3 FOH 2 initially addresses biological evolution. WHY FOH 2 initially addresses biological evolution. WHY? Because especially in the early history of human beings, slow changes in the physical characteristics of humans were the basis for cultural and technological evolution.
4 5 key characteristics of humans (key because they distinguish human beings from related species of living things) - Name them. - Explain WHY each one matters.
5 Binocular and color vision Upright postureHands with opposable thumbsBrain large enough and complex enough to use hands, tools and languageLanguage (broader than “speech”) = the capacity to use symbolic systems to communicate in complex and limitless ways
12 Australopithecus afarensis “southern ape from Afar region”Posture, vision, hands, brain more advanced than other apesBrain was too small for speech (450 cc)Used objects it found as tools (to get food)
16 Homo erectus “upright man” First to be fully upright First to have a brain large enough for basic language ability (750 cc)Could use fire and had a larger range of toolsFirst to live in cooler climates
18 Homo neanderthalensis “man from the Neander Valley”Short, muscular, stocky buildLarger brain (1500 cc), skull had heavy brow ridge, large jaw (quintessential “caveman”)First to leave evidence of care for the sick and elderly and deliberate burial of the deadUsed flakes and not just cores of flint for tools
20 Homo sapiens “wise man” (modern human beings) “just right” brain size ( cc) – large enough for language, but easier for childbirthsmaller jaw, teeth, brow, facial features (less “rugged” in appearance than Homo neander.)fully mastered fire, had sophisticated tool kit, created art, left evidence of spiritual beliefs…
21 For more info, visit website of Human Origins Institute at the Smithsonian Institution:
22 biological technological and cultural evolution What was the significance of changes over time in the use of two key technologies?Flint toolsFire
24 Flint tools?Over time, greater efficiency in human use of flint (inches of blade per pound)Better tools better hunting and gathering better nutrition and brain development further improvement of tools
26 Fire?Protection from cold, prey wider habitat, power over other animalsExtends “productive” time past darkCooked food:safer to eathigher proteineasier to eat (young, old, sick)
27 Ice Ages~ 200,000 years agoa period of time when glacial sheets of ice moved south, covering much of the northern hemisphere and bringing a substantial chilling of temperatures to areas where early humans livedsignificance?
28 significance of Ice Ages? Cooler climates forced early humans to adapt to new conditions, esp. through development and use of new tools, search for new sources of food, importance of warmth, shelter, etc.
29 Cultural evolution?What practices, beliefs, ways of living, interacting, etc. developed over time make early humans seem more “like us?”