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Chapter 9: Staffing, Training, and Compensation for Global OperationsPowerPoint by Hettie A. Richardson Louisiana State University © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Opening Profile: Training the “Toyota Way”Making problems visible Toyota Institute Too much growth to maintain the Toyota Way? © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
International Human Resource Management (IHRM)Functions Recruitment and selection Training and development Compensation and performance management Management of expatriates Again, fit is crucial © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Staffing for Global OperationsEthnocentric staffing approach Used at internationalization stage of strategic expansion, with centralized structure Parent-country nationals (PCNs) Polycentric staffing approach Often used with multinational strategy Host-country nationals (HCNs) © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Staffing for Global OperationsGlobal staffing approach Third country nationals (TCNs) Transpatriates Regiocentric staffing approach Can produce a mix of PCNs, HCNs, and TCNs © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Strategic Mode, Organizational Variables, and Staffing PolicyAspect of Enterprise Ethnocentric Polycentric Regiocentric Global Strategic Orientation International Multidomestic Regional Transnational Perpetuation Expatriates used for key positions Locals used for key positions locally Regional people used regionally Best people used anywhere Evaluation and control Home standards applied Determined locally Determined regionally Globally integrated Rewards High at home; low in subsidiaries Wide variation Based on contribution to regional objectives Based on contribution to local and worldwide objectives © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Expatriate Selection Five categories of success: job factors, relational dimensions, motivational state, family situation, and language skills Predictors of expatriate success: Stress tolerance and extraversion © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Expatriate Performance ManagementSelection based on headquarters criteria Inadequate preparation, training, orientation Alienation or poor support from headquarters Inability to adapt to the local culture © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Expatriate Performance ManagementProblems with spouse and children Insufficient compensation and financial support Poor programs for career support and repatriation © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Expatriate Training and DevelopmentChina: Eating duck tongue and pigeon head Brazil: Home phones don’t work India: Pervasive poverty Indonesia: Rent paid 2-3 years in advance Japan: Doctors reveal little to patients © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Expatriate Training and DevelopmentJapanese expatriate planning: Selection based on long-term knowledge of executives and their families Use of longer assignments (e.g., 5 years) Extensive headquarter support © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Cross-cultural TrainingCulture shock Honeymoon Irritation and hostility Gradual adjustment Biculturalism Subculture shock © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Training Techniques Area studies Culture assimilatorsLanguage training Sensitivity training Field experiences Host-family surrogate © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Corporate Programs to Develop Global ManagersABB rotates 500 managers to different countries every 2-3 years Pepsi brings foreign managers to the US for one-year assignments British Telecom uses informal mentoring between expatriates and potential assignees © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Management Focus: Citibank Gives Advice on Career PlanningTwo-thirds of Citibank’s management team have international experience Options include expatriate assignment, short-term assignments, jobs with cross-border interactions, and global task forces © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Integrating Training with Global Orientation: Export StageTraining need: Low to moderate Content: Interpersonal skills, culture, customer values, business behavior HCNs: Train to understand parent-country products and policies © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Integrating Training with Global Orientation: Multidomestic StageTraining need: Moderate to high Content: Interpersonal skills, culture, technology transfer, business practices and laws HCNs: Familiarize with production and service procedures © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Integrating Training with Global Orientation: Multinational StageTraining need: High moderate to high Content: interpersonal skills, two-way technology transfer, corporate value transfer, strategy, stress management, culture, business practices HCNs: Training in technical areas, products and services, corporate culture © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Integrating Training with Global OrientationTraining Need: High Content: Global corporate operations, corporate culture transfer, customers, global competitors, strategy HCNs: Training in proficiency in production and efficiency systems, corporate culture, business systems, global conduct policies © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Factors Helping Integration of Expatriates and Local StaffForming close working relationships Learning local language Transferring technical/business knowledge Integrating into local life © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Factors Hindering Integration of Expatriates and Local StaffNot using team concept Not learning local language Arrogance Spouse/family adjustment problems © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Compensating ExpatriatesDuPont’s Global Transfer Center of Expertise creates perceptions of equity and goodwill Companies are looking for ways to cut the costs of expatriate assignments The need to reconcile parent- and host-country practices adds complexity © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Compensating ExpatriatesThe balance sheet approach Tax equalization Components of the compensation package: Salary, taxes, allowance, benefits © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Training HCNs Facilitates indigenizationLinks successful corporate culture and local culture Facilitates e-business adoption © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Training Priorities for E-Business DevelopmentAddressing security and privacy concerns Developing a business plan Developing an e-business strategy Understanding electronic payment methods Financing e-business initiatives © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Management Focus: Success! Starbucks in BeijingChallenges recruiting, motivating, and retaining Beijing managers Chinese recruits want training and advancement opportunities more than money © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Management Focus: Success! Starbucks in BeijingRecruits are trained in management and in Starbucks’ culture Three months in Seattle Make coffees in a real store Training, and resulting trust and participation, also serve as motivators © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Compensating HCNs Eastern Europeans require more cash than AmericansCompensation in Japan is becoming more Westernized Chinese workers resist pay for performance © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Comparative Management in Focus: Compensation“Best Practices” Regional Clusters Country Specific Incentives not too large, pay based on individual performance, reduce seniority pay Asian and Latin countries use more seniority pay, group/team pay, and pay for future goals US uses less incentives than expected, China and Taiwan use more © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Comparative Management in Focus: Selection“Best Practices” Regional Clusters Country Specific “Getting along with others” and “Fit with corporate values” Anglo cluster focuses on technical skill, work experience; Korea, Japan, and Taiwan focus on work experience Japan looks at a person’s potential; Korea relies on employment tests; Taiwan relies on interviews © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Comparative Management in Focus: Performance Appraisal“Best Practices” Regional Clusters Country Specific Could be better in all countries; emphasis on development and documentation Expression used little in Asian countries; in Latin America the administrative purpose is important In Taiwan the administrative purpose is important © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Comparative Management in Focus: T&D“Best Practices” Regional Clusters Country Specific Used to improve technical skills and, increasingly, team building Softer practices used in Anglo cluster but more use is desired; Latin cluster desires more use of all practices In Mexico, T&D is a reward; US is outsourcing more; Korea uses team building extensively © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
Comparative Management in Focus: Relation to Strategy“Best Practices” Regional Clusters Country Specific T&D and performance appraisal most closely linked to organizational capability Low cost and differentiation strategies linked to HRM in Asian cluster No linkages between organizational capability and HRM in Mexico © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall
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