4-2 Work Analysis Work analysisa systematic process of gathering information about work, jobs, and the relationship between jobs chronological steps in conducting effective work analysis what are the required outcomes/measures for assessing strategy execution (e.g., customer requirements for products/services derived from the strategic plan)? what are necessary, critical, essential tasks, activities, behaviors, required to meet or exceed the requirements established in step 1? What are the relative importance, frequency, and essentiality of these tasks for achieving measures at step 1? what are the necessary knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics or competencies required to perform the activities at step 2? how should jobs/work be defined? Where does the work get done to maximize efficiency/effectiveness? Do we use individual jobs, work teams, independent contractors, full-time/part-time? Do we outsource?
4-3 KASOCs Knowledgean organized body of information, usually of a factual or procedural nature applied directly to the performance of a function. Abilitya demonstrated competence to perform an observable behavior or a behavior that results in an observable product. Skilla competence to perform a learned, psychomotor act, and may include a manual, verbal, or mental manipulation of data, people, or things. Other characteristicspersonality factors (attitudes), aptitudes, or physical or mental traits needed to perform the job.
4-4 What Are the Major Goals for Work Analysis? Major goals for work analysis. the objective of work analysis should be the description of observables – behavior or trait often not observable but products, outcomes, kinds of materials, and people included in decision process are work analysis consists of a description of work behavior independent of the personal characteristics of particular people who perform the job – focus is on the position, not on the person in the position work analysis data must be verifiable and reliable – organization must maintain records of the work analysis data, and be able to justify job analysis judgments
4-5 Legal Significance of Work Analysis Supreme Court has emphasized importance of demonstrating job relatedness of selection systems (Albemarle v. Moody). lawsuits by women claiming lack of job relatedness in Police an Firefighter physical requirements lawsuits by older workers contesting mandatory retirement ages Greater likelihood that KASOCs and tasks needed to complete job seen more positively when work analysis: uses representative sample of job incumbents represents breadth of tasks to be completed on the job in written form specifies level of competency for entry-level work
4-6 Products of Work Analysis Major products of work analysis job description job classification job evaluation job design/restructuring job specifications performance appraisal worker training worker mobility/succession planning efficiency safety human resource planning legal/quasi-legal requirements
4-7 Job Description for a Compensation Manager
4-8 Job Specifications for a Compensation Manager
4-9 Dimensions on Which Work Analysis May Vary Types of Information task- or job-oriented person- or worker-oriented trait-oriented Form of the job information qualitative or quantitative Level of standardization of information quantitative information content similar for group of jobs Sources of job information recording devices, diaries, job incumbents
4-10 Collection Methods Major collection methods of work analysis observationdirect observation of job duties, work sampling or observation of segments of job performance, and indirect recording of activities performing the jobactual performance of job duties by the analyst interviewsindividual and group interviews with job incumbents, supervisors, subordinates, clients, or other knowledgeable sources critical incidentsdescriptions of behavioral examples of exceptionally poor or good performance, and context and consequences in which they occur diariesdescriptions of daily work activities by incumbents background recordsreview of relevant materials including organization chars, Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), company training manuals, organizational policies and procedures manuals, or existing job descriptions questionnairesstructured forms and activity checklist (PAQ, FJA, JDS, MPDQ, JCQ, O*NET forms) as well as open ended or unstructured questions
4-11 Work Analysis Formal Methods Most useful work analysis methods Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Management Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ) competency modeling O*Net functional job analysis (FJA) critical incident technique (CIT) Job Compatibility Questionnaire (JCQ) Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) Multimethod Job Design Questionnaire (MJDQ)
4-12 Which Method is Best? PAQ (www.paq.com) Identifies specific tests to use for hiring and estimates validity job evaluation also useful for job descriptions FJA job description job classification job design job evaluation CIT performance appraisal instrument training programs
4-13 Sample Items from the PAQ Source: E.J. McCormick & P.R. Jeanneret, Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ), in The Job Analysis Handbook for Business, Industry, and Government ed. S. Gael, vol. II, pp Reprinted with permission.
4-14 Sample Items from the PAQ Source: E.J. McCormick & P.R. Jeanneret, Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ), in The Job Analysis Handbook for Business, Industry, and Government ed. S. Gael, vol. II, pp Reprinted with permission.
4-15 Sample Items from the PAQ Source: E.J. McCormick & P.R. Jeanneret, Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ), in The Job Analysis Handbook for Business, Industry, and Government ed. S. Gael, vol. II, pp Reprinted with permission.
4-16 What is O*Net? O*NET, the Occupational Information Network, is a comprehensive database of worker attributes and job characteristics. As the replacement for the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), O*NET will be the nations primary source of occupational information. O*NET is being developed as a timely, easy-to-use resource that supports public and private sector efforts to identify and develop the skills of the American workforce. It provides a common language for defining and describing occupations. Its flexible design also captures rapidly changing job requirements. In addition, O*NET moves occupational information into the technological age. As the basis for enhanced product development, the O*NET database can serve as the engine that drives value-added applications designed around core information. It provides the essential foundation for facilitating career counseling, education, employment, and training activities. The database contains information about knowledges, skills, abilities (KSAs), interests, general work activities (GWAs), and work context. O*NET data and structure will also link related occupational, educational, and labor market information databases to the system.
4-17 Uses for O*Net Align educational and job training curricula with current workplace needs. Create occupational clusters based on KSA information. Develop job descriptions or specifications, job orders, and resumes. Facilitate employee training and development initiatives. Develop and supplement assessment tools to identify worker attributes. Structure compensation and reward systems. Evaluate and forecast human resource requirements. Design and implement organizational development initiatives. Identify criteria to establish performance appraisal and management systems. Identify criteria to guide selection and placement decisions. Create skills-match profiles. Explore career options that capitalize on individual KSA profiles. Target recruitment efforts to maximize person-job-organizational fit. Improve vocational and career counseling efforts.
4-18 The O*Net Foundation Common Language O*NET offers a common language for communication across the economy and among workforce development efforts. It provides definitions and concepts for describing worker attributes and workplace requirements that can be broadly understood and easily accepted. Using comprehensive terms to describe the KSAs, interests, content, and context of work, O*NET provides a common frame of reference for understanding what is involved in effective job performance. The goal of O*NETs common language is straightforward: improve the quality of dialogue among people who communicate about jobs in the economy, generate employment statistics, and develop education and training programs. It provides the shared foundation of language upon which to build private and public sector workforce development efforts. Employer hiring requirements will have the same meaning for human resource practitioners, workers, education and training developers, program planners, and students. Conceptual Framework The conceptual foundation of O*NET is called the Content Model. The Content Model provides a framework for classifying, organizing, and structuring O*NET data.
4-19 O*NET Content Model Experience Requirements Training Experience Licensure Worker Requirements Basic Skills Cross-Functional Skills Knowledge Education Occupational Requirements Generalized Work Activities Work Context Organizational Context Occupation Characteristics Labor Market Information Occupational Outlook Wages Worker Characteristics Abilities Occupational Values Interests Work Styles Occupation-Specific Requirements Occupational Skills, Knowledge Tasks, Duties Machines, Tools, and Equipment O*NET. Source: N.G. Peterson, et al. Understanding Work Using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET): Implications for Practice and Research, Personnel Psychology 54 (2001), p Reprinted with permission.
4-20 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers Positions Description – Plan, direct, and coordinate human resource management activities of an organization to maximize the strategic use of human resources and maintain functions such as employee compensation, recruitment, personnel policies, and regulatory compliance. Sample of reported job titles – Human Resources Manager, Director of Human Resources, HR Director (Human Resources Director), Employee Benefits Manager, Employee Relations Manager
4-21 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Tasks Administer compensation, benefits and performance management systems, and safety and recreation programs. Identify staff vacancies and recruit, interview and select applicants. Allocate human resources, ensuring appropriate matches between personnel. Provide current and prospective employees with information about policies, job duties, working conditions, wages, opportunities for promotion and employee benefits. Perform difficult staffing duties, including dealing with understaffing, refereeing disputes, firing employees, and administering disciplinary procedures. Advise managers on organizational policy matters such as equal employment opportunity and sexual harassment, and recommend needed changes. Analyze and modify compensation and benefits policies to establish competitive programs and ensure compliance with legal requirements. Plan and conduct new employee orientation to foster positive attitude toward organizational objectives. Serve as a link between management and employees by handling questions, interpreting and administering contracts and helping resolve work-related problems. Plan, direct, supervise, and coordinate work activities of subordinates and staff relating to employment, compensation, labor relations, and employee relations.
4-22 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Knowledge Personnel and Human ResourcesKnowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems. English LanguageKnowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar. Customer and Personal ServiceKnowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction. Law and GovernmentKnowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process. Education and TrainingKnowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects. Economics and AccountingKnowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data. PsychologyKnowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
4-23 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Skills Active ListeningGiving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times. Management of Personnel ResourcesMotivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job. Reading ComprehensionUnderstanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents. WritingCommunicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience. SpeakingTalking to others to convey information effectively. NegotiationBringing others together and trying to reconcile differences. Time ManagementManaging ones own time and the time of others. Social PerceptivenessBeing aware of others reactions and understanding why they react as they do. Critical ThinkingUsing logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. MonitoringMonitoring/assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
4-24 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Abilities Oral ComprehensionThe ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences. Oral ExpressionThe ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand. Written ComprehensionThe ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing. Written ExpressionThe ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand. Speech RecognitionThe ability to identify and understand the speech of another person. Speech ClarityThe ability to speak clearly so others can understand you. Problem SensitivityThe ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem. Deductive ReasoningThe ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense. Inductive ReasoningThe ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events). OriginalityThe ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
4-25 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Work Activities Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal RelationshipsDeveloping constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time. Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or SubordinatesProviding information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, or in person. Making Decisions and Solving ProblemsAnalyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems. Staffing Organizational UnitsRecruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting. Getting InformationObserving, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information. Judging the Qualities of Things, Services, or PeopleAssessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people. Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with OthersHandling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others. Guiding, Directing, and Motivating SubordinatesProviding guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring performance. Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with StandardsUsing relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards. Coaching and Developing OthersIdentifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
4-26 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Work Context TelephoneHow often do you have telephone conversations in this job? Indoors, Environmentally ControlledHow often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions? Structured versus Unstructured WorkTo what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals? Contact With OthersHow much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it? Electronic MailHow often do you use electronic mail in this job? Spend Time SittingHow much does this job require sitting? Freedom to Make DecisionsHow much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer? Importance of Being Exact or AccurateHow important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job? Face-to-Face DiscussionsHow often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job? Letters and MemosHow often does the job require written letters and memos?
4-27 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Job Zone Overall experienceA minimum of two to four years of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified. Job trainingEmployees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training. Job zoneMany of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising. ExamplesManaging, or training others. Examples include accountants, chefs and head cooks, computer programmers, historians, pharmacists, and police detectives. SVP range(7.0 to 8.0) EducationMost of these occupations require a four-year bachelors degree, but some do not.
4-28 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Interests EnterprisingEnterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business. SocialSocial occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others. ConventionalConventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
4-29 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Work Styles Concern for OthersJob requires being sensitive to others needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job. Attention to DetailJob requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks. IntegrityJob requires being honest and ethical. InitiativeJob requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges. IndependenceJob requires developing ones own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done. PersistenceJob requires persistence in the face of obstacles. DependabilityJob requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations. Stress ToleranceJob requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations. LeadershipJob requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction. Self ControlJob requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
4-30 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Work Values & Related Occupations Work Values AchievementOccupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement. IndependenceOccupations that satisfy this work value allow employs to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy. Related Occupations Administrative Services Managers Medical and Health Services Managers Postmasters and Mail Superintendents Training and Development Specialists
4-31 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: Wages and Employment 2003 LocationPay Period10%25%Median75%90% U.S.Hourly$19.03$24.86$33.82$45.15$58.71 Yearly$39,600$51,700$70,800$93,900$122,100 FloridaHourly$18.94$23.78$31.78$41.65$53.65 Yearly$39,400$49,500$66,100$86,600$111,600 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics Survey; Florida Agency of Workforce Innovation.
4-32 Summary O*Net Report for HR Managers: State and National Trends Employment Percent Change United States Job Openings 1 Human Resource Managers202,200241,600+19%7,350 Employment Percent Change Florida Job Openings 1 Human Resource Managers6,0407,570+25%260 1 Job Openings refers to the average annual job openings due to growth and net replacement. Human resources managers, which includes Compensation and Benefits Managers; Human Resources Managers, All Other; Training and Development Managers.
4-33 Sample Questions from the Job Diagnostic Survey A copy of the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) can is presented in Critical Thinking Application 4-B, p To what extent do managers or co-workers let you know how well you are doing on your job? 2. In general, how significant or important is your job? That is, are the results of your work likely to significantly affect the lives or well-being of other people? 3. How much autonomy is there in your job? 4. To what extent does your job involve doing a whole and identifiable piece of work? 5. How much variety is there in your job? That is, to what extent does the job require you to do many different things at work using a variety of your skills and talents? 6. To what extent does your job require you to work closely with other people (either clients or people in related jobs in your organization)? 7. To what extent does doing the job itself provide you with information about your work performance? That is, does the actual work itself provide clues about how well you are doingaside from the feedback co-workers or managers may provide?
4-34 JOB COMPATIBILITY QUESTIONNARE (JCQ) Work analysis method used to derive selection test. Data used to con vert work analysis results into a selection test. JCQ theory is that the greater the compatibility in preferences for job and actual job characteristics, the longer the job tenure. Incumbents complete questionnaire and responses are used to group items derive the scoring key for the selection test. Predicts retention/turnover for low wage jobs. No research related to managerial/supervisory jobs. JCQ also effective for redesigning jobs.
4-35 Can Work Analysis Data be Biased? Job analysis data are generally free of gender or racial bias. Courts have been critical of gender/ racial makeup of committees responsible for conducting job analyses-should be representative. Incumbents tend assign more importance to tasks. Incumbents and supervisors agree more on tasks than attributes or competencies. Better results from those that know jobs better. Best to have large number of experts rating KASOCs and job specifications. More research on bias is needed.