5 Causes of the French Revolution Write a 1-2 sentence thesis statement analyzing the causes of the French Revolution.____________________________________________________________________________________________________
6 Summarize the additional economic causes of the French Revolution. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7 The Declaration of Independence The Declaration of the Rights Two “Revolutionary” DocumentsThe Declaration of IndependenceThomas JeffersonAmerica, 1776The Declaration of the Rightsof Man and CitizenMarquis de LafayetteFrance, 1789Identify ideas within Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence that are clear evidence of the influence of John Locke and other Enlightenment thinkers.Who do you think is the main audience? Why?Where is the evidence of the influence of Jefferson’s Declaration and the American Revolution in de Lafayette’s Declaration?Who do you think is the main audience? Why
8 French Revolution Key Events Think about the specific significance of each of the “Key Events” in shaping the outcomes of the French revolution.
9 French Revolution Storyboard Directions: Event at top, colored image in center, caption at bottom.
10 The Enlightenment Political & Legal Equality (Rousseau) Personal Freedoms (Voltaire)Social Contract (Hobbes)Popular Sovereignty & Natural Rights (Locke)Global Influence of Enlightenment ValuesAmerican Revolution
12 French Society First Estate: Catholic clergy Second Estate: nobility .5% pop.Did not pay taxesSecond Estate: nobility1.5% pop.Exempt from many taxesThird Estate: Rest of PopulationBourgeoisie – wealthy middle classSans-culottes – working classProvided bulk of French tax revenue
13 Q. What can you infer from the pie graphs on why a revolution occurred in France?
14 Political inequalities for Middle Class First Estate Second Estate Third EstateX X X XX X X XX X X X1 Vote1 VoteX= Representative1 Vote
15 Financial Crisis During 1780s, 50% of revenue went to pay off debts American RevolutionLavish lifestyle of the monarchySeries of bad harvests 1787 & 1788Bread prices went up 50% in 1789Need for tax reformLouis XVI hoped to raise taxes on the aristocracyAristocracy resisted reformsForced Louis to call the Estates-General for the first time since 1614
16 Discussion QuestionsWhat were the similarities between the long-term causes of the American and French Revolutions? Differences?
18 The National Assembly and Tennis Court Oath June 20, 1789Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
19 Why Revolution? Revolutionaries demanded end to the Ancien Regime “Old Order”AbsolutismNoble & Church feudal privilegesSlogan of Revolution“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” (brotherhood)
20 Phase I Moderate/liberal Goal- create constitutional monarchy
21 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Marquis de Lafayette The Declaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenJune 20, 1789Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
22 Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen a. based on ideas of the Enlightenment and the Declaration of Independence b. all people are equal before the law c. freedom of speech, press and religion d. protected against arbitrary arrest and punishment e. did not* grant equal rights to women
23 Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen a. based on ideas of the Enlightenment and the Declaration of Independence
24 Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen Passed by the National Assembly on August 26, 1789Not a Constitution but a statement of general principalsDefines individual and collective rightsDoes not address women or slavery
25 Storming of the Bastille - Members of the 3rd Estate took it over to gain gunpowder & free political prisonersImportance = Symbolized the start of the revolution“Bastille Day” = National holiday; July 14
29 Women’s March on Versailles Storming of VersaillesOctober 1, 1789-Results- Royal family forced to come to Paris- Louis forced to sign new constitution- France now a constitutional monarchy
30 Critical Intro:Why do you think all of the events leading up to the “Reign of Terror” were viewed as “moderate” considering some of the violent actions during those events?
31 Phase II (1792-1794) Radical Goal- a republic; eliminate monarchists and counterrevolutionaries
32 European Nations Attack France Arrest of Louis XVIAugust 10, 1792Nations (Great Britain, Spain, Austria, Prussia) take advantage of instability – Attack France
33 Two Political Parties Jacobins gain control Jacobins – rejected anything that resembled the old order and wanted more changea. led by Maximilien RobespierreGirondists – felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle classJacobins gain control
34 Why were all events up to the Reign of Terror considered “Moderate”? Critical Intro.Why were all events up to the Reign of Terror considered “Moderate”?Arrest of Louis XVIAugust 10, 1792
35 Radicals Take ControlArrest of Louis XVIAugust 10, 1792
36 Decline of the Monarchy Louis XVI tried to flee with his family to Austriaa. was caught and returned to Parisneighboring countries began to worry about their own monarchiesFrench émigrés (nobles who fled from France) tried to convince other countries to restore Louis XVI
38 Monarchy dead; Republic is born Jacobin (radical revolutionaries) ReformsUniversal adult male suffrageUniversal military dutyAbolished slaveryFuels Haitian RevolutionIncreased rights of womenCould not participate in politicsAttacked CatholicismSpirit of nationalism
40 Reign of Terror Led by Maximilien Robespierre Find & eliminate enemies of the stateMonarchistscounterrevolutionariesAs many as 40,000 killed by guillotinevideo“The first maxim of our politics ought to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror.”
45 Rise of NapoleonDirectory = Ineffective governing body following “Terror”Failed to solve economic problems of FranceNapoleon staged a coup d'état in 1799Becomes emperor in 1804
46 Goals of Napoleon increase French nationalism control of Europe improve educationa. set up technical schools, universities and secondary schoolsrequired all citizens to pay taxesEstablish Central Bankimprove the legal systema. simplified the French law code into theNapoleonic Code
47 Napoleonic Code, 1804Purpose = reform the French legal code to reflect the principles of the French Rev.Create 1 law code for FranceInfluenced European legal codes
48 Building His Empireafter defeating Austria and Italy, he convinced Russia to drop out of the wara. Also invaded Spain & Portugalb. Britain was left as the only country opposing NapoleonContinental System – ordered all European nations to stop trade with BritainGoal = isolate Britain & promote Napoleon’s mastery over Europe
50 Domestic Policies of Napoleon Maintained some rights gained during the revolutionFreedom of religionNapoleonic Code (Civil Code)Schools and universitiesReversed other gainsRights of womenFreedom of expressionReformed economyRevised tax codeCentral bank
53 Downfall of Napoleon 1812 – Napoleon invaded Russia with a 600,000 men the Russians executed a “scorched-earth” policy = no food or shelter for French troopsNapoleon had to withdraw because of the harsh Russian winterthe Russians attacked them the whole way back500,000 diedFrench severely weakened = Spain, Russia, Prussia, Britain, Austria and Italy attacked FranceMarch 14, 1814 – Napoleon was forced to abdicatethe throne and was exiled to Elba
61 Legacy of NapoleonUnsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French domination.Napoleonic Code – great influence on modern European legal codesSpread of nationalism in EuropeGerman and Italian unificationGreek independence
62 Legacy of the French Revolution Global Independence movementsHaitian RevolutionLatin American independenceTriggered by Napoleon’s invasion of SpainEgypt broke away from Ottoman EmpireSlave Trade and SlaveryEngland abolished slave trade in 1807; slavery in 1833Brazil—Last to abolish slavery (1888)Abolition of serfdomExcept in Russia