The Writing Process ~ Stage 1: Exploring, Gathering Information-- Gathering Information-- Using Prewriting Strategies: Using Prewriting Strategies: -Brainstorming -Brainstorming-Clustering-Freewriting
The Writing Process ~ Stage 2: Planning the Essay - Writing the Controlling Idea - Organizing and Developing Support: > Listing > Outlining
The Writing Process ~ Stage 3: - Writing the first draft
C OHERENCE C OHERENCE L ANGUAGE L ANGUAGE U NITY U NITY E MPHASIS E MPHASIS S UPPORT S UPPORT S ENTENCES S ENTENCES
The Writing Process-Revising REVISING 1. COHERENCE: -Orderly relationships of ideas. -Each idea leads smoothly and logically to the next.
The Writing Process-Revising Coherence -Is there a clear pattern of organization (time, space or emphasis?) (time, space or emphasis?) -Do you use “Transitions”? Time: Time: now, then, later, finally Space: above, below, up, down Space: above, below, up, down Emphasis: first, second, last Emphasis: first, second, last
The Writing Process-Revising - Is coherence enhanced by the use of transitional terms, pronouns, repetition, and consistent point of view?
The Writing Process-Revising 2. LANGUAGE - Use appropriate language: Academic language - Tone-attitude toward the material and audience. - Word Choice – Are the words precise in conveying meaning?
The Writing Process-Revising 3. UNITY -A controlling idea establishes unity in every piece of good writing. -It is the central point around which the supporting material revolves.
The Writing Process-Revising Unity For an essay, the elements are ~ the thesis ~ the supporting developmental paragraphs All the supporting material should be related to the thesis.
The Writing Process-Revising Unity A good check on unity is to ask yourself if everything in your essay is subordinate to and derived from the controlling idea. Do not confuse UNITY with COHERENCE: COHERENCE: clear movement of thought from sentence to sentence or paragraph to paragraph. UNITY: Staying on topic
The Writing Process-Revising 4. EMPHASIS - Are ideas properly placed (especially near the beginning and end) for emphasis?
The Writing Process-Revising 5. SUPPORT - Is there adequate material: examples, details, quotations and explanations to support each topic sentence and thesis? - Are the points of support in the best possible order?
The Writing Process-Revising 6. SENTENCES: - Are the sentences varied in length and beginnings? - Are the sentences varied in pattern (simple, compound, complex, comp/compl)? - Are all problems with sentence structure (FRAGMENTS, COMMA SPLICES, RUN ONS) corrected?
The Writing Process-Revising EDITING: spelling, punctuation, capitalization
The Writing Process-Revising Revise your first draft: 1. Read the essay from the beginning to the end for an overall assessment. ~Is it coherent? ~Is it unified? ~Is it well supported? 2. Read the essay a second time for “content.” Read each paragraph and answer the “Content” questions in the peer review form. 3. Read the essay a third time for “form.” Read each sentence aloud to hear and correct any grammatical errors or awkward-sounding sentences. Use the “Form” section of the Peer Review Form.
The Writing Process-Revising 4. Editing: In practice, revising and editing are not always separate activities. It is recommended that you wait until the next-to-the-last draft to edit some minor details and other small points that can be easily overlooked.
The Writing Process-Revising Write your second draft. Include the revisions. Do not proofread on the computer screen. Print your second draft. Edit second draft. Print