Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Formulating Strategy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 6 Formulating Strategy PowerPoint byKristopher BlanchardNorth Central University
2 Strategic Planning and Strategy The process by which a firm’s managers evaluate the future prospects of the firm and decide on appropriate strategies to achieve long-term objectives is called strategic planning.The basic means by which the company competes – its choice of business or businesses in which to operate and the ways in which it differentiates itself from its competitors – is its strategy.
3 Reasons for Going International AOL Europe is emerging as an upbeat counterpoint to AOL’s sagging business in the United States. Partly a matter of timing, as Europe follows the United States online … but also reflecting differences in strategy and execution. AOL Europe lobbied hard … to establish rules guaranteeing AOL Europe equal access to telecommunications networks.- September 8, 2003
4 Reasons for Going International Reactive or defensiveProactive or aggressiveThe threat of decreased competitiveness is the overriding reason many large companies adopt a strategy of aggressive globalization
6 Strategic Formulation Process First phase is the planning phase – company establishes (or clarifies) its mission and overall objectiveSecond part is the implementation phase – requires the establishment of the structure, systems, processes suitable to make the strategy work
7 Mission and ObjectiveMission of an organization is its overall raison d’etre or the function it performs in societyObjectives flow from mission and guide the formulation of international strategy
8 Environmental Assessment Gathering information and forecasting relevant trends, competitive actions and circumstances that will affect operations in a geographic area; should include:Political instabilityCurrency instabilityNationalismInternational competitionEnvironmental scanning
9 Internal AnalysisInternal analysis determines which areas of the firm’s operations represent strengths or weaknesses (currently or potentially) compared to competitors, so that the firm may use that information to its strategic advantageIt focuses on the company’s resources and operations, and global synergiesStrengths and weaknesses of the firm’s financial and managerial expertise and functional capabilities are evaluated to determine the key success factors
10 Competitive AnalysisAssess the firm’s capabilities and key success factors compared to those of its competitorsEnables strategic planners to determine where the firm has distinctive competencies that will give it an advantageMost companies develop strategies around key strengths or core competenciesThis stage is often called a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis
11 Global/International Strategic Alternatives Global Strategic Alternatives determines the overall approach to the global marketplaceEntry Strategy Alternatives determine what specific entry strategy is appropriate for each country the firm plans to operate in
12 Approaches to World Markets Globalization is a term that refers to the establishment of worldwide operations and the development of standardized products and marketing.Regionalization (or multi-local) is where local markets are linked together within a region, allowing more local responsiveness and specialization.
13 Integrative Strategies Multinational Corporations will develop their operations to the point of being fully integratedBoth vertical and horizontalIncludes suppliers, productive facilities, marketing and distribution outlets, and contractorsSome move quickly to the stage of integration through acquisitionOther companies use a variety of strategies and enter the country in stages
15 Using E-business for expansion The real story is the profound impact this medium will have on corporate strategy, organization and business models. Our research reveals that the Internet is driving global marketplace transformation and paradigm shift in how companies get things done, how they compete and how they serve their customers.”-
16 Global B2B/B2C StrategyTo assess the potential competitive position of the company, managers must ask themselves the following questions with respect to B2B/B2C:Does the exchange provide a technology solution that helps industry-trading partners to do business more efficiently?Is the exchange known to be among the top 3-5 within its vertical industry?Does the exchange offer industry-specific technology and expertise that gives it an advantage over generic exchange-builders?
17 Conditions Favoring E-Global “The global beachhead strategy makes sense when trade is global in scope; when the business does not involve delivering orders; and when the business model can be hijacked relatively easily by local competitors.”M. Sawhney and S. Mandal
18 Conditions Favoring E-Local “[The e-local/regional approach] is preferable under three conditions: when production and consumption are regional rather than global in scope; when customer behavior and market structures differ across regions but are relatively similar within a region; and when supply-chain management is very important to success.”Sawhney and Mandal
20 Comparative Management in Focus: Planning for the EU Market As of May 2004 the European Union is:A 25-nation unified marketA market of more than 400 million peopleWith the addition of Central and Eastern European countries companies have access to:The EUCheaper wages, lower corporate taxes, and educated workforcesEliminated currency risk for Europe
21 Comparative Management in Focus: Planning for the EU Market The EU has developed a protectionist wallTariffs, quotas, local content laws and competitive tacticsDesigned to keep the US and Japan outThe EU has created opportunities for nonmembers as well
22 Strategic ChoiceThe strategic choice of one or more of the entry strategies will depend ona critical evaluation of the advantages (and disadvantages of each in relation to the firm’s capabilities,the critical environmental factorsthe contribution that each choice would make to the overall mission and objectives of the company.
23 Looking Ahead Chapter 7 – Global Alliances and Strategy Implementation Strategic AlliancesStrategic Implementation