of Islam (Later - anyone who worshiped Islam) “Golden Age”: a time of peace (no more expansion) and great learning they preserved Greek and Roman learning (they got it from contact with the Byzantine Empire) created algebra developed advanced medical knowledge and practices great astronomers and scientists

58 What do you think were the most influential contributions from one of the four Empires we talked about? What empire had the most influence on life today? Why?

59 Essential Question 1 Technology Learning Laws Mechanical clock
What would be the most influential contributions from these Empires? Technology Learning Laws Mechanical clock Gunpowder Block printing Compass Mathematics Science Medicine Preservation of Greek and Roman culture by the Muslim and Byzantine Empires Justinian Code

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61 Did geography affect the ability of the Muslim Empire to influence others?
Look at your map – in the student guide Tell me why or why not

62 Islam Movie – the Awakening

63 Essential Question 2 Why did the Muslim Empire become the most influential Empire on European culture? Their geographic nearness to Europe (they were centrally located among these empires and the Muslims shared the ideas they obtained from other cultures with Europeans) Great traders with Europe The Crusades


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