3 Is the Atom, made of: ◦ Electron, neutron, and proton
The physical forms of matter, whether solid, liquid, or gas, are called the states of matter. Solids are a form of matter that have their own definite shape and volume. Liquids are a form of matter that have a definite volume but take the shape of the container. 4
Gasses have no definite shape or volume. They expand to fill their container. Plasma has no definite shape or volume and is the substance of which lightening is made 5
A physical property is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample’s composition. 6
Extensive properties are dependent on the amount of substance present, such as mass, length, or volume. Intensive properties are independent of the amount of substance present, such as density. 7
The ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances is called a chemical property: – Iron forming rust – Copper turning green in the air 8
Density is what kind of property? A. Atomic B. Intensive C. Extensive D. Dependent 9
What defines a gas? A.Gases have a definite volume and shape. B.Gases have a definite volume but take the shape of their container. C.Gases have no definite volume or shape. D.Gases have a definite shape but no definite volume. 10
A change that alters a substance without changing its composition is known as a physical change Water is condensing on the window (phase change) 11
12 A phase change is a transition of matter from one state to another. Boiling, freezing, melting, and condensing all describe phase changes in chemistry.
14 A change that involves one or more substances turning into new substances is a chemical change. Decomposing, rusting, exploding, burning, or oxidizing are all terms that describe chemical changes. Mercury II Oxide will decompose into mercury and oxygen gas at high temperatures
Change in temperature Change in color Production of a gas (BUBBLES) Formation of a precipitate
The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction, it is conserved. The mass of the reactants equals the mass of the products. mass reactants = mass products FILL IN THE FORMULA IN YOUR NOTES
When one substances turns into another, what kind of change has taken place? A.chemical reaction B.physical reaction C.extensive reaction D.nuclear reaction
The law of conservation of mass states that: A.Matter can be created and destroyed. B.Matter can be created but not destroyed. C.The products of a reaction always have a greater mass than the reactants. D.The products of a reaction must have the same mass as the reactants.
A mixture is a combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties. A homogenous mixture is a mixture where the composition is constant throughout. You cannot see the individual substances.
Homogeneous mixtures are also called solutions A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture where the individual substances remain distinct. You can see them.
Filtration is a technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid in a heterogeneous mixture.
Distillation is a separation technique for homogeneous mixtures that is based on the differences in boiling points of substances.
Chromatography is a technique that separates the components of a mixture on the basis of tendency of each to travel across the surface of another material.
use of centrifugal force (spinning) for the sedimentation (layering) of mixtures
27 Electrolysis uses electricity to break/decompose water into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas This is a chemical change (the water has changed into 2 new substances, H 2 and O 2 )
Which is NOT a technique for separating a homogenous mixture? A.crystallization B.distillation C.filtration D.chromatography
Which of the following is a heterogeneous mixture? A.seawater B.silver mercury amalgam C.atmosphere D.salad dressing
An element is a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means. Each element has a unique name and a one, two, or three-letter symbol. The periodic table organizes the elements into a grid of horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called groups.
Some atoms of the same element form bonds with each other (DIATOMIC) Bromine, Iodine, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine *****Memorize these!!****** 31
A compound is made of two or more elements combined chemically Most of the matter in the universe exists as compounds. Table salt, NaCl, and water, H 2 O, are compounds.
Elements can never be separated. Compounds can be broken into components by chemical means.
Different compounds made of the same elements do not have the same chemical properties 34
Ex: Water (H 2 O) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) are composed of the same elements (H & O), but they do not have the same properties, they are 2 different compounds 35
This law states that a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass, no matter how large or small the sample. Ex: if you have a 5 mL sample of water and a 25 mL sample of water, both will always have a hydrogen-to-water ratio of 2:1