2 Chapter ObjectivesExplain how integrated marketing communications relates to the development of an optimal promotional mix.Describe the communication process and how it relates to the AIDA concept.Explain how the promotional mix relates to the objectives of promotion.Identify the different elements of the promotional mix and explain how marketers develop an optimal promotional mix.Describe the role of sponsorships and direct marketing in integrated marketing communications.Contrast the two major alternative promotional strategies.Explain how marketers budget for and measure the effectiveness of promotion.Discuss the value of marketing communications.
3 PromotionFunction of informing, persuading, and influencing the consumer’s purchase decisionMarketing CommunicationsTransmission from a sender to a receiver of a message dealing with the buyer-seller relationship
4 Integrated Marketing Communications Coordination of all promotional activities – media advertising, direct mail, personal selling, sales promotion, and public relations – to produce a unified customer-focused promotional messageImportance of TeamworkIMC requires a total strategy including all marketing activities, not just promotion
5 Role of Databases in Effective IMC Programs With the growth of the Internet, marketers have been given the power to gather information faster and to organize it easier than ever beforeBy sharing this knowledge appropriately among all relative parties, a firm can lay the foundation for a successful IMC program
6 The Communications Process An effective promotional message accomplishes three tasks:It gains the receiver’s attentionIt achieves understanding by both receiver and senderIt stimulates the receiver’s needs and suggests an appropriate method of satisfying them
7 AIDA concept (Attention-Interest-Desire-Action) – an explanation of the steps through which an individual reaches a purchase decisionSenderEncodingChannelDecodingResponseFeedbackNoise
8 Global Difficulties with the Communication Process In China: KFC’s slogan: “Finger lickin’ good” came out as “Eat your fingers off”Also in China: Coca-Cola had thousands of signs made using the translation: “Ke-kou-ke-la”Depending on the dialect this means . . .“Bite the wax tadpole,” or“Female horse stuffed with wax”In Taiwan: Pepsi’s slogan, “Come alive with the Pepsi generation” came out as “Pepsi will bring your ancestors back from the dead”
9 Objectives of Promotion Provide InformationIncrease DemandDifferentiate the ProductAccentuate the Product’s ValueStabilize Sales
10 Elements of the Promotional Mix Promotional mix: blend of personal selling and nonpersonal selling designed to achieve promotional objectivesPersonal selling: interpersonal promotional process involving a seller’s person-to-person presentation to a prospective buyerNonpersonal selling includes: Advertising, Product placement, Sales promotion, Direct marketing, Public relations
11 AdvertisingPaid, nonpersonal communication through various media by a business firm, not-for-profit organization, or individual identified in the message with the hope of informing or persuading members of a particular audienceProduct PlacementMarketer pays a motion picture or television program owner a fee to display his or her product prominently in the film or show
12 Sales PromotionMarketing activities that stimulates consumer purchasing (includes: displays, trade shows, coupons, premiums, contests, product demonstrations, and various nonrecurrent selling efforts)Trade promotionDirect MarketingDirect communications other than personal sales contact between buyer and seller, designed to generate sales, information requests, or store visits
13 Public relations: firm’s communications and relationships with its various publics Publicity: stimulation of demand for good, service, place, idea, person, or organization by unpaid placement of commercially significant news or favorable media presentationsGuerilla Marketing: Unconventional, innovative, and low-cost marketing techniques designed to get consumers’ attention in unusual ways.
14 SponsorshipsProvision of funds for a sporting or cultural event in exchange for a direct association with the events or activityGrowth of SponsorshipsHow Sponsorship Differs from AdvertisingSponsor’s degree of control, Nature of the message, Audience reactionAmbush marketingAssessing Sponsorship Results
15 Direct Marketing Communication Channels TelephoneDirect MailTelevisionNewspaperMagazineRadio
16 Direct MailMarketers combine information from internal and external databases, surveys, coupons, and rebates that require responses to provide information about consumer lifestyles, buying habits, and wantsCatalogsOver 10,000 different consumer mail-order catalogs and thousands more for business-to- business sales are mailed each year generating over $57 million in consumer sales and $36 million in B2B sales
17 Telemarketing: promotional presentation involving the use of the telephone for outbound contacts by salespeople or inbound contacts initiated by customers who want to obtain information and place ordersDirect Marketing via Broadcast Channels Broadcast direct marketing includes:Brief (30 to 90 and second) direct response ads on television or radioHome shopping channels like:Quality Value Channel (QVC)Home Shopping Network (HSN)Infomercial
18 Electronic Direct Marketing Channels Web advertising is an important component of electronic direct marketingdirect marketing is a natural and easy extension of traditional direct mail marketingOther Direct Marketing ChannelsPrint media is generally not as effective as Web marketing or telemarketing for direct marketersMagazine and newspaper ads with toll-free telephone numbers, kiosks, and other media are still useful in many situations
19 Developing an Optimal Promotional Mix Factors that influence the effectiveness of a promotional to mix:Nature of the marketNature of the productStage in the product life-cyclePriceFunds available for promotion
20 Pulling and Pushing Promotional Strategies Pulling strategy: promotional effort by a seller to stimulate demand among final users, who will then exert pressure on the distribution channel to carry the good or service, pulling it though the marketing channelPushing strategy: promotional effort by a seller to members of the marketing channel intended to stimulate personal selling of the good or service, thereby pushing it through the marketing channel
22 Measuring the Effectiveness of Promotion Two basic measurement tools:Direct sales results measures the effectiveness of promotion by revealing the specific impact on sales revenues for each dollar of promotional spendingIndirect evaluation concentrates on quantifiable indicators of effectiveness like:RecallReadership
23 Measuring Online Promotions Early attempts at measuring online promotional efforts involved counting hits and visitsIncorporating direct response and comparing different promotions for effectivenessTwo major techniques for setting online advertising rates:Cost per impression (CPM)Cost per response (click-throughs)
24 The Value of Marketing Communications Social ImportanceCriticisms of promotional messages as tasteless and lacking any contribution to society sometimes ignore the fact that society provides no commonly accepted set of standardsThe one generally accepted standard in a market society is freedom of choice for the consumerPromotion has become an important factor in campaigns aimed at achieving socially oriented objectives like the elimination of drug abuse
25 Business ImportancePromotional strategy has become increasingly important to both small and large firmsBoth business and nonbusiness enterprises recognize the importance of promotional effortsEconomic ImportanceEffective promotion has allowed society to derive benefits not otherwise availableSubsidizes the information contents of newspapers and the broadcast media
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