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Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Power Point Slides for: Financial Institutions, Markets, and Money, 8 th Edition Authors: Kidwell, Blackwell, Peterson and Whidbee Prepared by: David R. Durst, The University of Akron
CHAPTER 10 EQUITY MARKETS
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Common Stock Ownership in a Corporation One vote per share. Have a residual (last) claim on income and assets in liquidation, thus a riskier position than bonds and preferred stockholders. Shareholders liability for the debts of the corporation is limited to their investment in the common stock.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Common Stock (concluded) Shareholders return is derived from dividends declared by the board of directors and from market appreciation in the value of the stock. Common shareholders may vote their shares to elect the members of the board of directors. Members of the board of directors can be elected by cumulative voting or straight voting.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Preferred Stock A Preferred or prior claim on earnings and assets compared to common stock Dividends paid ahead of common if declared. Preferred stockholders are usually excluded from voting for board of directors and shareholder issues. Many corporations buy preferred stock. A high percentage, depending on the extent of ownership, of dividends received from one corporation by another corporation are federally tax exempt. Investors are concerned about after-tax return.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Convertible Securities Convertible preferred stock -- convertible to common stock at specific common price or number of shares (conversion ratio). Dividends received until conversion Investor may participate in growth of firm. Convertible bonds -- convertible to common stock at specific common price or number of shares (conversion ratio). Pays fixed bond rate until conversion. Provides potential for higher returns for investors.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Exhibit 10.1 Equity Owners
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Primary Market for Equities The first time shares are sold in the market is an unseasoned offering or an initial public offering (IPO); additional shares may be sold later as a seasoned offering. Equities may be: Sold directly to investors by the firm. Purchased and sold at a higher price (underwriters spread) by investment bankers in an underwritten offering. Sold to existing shareholders in a rights offering.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Primary Market for Equities (concluded) The size of the underwriters spread depends on the underwriters level of uncertainty concerning the shares market price.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. The Secondary Market for Equity Securities Subsequent Trading in Securities after primary issue Stock may trade on: Exchanges. Over the counter Provides investor liquidity
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. The Secondary Market for Equity Securities (concluded) Stable prices are related to the extent of: Breadth of the market or the number of varied traders of the stock. Depth of the market or the extent to which there are conditional orders to buy and sell below and above the current price, respectively. Resiliency of the market or the ability of the market to attract buyer/sellers when the stock prices decreases/increases, respectively.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Secondary Markets Bring Buyers/ Sellers Together Four Ways: A buyer may incur search costs and find a seller on their own, called a direct search. A broker may bring buyer and seller together, charging a commission. A dealer may sell/buy (bid/ask) securities from an inventory of securities, reducing search costs. The dealers return is the bid/ask spread. An auction market allocates the selling shares to the highest bidder, providing a buyer/seller.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. The Size of Dealer Bid/ask Spreads: are proportionately higher for low priced stocks due to fixed costs of operations. are higher for trades of a few shares. are higher for a large block trade; a liquidity service is performed. are narrower with more frequent trading, where the costs of providing liquidity are less. are wider with traders with insider information, where the dealer may have to incur the cost of price discovery, or buying high, selling low!
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York Stock Exchange Composite Transactions
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Equity Valuation Basics The value of a security is the present value of expected cash flows, discounted at the required rate of return. Identify the size of the relevant, future cash flows and when the cash flows occur. Select the appropriate discount rate. Calculate the present value by discounting the cash flows at the discount rate, recognizing when the cash flows occur.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Preferred Stock Valuation Discount the expected cash flow dividend stream at the required rate of return to determine its value. A fixed rate preferred stock approximates a perpetuity and the value can be found by dividing the annual dividends by the discount rate, P 0 = D/r The preferred stock price varies to give the going rate of return to the new investor.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Common Stock Valuation The analyst must approximate the future cash flow stream and select an appropriate discounting equation that approximates the cash flow of the stock. The value of a stock held for a long time is the present value of the dividend stream discounted at the required rate of return, a perpetuity similar to the preferred stock above.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Common Stock Valuation The value of a stock to be held for a determined period of time is the present value of the dividend stream plus the PV of the expected selling price of the stock. The present value, now in period zero, of a steadily increasing stream of cash flow is the value of the cash flow in the first year divided by the difference between the discount rate and the rate of growth. This expression is a math expression of a steadily growing perpetuity.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. The Total Risk of a Security Comprised of the Systematic (Market or Undiversifiable) Risk and the Unsystematic Risk (Diversifiable) Risk Proper diversification can reduce unsystematic, unique, or security-specific risk. A portfolio of securities can result in diversification, the reduction of total risk or the variability of returns (portfolio) below that of holding the individual securities.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. The Total Risk of a Security Diversification occurs when securities, whose historic returns have correlation coefficients less than +1, are assembled in a portfolio. Unsystematic or diversifiable risks offset one another. The systematic risk of the portfolio cannot be diversified away by adding additional securities.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. The Effect of Diversification on Portfolio Risk
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Measuring Systematic Risk: Beta Investors are assumed to hold securities in a diversified portfolio with only systematic or market risk to analyze. The relevant risk of a security is how it correlates with the portfolio. The extent to which the variability of returns (risk) of a stock related to the risk of a broad- based market portfolio is called the beta of the stock. It is a measure of relative risk of a security.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Measuring Systematic Risk: Beta (concluded) If a stock varies as the market portfolio does, the beta is 1.0 and the stock has a risk level matching the market portfolio such as the S&P 500. A beta greater than one is riskier (aggressive stock) than the market while a beta less than one is not as risky as the market and are called defensive stocks. Betas calculated for securities identify their relative historic riskiness.
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Exhibit 10.5 Selected Betas
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Security Market Line (SML) The security market line depicts the offsetting returns demanded for increased increments of risk, the classic risk/return tradeoff. The security market line enables one to conceptualize the risk of a stock as the sum of the risk free rate plus the market risk premium adjusted for the relative risk of the stock (beta). The equation for the SML is expressed as:
Copyright© 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. The Security Market Line
9-1 CHAPTER 9 MARKETS FOR EQUITY SECURITIES. 9-2 Common Stock -- Basic Ownership in a Corporation l One vote per share. l Have a residual (last) claim.
CHAPTER 10 MARKETS FOR EQUITY SECURITIES. Common Stock – Basic Ownership in a Corporation One vote per share. Have a residual (last) claim on income and.
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