2 Causes of Industrialization Civil War -encouraged production, expansion of railroads, etc.Natural Resources- lots of them!Growing Workforce -immigrants.Technology/Innovation-new inventionsGovernment Policies- encouraged investment in businesses and technology.
3 Important People of the Late 1800s Thomas Edison- Invented new technology (electric lighting)Henry Bessemer- Developed Bessemer process (created strong, lightweight steel for use in railroads and construction.
4 Important People cont.Andrew Carnegie- Use of vertical integration influenced the rise of big business; urged business men to also be philanthropists. STEELJohn D. Rockefeller- Use of horizontal integration (influenced the rise of big business) OIL
5 Important People cont.Samuel Gompers- Formed the AFL, influencing the rise of labor unions.Uriah Smith Stephens- founder of the Knights of Labor.Terence V. Powderly- took over leadership of the Knights of Labor- huge recruitment numbers
6 Important People cont.Eugene V. Debs- Challenged big business by orchestrating the Pullman Strike and helping to found the IWW
7 Terms to KnowMonopoliesTariffsPatentsLaissez-FaireCartelTrusts
8 Terms to Know (cont.) Horizontal integration Vertical integration Capitalism“Captains of Industry”“Robber Barons”Corporation
9 Terms to Know (cont.) Bessemer Process Sweatshop Socialism Mass productionEntrepreneurCompany TownCollective Bargaining
10 Influential Labor Unions National Trades Union (1834)- First national union; open to workers of all trades.Knights of Labor (1869)- Sought general ideological reform; open to workers from all trades. Did not protest.
11 Influential Labor Unions cont. American Federation of Labor (AFL) (1886)- Focused on specific workers’ issues; organization of skilled workers. Did stage protests.American Railway Union (1893)- First industrial union; open to all railway workers.
12 Important Government Polices of the late 1800s Protective tariffs- Congress enacted tariffs on imported goods to make them cost more than locally produced goods.Laissez-Faire Policies- The government allowed businesses to operate under minimal government regulation.
13 Government Policies cont. Subsidizing Railroads- The government gave railroad builders millions of acres of land.Strike Breaking- Government troops routinely helped break up strikes. The Pinkertons.Antiunion Actions- Courts used legislation like the Sherman Antitrust Act to order unions to stop disrupting free trade.
14 StrikesHaymarket Riot- riot amongst workers fighting for an 8 hr. work day. Knights of Labor fizzled out as a result.Homestead Strike- steel workers at Carnegie’s plant. Fighting against cut in wages. Pinkerton’s, army, militia’s called in to suppress the strike.
15 Strikes cont.Pullman Strike -railroad workers strike against wage decreases. Did tremendous damage to the railroad industry/economy. Fed. Gov’t begins to side with businesses (anti-unions) after this.
16 Focus QuestionsWhat factors spurred industrial growth in the late 1800s?How did new technologies shape industrialization?
17 Focus QuestionsWhat impact did industrialization have on Americans?
18 Section #1 Focus Question How did industrialization and new technology affect the economy and society?
19 Focus QuestionsWhat strategies did corporations use to decrease costs and increase profits?
20 Focus QuestionsWhat arguments did people use to support OR oppose big business?How did the federal government regulate business?
21 Section 2 Focus Question How did big business shape the American economy in the late 1800s and early 1900s?
22 Focus Questions How did working conditions affect families? How did various labor unions differ in their goals?
23 Focus QuestionsWhy did workers increasingly turn to the strike as a tactic to win labor gains?
24 Section 3 Focus Question How did the rise of labor unions shape relations among workers, big business, and government?
25 The BIG QuestionHow did the industrial growth of the late 1800s shape American society and the economy?