2 Matter—Properties and Change Section 3.1 Properties of MatterSection 3.2 Changes in MatterSection 3.3 Mixtures of MatterSection 3.4 Elements and CompoundsChapter Menu
3 Section 3.1 Properties of Matter Identify the characteristics of a substance.Distinguish between physical and chemical properties.Differentiate among the physical states of matter.density: a ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume
4 Section 3.1 Properties of Matter (cont.) states of mattersolidliquidgasvaporphysical propertyextensive propertyintensive propertychemical propertyMost common substances exist as solids, liquids, and gases, which have diverse physical and chemical properties.
5 SubstancesMatter is anything that has mass and takes up space.Matter is everything around us.Matter with a uniform and unchanging composition is a substance.
6 States of MatterThe physical forms of matter, either solid, liquid, or gas, are called the states of matter.Solids are a form of matter that have their own definite shape and volume.Liquids are a form of matter that have a definite volume but take the shape of the container.
7 States of Matter (cont.) Gases have no definite shape or volume. They expand to fill their container.Vapor refers to the gaseous state of a substance that is a solid or liquid at room temperature.
8 Physical Properties of Matter A physical property is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample’s composition.
9 Physical Properties of Matter (cont.) Extensive properties are dependent on the amount of substance present, such as mass, length, or volume.Intensive properties are independent of the amount of substance present, such as density.
10 Chemical Properties of Matter The ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances is called a chemical property.Iron forming rustCopper turning green in the air
11 Observing Properties of Matter A substance can change form–an important concept in chemistry.Chemical properties can change with specific environmental conditions, such as temperature and pressure.
12 Section 3.1 AssessmentDensity is what kind of property?A. atomicB. intensiveC. extensiveD. dependent
13 Section 3.1 AssessmentWhat defines a gas?A. Gases have a definite volume and shape.B. Gases have a definite volume but take the shape of their container.C. Gases have no definite volume or shape.D. Gases have a definite shape but no definite volume.
14 Section 3.2 Changes in Matter Define physical change and list several common physical changes.Define chemical change and list several indications that a chemical change has taken place.Apply the law of conservation of mass to chemical reactions.observation: orderly, direct information gathering about a phenomenonSection 3-2
15 Section 3.2 Changes in Matter (cont.) physical changephase changechemical changelaw of conservation of massMatter can undergo physical and chemical changes.Section 3-2
16 A phase change is a transition of matter from one state to another. Physical ChangesA change that alters a substance without changing its composition is known as a physical change.A phase change is a transition of matter from one state to another.Boiling, freezing, melting, and condensing all describe phase changes in chemistry.Section 3-2
17 Chemical ChangesA change that involves one or more substances turning into new substances is called a chemical change.Decomposing, rusting, exploding, burning, or oxidizing are all terms that describe chemical changes.Section 3-2
18 The mass of the reactants equals the mass of the products. Conservation of MassThe law of conservation of mass states that mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction, it is conserved.The mass of the reactants equals the mass of the products.massreactants = massproductsSection 3-2
19 A B C D Section 3.2 Assessment When one substances turns into another, what kind of change has taken place?A. chemical reactionB. physical reactionC. extensive reactionD. nuclear reactionABCDSection 3-2
20 A B C D Section 3.2 Assessment The law of conservation of mass states that:A. Matter can be created and destroyed.B. Matter can be created but not destroyed.C. The products of a reaction always have a greater mass than the reactants.D. The products of a reaction must have the same mass as the reactants.ABCDSection 3-2
21 Section 3.3 Mixtures of Matter Contrast mixtures and substances.Classify mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous.List and describe several techniques used to separate mixtures.substance: a form of matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition; also known as a pure substanceSection 3-3
22 Section 3.3 Mixtures of Matter (cont.) heterogeneous mixturehomogeneous mixturesolutionfiltrationdistillationcrystallizationsublimationchromatographyMost everyday matter occurs as mixtures—combinations of two or more substances.Section 3-3
23 MixturesA mixture is a combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties.A homogenous mixture is a mixture where the composition is constant throughout.Section 3-3
24 Homogeneous mixtures are also called solutions. Mixtures (cont.)Homogeneous mixtures are also called solutions.A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture where the individual substances remain distinct.Section 3-3
26 Separating MixturesFiltration is a technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid in a heterogeneous mixture.Distillation is a separation technique for homogeneous mixtures that is based on the differences in boiling points of substances.Crystallization is a separation technique for homogenous mixtures that results in the formation of pure solid particles from a solution containing the dissolved substance.Section 3-3
27 Separating Mixtures (cont.) Sublimation is the process of a solid changing directly to a gas, which can be used to separate mixtures of solids when one sublimates and the other does not.Chromatography is a technique that separates the components of a mixture on the basis of tendency of each to travel across the surface of another material.Section 3-3
28 A B C D Section 3.3 Assessment Which is NOT a technique for separating a homogenous mixture?A. crystallizationB. distillationC. filtrationD. chromatographyABCDSection 3-3
29 A B C D Section 3.3 Assessment Which of the following is a heterogeneous mixture?A. seawaterB. silver mercury amalgamC. atmosphereD. salad dressingABCDSection 3-3
30 Section 3.4 Elements and Compounds Distinguish between elements and compounds.Describe the organization of elements in the periodic table.Explain how all compounds obey the laws of definite and multiple proportions.proportion: the relation of one part to another or to the whole with respect to quantitySection 3-4
31 Section 3.4 Elements and Compounds (cont.) periodic tablecompoundlaw of definite proportionspercent by masslaw of multiple proportionsA compound is a combination of two or more elements.Section 3-4
32 92 elements occur naturally on Earth. An element is a pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means.92 elements occur naturally on Earth.Each element has a unique name and a one, two, or three-letter symbol.The periodic table organizes the elements into a grid of horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called groups.Section 3-4
33 A compound is a made up of two or more elements combined chemically. CompoundsA compound is a made up of two or more elements combined chemically.Most of the matter in the universe exists as compounds.Table salt, NaCl, and water, H2O, are compounds.Section 3-4
34 Elements can never be separated. Compounds (cont.)Elements can never be separated.Compounds can be broken into components by chemical means.Section 3-4
35 This figure shows electrolysis of water to form hydrogen and oxygen. Compounds (cont.)This figure shows electrolysis of water to form hydrogen and oxygen.Section 3-4
36 Compounds (cont.)The properties of a compound are different from its component elements.Section 3-4
37 Law of Definite Proportions The law of definite proportions states that a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass, no matter how large or small the sample.Section 3-4
38 Law of Definite Proportions (cont.) The relative amounts are expressed as percent by mass, the ratio of the mass of each element to the total mass of the compound expressed as a percentage.Section 3-4
39 Law of Definite Proportions (cont.) This table demonstrates that the percentages of elements in sucrose remain the same despite differences in sample amount.Section 3-4
40 Law of Multiple Proportions The law of multiple proportions states that when different compounds are formed by a combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in whole number ratios.H2O2 and H2OCopper(I) chloride and copper(II) chlorideSection 3-4
41 Law of Multiple Proportions (cont.) Section 3-4
42 A B C D Section 3.4 Assessment What is a period on the periodic table of the elements?A. a vertical columnsB. even numbered elements onlyC. horizontal rowsD. the last vertical column onlyABCDSection 3-4
43 A B C D Section 3.4 Assessment An element is a substance that cannot beA. divided into simpler substances.B. combined to form a mixture.C. combined to form a compound.D. different phases.ABCDSection 3-4
44 Section 3.1 Properties of Matter Key ConceptsThe three common states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.Physical properties can be observed without altering a substance’s composition.Chemical properties describe a substance’s ability to combine with or change into one or more new substances.External conditions can affect both physical and chemical properties.Study Guide 1
45 Section 3.2 Changes in Matter Key ConceptsA physical change alters the physical properties of a substance without changing its composition.A chemical change, also known as a chemical reaction, involves a change in a substance’s composition.In a chemical reaction, reactants form products.The law of conservation of mass states that mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction; it is conserved.massreactants = massproductsStudy Guide 2
46 Section 3.3 Mixtures of Matter Key ConceptsA mixture is a physical blend of two or more pure substances in any proportion.Solutions are homogeneous mixtures.Mixtures can be separated by physical means. Common separation techniques include filtration, distillation, crystallization, sublimation, and chromatography.Study Guide 3
47 Section 3.4 Elements and Compounds Key ConceptsElements cannot be broken down into simpler substances.Elements are organized in the periodic table of the elements.Compounds are chemical combinations of two or more elements and their properties differ from the properties of their component elements.Study Guide 4
48 Section 3.4 Elements and Compounds (cont.) Key ConceptsThe law of definite proportions states that a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportions.The law of multiple proportions states that if elements form more than one compound, those compounds will have compositions that are whole-number multiples of each other.Study Guide 4
49 A B C D Which of the following is NOT a physical property of water? A. Ice melts at 0°C.B. Water boils at 100.C. Water reacts violently with pure sodium.D. Water is a liquid at room temperature.ABCDChapter Assessment 1
50 28. 0 grams of nitrogen gas reacts completely with 6 28.0 grams of nitrogen gas reacts completely with 6.0 grams of hydrogen to form 34.0 grams of ammonia. What does this demonstrate?A. the law of conservation of energyB. sublimationC. distillationD. the law of conservation of massABCDChapter Assessment 2
51 A B C D What is the best way to separate salt dissolved in water? A. sublimationB. crystallizationC. freezingD. filtrationABCDChapter Assessment 3
52 A B C D Two or more elements chemically joined form what? A. substance B. heterogeneous mixtureC. homogenous solutionD. compoundABCDChapter Assessment 4
53 A B C D What is the ratio of oxygen to carbon in carbon dioxide (CO2)? Chapter Assessment 5
54 A B C D Which is NOT a chemical reaction? A. a car rusting B. dissolving sugar in waterC. wood burningD. a banana ripeningABCDSTP 1
55 A B C D Which describes a substance that is in the liquid state? A. It has a definite shape.B. It has no definite volume.C. It can be compressed into a smaller volume.D. It has a definite volume.ABCDSTP 2
56 A B C D Elements in the same period are likely to have similar ____. A. physical propertiesB. densitiesC. chemical propertiesD. melting pointsABCDSTP 3
57 A B C D Filtration is an easy way to separate what? A. heterogeneous mixtureB. homogeneous mixtureC. compoundsD. solutionsABCDSTP 4
58 Compounds can be broken into their component elements by which of the following? A. crystallizationB. distillationC. filtrationD. chemical reactionABCDSTP 5
68 Figure 3.4 Three Common States of Matter Figure Conservation of MassTable Types of Solution SystemsCIM
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