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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Strategic Management Competitiveness and Globalization: Concepts and Cases Michael.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Strategic Management Competitiveness and Globalization: Concepts and Cases Michael."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Strategic Management Competitiveness and Globalization: Concepts and Cases Michael A. Hitt R. Duane Ireland Robert E. Hoskisson Seventh edition S TRATEGIC A CTIONS: S TRATEGY F ORMULATION Student Version © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 8 International Strategy

2 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–2 Identifying International Opportunities International StrategyInternational Strategy A strategy through which the firm sells its goods or services outside its domestic market. A strategy through which the firm sells its goods or services outside its domestic market. Reasons to having an international strategyReasons to having an international strategy International markets yield potential new opportunities. International markets yield potential new opportunities. New market expansion extends product life cycle. New market expansion extends product life cycle. Needed resources can be secured. Needed resources can be secured. Greater potential product demand. Greater potential product demand.

3 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–3 Classic Rationale for International Diversification: Extend a Products Life Cycle Production is standardized and relocated to low cost countries. Product Demand Develops and Firm Exports Products Firm Introduces Innovation in Domestic Market ForeignCompetition Begins Production Firm Begins Production Abroad

4 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–4 International Strategy Benefits Increased Market SizeIncreased Market Size Domestic market may lack the size to support efficient scale manufacturing facilities. Domestic market may lack the size to support efficient scale manufacturing facilities. Return on InvestmentReturn on Investment Large investment projects may require global markets to justify the capital outlays. Large investment projects may require global markets to justify the capital outlays. Weak patent protection in some countries implies that firms should expand overseas rapidly in order to preempt imitators. Weak patent protection in some countries implies that firms should expand overseas rapidly in order to preempt imitators.

5 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–5 International Strategy Benefits (contd) Economies of Scale (or Learning)Economies of Scale (or Learning) Expanding size or scope of markets helps to achieve economies of scale in manufacturing as well as marketing, R&D or distribution. Expanding size or scope of markets helps to achieve economies of scale in manufacturing as well as marketing, R&D or distribution. Can spread costs over a larger sales base. Can spread costs over a larger sales base. Can increase profit per unit. Can increase profit per unit.

6 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–6 International Strategy Benefits (contd) Location AdvantagesLocation Advantages Low cost markets aid in developing competitive advantage by providing access to: Low cost markets aid in developing competitive advantage by providing access to: Raw materialsRaw materials TransportationTransportation Lower costs for laborLower costs for labor Key customersKey customers EnergyEnergy

7 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–7 Determinants of National Advantage Factors of productionFactors of production The inputs necessary to compete in any industry The inputs necessary to compete in any industry Labor Land Natural resourcesLabor Land Natural resources Capital InfrastructureCapital Infrastructure Basic factorsBasic factors Natural and labor resources Natural and labor resources Advanced factorsAdvanced factors Digital communication systems and an educated workforce Digital communication systems and an educated workforce

8 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–8 Determinants of National Advantage (contd) Demand ConditionsDemand Conditions Characterized by the nature and size of buyers needs in the home market for the industrys goods or services. Characterized by the nature and size of buyers needs in the home market for the industrys goods or services. Size of the market segment can lead to scale-efficient facilities.Size of the market segment can lead to scale-efficient facilities. Efficiency can lead to domination of the industry in other countries.Efficiency can lead to domination of the industry in other countries. Specialized demand may create opportunities beyond national boundaries.Specialized demand may create opportunities beyond national boundaries.

9 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–9 Determinants of National Advantage (contd) Related and Supporting IndustriesRelated and Supporting Industries Supporting services, facilities, suppliers and so on. Supporting services, facilities, suppliers and so on. Support in designSupport in design Support in distributionSupport in distribution Related industries as suppliers and buyersRelated industries as suppliers and buyers Firm Strategy, Structure and RivalryFirm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry The pattern of strategy, structure, and rivalry among firms. The pattern of strategy, structure, and rivalry among firms. Common technical trainingCommon technical training Methodological product and process improvementMethodological product and process improvement Cooperative and competitive systemsCooperative and competitive systems

10 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–10 Selecting an International Corporate-Level Strategy The type of corporate strategy selected will have an impact on the selection and implementation of the business-level strategies.The type of corporate strategy selected will have an impact on the selection and implementation of the business-level strategies. Some strategies provide individual country units with the flexibility to choose their own strategies. Some strategies provide individual country units with the flexibility to choose their own strategies. Other strategies dictate business-level strategies from the home office and coordinate resource sharing across units. Other strategies dictate business-level strategies from the home office and coordinate resource sharing across units.

11 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–11 International Corporate-Level Strategy Focuses on the scope of operations:Focuses on the scope of operations: Product diversification Product diversification Geographic diversification Geographic diversification Required when the firm operates in:Required when the firm operates in: Multiple industries, and Multiple industries, and Multiple countries or regions Multiple countries or regions Headquarters unit guides the strategyHeadquarters unit guides the strategy But business or country-level managers can have substantial strategic input. But business or country-level managers can have substantial strategic input.

12 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–12 Multidomestic Strategy Strategy and operating decisions are decentralized to strategic business units (SBU) in each country.Strategy and operating decisions are decentralized to strategic business units (SBU) in each country. Products and services are tailored to local markets.Products and services are tailored to local markets. Business units in one country are independent of each other.Business units in one country are independent of each other. Assumes markets differ by country or regions.Assumes markets differ by country or regions. Focus on competition in each market.Focus on competition in each market. Prominent strategy among European firms due to broad variety of cultures and markets in Europe.Prominent strategy among European firms due to broad variety of cultures and markets in Europe. Multidomesticstrategy

13 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–13 Global Strategy Products are standardized across national markets.Products are standardized across national markets. Business-level strategic decisions are centralized in the home office.Business-level strategic decisions are centralized in the home office. Strategic business units (SBU) are assumed to be interdependent.Strategic business units (SBU) are assumed to be interdependent. Emphasizes economies of scale.Emphasizes economies of scale. Often lacks responsiveness to local markets.Often lacks responsiveness to local markets. Requires resource sharing and coordination across borders (hard to manage).Requires resource sharing and coordination across borders (hard to manage). Globalstrategy

14 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–14 Transnational Strategy Seeks to achieve both global efficiency and local responsiveness.Seeks to achieve both global efficiency and local responsiveness. Difficult to achieve because of simultaneous requirements:Difficult to achieve because of simultaneous requirements: Strong central control and coordination to achieve efficiency Strong central control and coordination to achieve efficiency Decentralization to achieve local market responsiveness Decentralization to achieve local market responsiveness Firm must pursue organizational learning to achieve competitive advantage.Firm must pursue organizational learning to achieve competitive advantage. Transnationalstrategy

15 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–15 Environmental Trends Liability of ForeignnessLiability of Foreignness Legitimate concerns about the relative attractiveness of global strategies Legitimate concerns about the relative attractiveness of global strategies Global strategies not as prevalent as once thought Global strategies not as prevalent as once thought Difficulty in implementing global strategies Difficulty in implementing global strategies RegionalizationRegionalization Focusing on particular region(s) rather than on global markets Focusing on particular region(s) rather than on global markets Better understanding of the cultures, legal and social norms Better understanding of the cultures, legal and social norms

16 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–16 International Diversification and Returns Expanding sales of goods or services across global regions and countries and into different geographic locations or markets:Expanding sales of goods or services across global regions and countries and into different geographic locations or markets: May increase a firms returns (such firms usually achieve the most positive stock returns). May increase a firms returns (such firms usually achieve the most positive stock returns). May achieve economies of scale and experience, location advantages, increased market size and opportunity to stabilize returns. May achieve economies of scale and experience, location advantages, increased market size and opportunity to stabilize returns.

17 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–17 International Diversification and Innovation Expansion sales of goods or services across global regions and countries and into different geographic locations or markets:Expansion sales of goods or services across global regions and countries and into different geographic locations or markets: May yield potentially greater returns on innovations (a larger market). May yield potentially greater returns on innovations (a larger market). Can generate additional resources for investment in innovation. Can generate additional resources for investment in innovation. Provides exposure to new products and processes in international markets; generates additional knowledge leading to innovations. Provides exposure to new products and processes in international markets; generates additional knowledge leading to innovations.

18 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–18 Complexity of Managing Multinational Firms Expansion into global operations in different geographic locations or markets:Expansion into global operations in different geographic locations or markets: Makes implementing international strategy increasingly complex. Makes implementing international strategy increasingly complex. Can produce greater uncertainty and risk. Can produce greater uncertainty and risk. May result in the firm becoming unmanageable May result in the firm becoming unmanageable May cause the cost of managing the firm to exceed the benefits of expansion. May cause the cost of managing the firm to exceed the benefits of expansion. Exposes the firm to possible instability of some national governments. Exposes the firm to possible instability of some national governments.

19 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–19 Risks in an International Environment Political RisksPolitical Risks Instability in national governments Instability in national governments War, both civil and international War, both civil and international Potential nationalization of a firms resources Potential nationalization of a firms resources Economic RisksEconomic Risks Differences and fluctuations in the value of different currencies Differences and fluctuations in the value of different currencies Differences in prevailing wage rates Differences in prevailing wage rates Difficulties in enforcing property rights Difficulties in enforcing property rights Unemployment Unemployment ? ? ? ?

20 © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 8–20 Limits to International Expansion: Management Problems Cost of coordination across diverse geographical business unitsCost of coordination across diverse geographical business units Institutional and cultural barriersInstitutional and cultural barriers Understanding strategic intent of competitorsUnderstanding strategic intent of competitors The overall complexity of competitionThe overall complexity of competition


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