2 CLASSIFICATION OF LEASES Finance LeaseOperating LeaseA lease is classified as a FINANCE LEASE if it transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership.A lease is classified as an OPERATING LEASE if it does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership.
3 Financial Statement of Lessees Finance LeasesOperating LeasesRecognition & MeasurementA lessee shall recognize lease payments under operating leases (excluding cost for services such as insurance & maintenance ) as an expense on a straight linebasis unless eitherAnother systematic basis is representative of the time pattern of the user’s benefit, even if the payments are not on that basis, orThe payments to the lessor are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation (based on published indexes or statistics) to compensate for the lessors expected inflationary cost increases. If payments to the lessor vary because of factors other than general inflation, then this condition (b) is not met.Initial RecognitionAt the commencement of the lease term, a lessee shall recognize its rights of use and obligations under finance leases as assets & liabilities in its statement of financial position at amounts equal to the fair value of the leased property or, if lower, the present value of the minimum lease payments, determined at the inception of the lease. Any initial direct costs of the lessee (incremental costs that are directly attributable to negotiating and arranging a lease) are added to the amount recognized as an asset.The present value of the minimum lease payments should be calculated using the interest rate implicit in the lease. If this cannot be determined, the lessee’s incremental barrowing rate shall be used.
4 Financial Statement of Lessees Finance LeasesOperating LeasesSubsequent MeasurementA lessee shall apportion minimum lease payments between the finance charge and the reduction of the outstanding liability using the effective interest method. The lessee shall allocate the finance charge to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. A lessee shall charge contingent rents as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.A lessee shall depreciate an asset leased under a finance lease in accordance with the relevant section of this IFRS for that type of asset, Section 17 Property Plant & Equipment, Section 18 or 19 Business Combinations & Goodwill. If there is no reasonable certainty that the lessee will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset shall be fully depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and its useful life. A lessee shall also assess at each reporting date whether an asset leased under a finance lease is impaired.Subsequent MeasurementNone
5 Financial Statement of Lessees Finance LeasesOperating LeasesDisclosuresA lessee shall make the followingdisclosures for operating leases:a. The total of future minimum leasepayments under non-cancellableoperating leases for each of thefollowing periods:(i) not later than one year;(ii) later than one year & not laterthan five years; and(iii) later than five years.b. Lease payments recognized as an expensec A general description of the lessee’ssignificant leasing arrangementsincluding, for example, informationabout contingent rent, renewal orpurchase options and escalationclauses, subleases, and restrictionsimposed by lease arrangements.DisclosuresA lessee shall make the following disclosures for finance leases:a. For each class of asset, the netcarrying amount at the end of the reporting period.b. The total of future minimum lease payments at the end of the reporting period, for each of the following periods;(i) not later than one year:(ii) later than one year and not laterthan five years; and(iii) later than five years.c. A general description of the lessee’s significant leasing arrangements including, for example, information about contingent rent, renewal or purchase options and escalation clauses, subleases, and restrictions imposed by lease arrangements.
6 Financial Statement of Lessor Finance LeaseOperating LeaseInitial Recognition & MeasurementA lessor shall recognize assets held under a finance lease in their statements of financial position and present them as a receivable at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. The net investment in a lease is the lessor’s gross investment in the lease discounted at the interest rate implicit in the lease. The gross investment in the lease is the aggregate of :a. The minimum lease payments receivable by the lessor under a finance lease, andb. Any unguaranteed residual value accruing to the lessor.Recognition and measurementA lessor shall present assets subject to operating leases in the statement of financial position according to the nature of the asset.A lessor shall recognize lease income from operating leases (excluding amounts for services such as insurance and maintenance) in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term, unless eithera. Another systematic basis is representative of thetime pattern of the lessee’s benefit from theleased asset, even if the receipt of payments isnot on the basis, orb. The payments to the lessor are structured to increase inline with expected general inflation (based onpublished indexes or statistics) to compensate for thelessor’s expected inflactionary cost increases. Ifpayments to the lessor vary according to factors otherthan inflation, then condition (b) is not met.A lessor shall recognize as an expense costs, including depreciation, incurred in earning the lease income. The depreciation policy for depreciable leased assets shall be consistent with the lessor’s normal depreciation policy for similar assets.A lessor shall add to the carrying amount of the leased asset any initial direct costs it incurs in negotiating and arranging an operating lease and shall recognise such costs as an expense over the lease term on the same basis as the lease income.
7 Financial Statement of Lessor Finance LeaseOperating LeaseSubsequent MeasurementThe recognition of finance income shall be based on a pattern reflecting a constant periodic rate of return on the Lessor’s net investment in the finance lease. Lease payments relating to the period , excluding cost for services, are applied against the gross investment in the lease to reduce both the principal and the unearned finance income.Subsequent MeasurementNone
8 Financial Statement of Lessor Finance LeaseOperating LeaseDISCLOSURESA lessor shall make the following disclosures forfinance leases:a. A reconcialliation between the gross investmentin the lease at the end of the reporting period ,and the present value of minimum leasepayments receivable at the end of the reportingperiod. In addition, a lessor shall disclose thegross investment in the lease and the presentvalue of minimum lease payments receivable atthe end of the reporting period, for each of thefollowing periods:(i) not later than one year(ii) later than one year and not later thanfive years.(iii) later than five years.b. Unearned finance incomec. The unguaranteed residual values accruing to thebenefit of the lessor.d. The accumulated allowance for uncollectible minimum lease payments receivablee. Contingent rents recognized as income in theperiod.f. A general description of the lessor’s significant leasing arrangements, including, for example, information about contingent rent, renewal or purchase options and escalation clauses, subleases, and restrictions imposed by lease arrangements.DISCLOSURESA lessor shall disclose the followingfor operating leases:a. The future minimum leasepayments under non-cancellable operating leasesfor each of the following periods:(i) not later than one year; and(ii) later than one year and notlater than five years; and(iii) later than five years.b. Total contingent rents recognized asincome.c. A general description of the lessor’ssignificant leasing arrangements,including for example, informationabout contigent rent, renewal orpurchase options and escalationclauses, and restrictions imposed bylease arrangements.
9 Sale & Leaseback Transactions Finance LeaseOperating LeaseIf a sale and leaseback transaction results in a finance lease, the seller-lessee shall not recognize immediately, as income, any excess of sales proceeds over the carrying amount. Instead, the seller-lessee shall defer such excess and amortize it over the lease term.If a sale and leaseback transaction results in an operating lease, and it is clear that the transaction is established at fair value, the seller-lessee shall recognize any profit or loss immediately. If the sale price is below fair value, the seller-lessee shall recognize any loss immediately unless the loss is compensated for by future lease payments at below market price.
10 Accounting Policies LEASES The determination of whether an arrangement is, or contains a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at inception date and requires an assessment of whether the fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset. A reassessment is made after inception of the lease only if one of the following applies:There is a change in contractual terms, other than a renewal or extension of the arrangement;A renewal option is exercised or extension granted, unless that term of the renewal or extension was initially included in the lease term.There is a change in the determination of whether fulfillment is dependent on a specified asset; orThere is a substantial change to the asset.Where a reassessment is made, lease accounting shall commence or cease from the date when the change in circumstances gave rise to the reassessment for scenarios (a) ,( c ) or (d) above, and at the date of renewal or extension period for scenario (b).
11 Leases where the lessor retains substantially all the As a LessorLeases where the company retain substantially all the risk and benefits of ownership of the asset are classified as operating Leases. Any initial direct costs incurred in negotiating an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognized over the leased term on the same bases as rental income.Rental Income on operating leases is recognized on a straight line basis over the lease term.As a LesseeLeases where the lessor retains substantially all therisks & benefits of ownership of the assets areclassified as operating leases.Lease payments under operating lease are recognizedas expense on the Income Statement on a straight linebasis over the terms of the lease contract.
12 Judgment, Estimates & Assumption JudgementsIn the process of applying the company’s accounting policies, management has made the following judgement, apart from those involving estimations, which have the most significant effect on the amounts recognize in the financial statements.Operating Lease Commitments – The Co. as LessorThe company has entered into various property leases on its investment properties portfolio. The company has determined that it retains all significant risks and rewards of ownership on these properties hence classified as operating leases.Operating Lease Commitments – The Co. as LesseeThe company has entered into various leases for its occupied offices. The company has determined that all significant risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the respective lessors on offices it leases under operating leases and therefore accounts for these leases as operating leases.
13 Individual Schedules Leases Year XX Year XX Charged to Cost of Services xxxxxx xxxxxxCharged to Administrative Expense xxx xxxTotal xxxxxx xxxxxxThe significant lease agreement entered by the company with ABCCompany is as follow:That the term of the lease shall be for one (1) year commencing February 1, 20xx up to January 31, 20xx with option to renew subject to the terms and conditions to be agreed upon by both parties.Upon signing of the contract, the lessee shall make a security deposit equivalent to two (2) months rental , such deposit to be refunded to the lessee thirty (30) days after the expiration of the contract, provided that all obligations have been fully paid and settled. The amount of said deposit shall increase proprotionate to the rate of escalation.The monthly rental is P50, 000 payable on the 5th day of each month.The lessee likewise agrees to a yearly escalation rate of ten percent (10%) on the monthly lease rental starting on the month of January every year.That the lease property shall be use exclusively for the operation of the company.