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© 2010 Donna Slawsky Taxonomies and DAM Digital Asset Managers Meetup June 29, 2010
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Introduction Donna Slawsky MLIS, Pratt Institute Metadata and Taxonomy consultant Instructor, DAM for Columbia University School of Continuing Ed Ontologist, Time Inc. Adjunct Librarian, Baruch College
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Questions Who uses a taxonomy of some form in your DAM? For browsing assets? For keywording assets? Is someone on staff managing a taxonomy? Do you understand what a taxonomy is? how taxonomies are used? how taxonomies assist in asset retrieval?
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Definition A controlled vocabulary is a list of words used to tag content and then to retrieve that content through either navigation or search.
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Why Use Controlled Vocabularies (CVs)? Offers consistency in language used to describe content Provides agreement in (semantic) meaning of terms used Facilitates retrieval Acts as an intermediary between the input of the user and a database of terms by interpreting the meaning of the words (computers dont understand word meanings…yet). Enables search input to better represent the original intention of the use Provides consistent and clear hierarchies for navigation
© 2010 Donna Slawsky What is this?
© 2010 Donna Slawsky And this?
© 2010 Donna Slawsky How do CVs work? Define the scope or meaning of terms Use the equivalence relationship to link synonymous or equivalent terms children = kids pants = slacks bags = handbags Distinguish between homographs: Example: Mercury (planet) Mercury (chemical) Mercury (mythology) Mercury (automobile)
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Types of CVs List Synonym ring Authority file Taxonomy Thesaurus Source: NISO
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Types and Complexity of CVs Source: NISO
© 2010 Donna Slawsky List Limited set of terms arranged alphabetically or other logical way. Used only if there are a limited number of possibilities. Example of list from New York Public Library Media Center nypl/media-center
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Synonym Ring Only used for retrieval, not for indexing of content items. Ensures that a concept that can be described by a number of terms retrieves the content items of interest. The terms are considered equivalent for the purpose of retrieval. Bill Clinton = William Jefferson Clinton = President Clinton
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Authority File One of the equivalent terms is the Preferred Term (PT) and others are variations Preferred term - term out of all equivalent terms that will be used to represent a concept Important for consistent tagging Types of authority files include place names, person names, organization names Batman (Preferred Term) Batman USE FOR: Dark Knight, Caped Crusader Caped Crusader: USE Batman Dark Knight: USE Batman
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Taxonomy A CV consisting of preferred terms that are arranged hierarchically. Hierarchical relationships: Broad Terms, Narrow Terms NTs should be Type of or Part of
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Why Use Taxonomies? Classifies and categorizes information (assets in DAM) Classifies and categorizes information (assets in DAM) Enhances retrieval Provides a uniform language for subjects, asset types, organization depts., formats, etc. Provides a uniform language for subjects, asset types, organization depts., formats, etc.
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Taxonomy: Hierarchy of Broad and Narrow Terms Type of: Vegetables Asparagus Brussels Sprouts Lettuce Peas Part of: Bicycle Bicycle Seat Handlebars Pedal Tire
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Taxonomy: Broad, Narrow Relationships in a Hierarchy Source: NISO Standard
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Thesaurus The most complex and detailed CV showing PT (Preferred Term), BT (Broad Term), NT (Narrow Term), RT (Related Terms), UF (Use For), Use, and Scope (term definition) giving a robust understanding of the language used for a subject domain. See example: USDA Agriculture thesaurus at
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Taxonomy Examples Food Taxonomy in Excel Equivalent terms or synonyms Tagging on the leaf Use of More or Other Poly-hierarchical taxonomies One term, multiple parent terms
© 2010 Donna Slawsky The Concept of Facets Facets are attributes of a content item Especially useful for browsing Example: for a pair of pants: fabric color size brand price
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Faceted Taxonomy for Pants Color red green blue orange Fabric wool leather silk cotton Brand Gap Lee Marc Jacobs Size For more information see sources at end of presentation
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Applications for DAM: Class Assignment Does the DAM system contain a tool out of the box to create and maintain taxonomies? Does the DAM system contain a tool out of the box to create and maintain taxonomies? 9 out of the 13 DAM systems studied have taxonomy management capabilities 9 out of the 13 DAM systems studied have taxonomy management capabilities All 9 enable use of taxonomies in the user interface All 9 enable use of taxonomies in the user interface One product of the 9 doesnt enable synonym management One product of the 9 doesnt enable synonym management
© 2010 Donna Slawsky How are taxonomies used to enhance the end-user experience? Browse assets Browse assets Narrow down search results Narrow down search results Type ahead Type ahead Examples: Examples: Asset Bank Asset Bank Media Beacon Media Beacon Nuxeo Nuxeo Canto Cumulus Canto Cumulus ADAM ADAM
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Taxonomy example: animals Animals (level 1) Amphibians (level 2) Frogs (level 3) NewtsToadsBirds Birds of Prey Wading Birds InsectsBeesBeetlesFliesMammalsCatsCattleDeerDogs
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Asset Bank: multi-level taxonomy browse © Bright Interactive Bright Interactive
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Asset Bank: multi-level taxonomy browse Animals (top level) Amphibians Birds Insects Mammals Primates Reptiles Rodents Sea Life © Bright Interactive Bright Interactive
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Asset Bank: multi-level taxonomy browse Animals Mammals Cats Cattle Deer Dogs Horses Pigs © Bright Interactive Bright Interactive
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Asset Bank: multi-level taxonomy browse © Bright Interactive Bright Interactive Animals Mammals Cats Wild
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Asset Bank: image detail © Bright Interactive Bright Interactive
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Asset Bank: keyword browse © Bright Interactive Bright Interactive
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Asset Bank: browse categories © Bright Interactive Bright Interactive
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Media Beacon: browse Copyright © 2010, MediaBeacon, Inc Source: Media Beacon
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Media Beacon: narrow down search results Copyright © 2010, MediaBeacon, Inc
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Canto Cumulus: multi-level browse Copyright © 2010 Canto, Inc.
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Canto Cumulus: manage taxonomy
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Customized two-level browse ©
© 2010 Donna Slawsky ADAM: multi-level taxonomy browse ©
© 2010 Donna Slawsky ADAM: select classification for asset edit ©
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Type Ahead Controlled vocabulary terms
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Tips and take-aways User testing is highly recommended for the search user interface Ask users about search and browse experiences they like to use on the web Consult with SMEs for vocabularies Keywords and subject taxonomies are usually two different CVs Dont re-invent the wheel to create subject taxonomies. Many are available free or through a licensing arrangement. See Authority lists are available through the Library of Congress
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Sources for more information Taxonomy Warehouse Live version of Asset Bank from British Geological Survey: bank/action/viewHomehttp://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset- bank/action/viewHome Live demo Canto Cumulus Media Beacon taxonomies in DAM video Episode1.movhttp://videos.mediabeacon.com/Taxonomies- Episode1.mov Blog post on integrating folksonomy tagging with controlled vocabularies by Bert Sandie Designing for Faceted Search by Stephanie Lemieux Faceted Browse DAM Product from Endeca: publishing-digital-asset-navigation.htmhttp://www.endeca.com/solutions-media- publishing-digital-asset-navigation.htm Building a keyword library for description of visual assets: Thesaurus basics by Donna Slawsky Syllabus for DAM course at Columbia University https://courseworks.columbia.edu/public/IDRMK4340_001_2010_1 https://courseworks.columbia.edu/public/IDRMK4340_001_2010_1 National Information Standards Organization. Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabulary. ANSI/NISO Z NISO Press. July 25, =7cc9b583cb5a62e8c15d3099e0bb46bbae9cf38a =7cc9b583cb5a62e8c15d3099e0bb46bbae9cf38a
© 2010 Donna Slawsky Contact Info Connect on LinkedIn Question for you: Looking for DAM managers willing to be interviewed by a student and offer a tour of your DAM system for a midterm paper in the Fall.
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