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Industrialization and Globalization

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Presentation on theme: "Industrialization and Globalization"— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrialization and Globalization
Unit Industrialization and Globalization

2 Unit 5 Themes 1. Nationalism, Revolution and Reform
2. The Industrial Revolution 3. Imperialism and Nation-State Building 4. Global Migration

3 The French Revolution Timeline

4 Causes of the French Revolution

5 Causes of the French Revolution
Write a 1-2 sentence thesis statement analyzing the causes of the French Revolution. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

6 Summarize the additional economic causes of the French Revolution.

7 The Declaration of Independence The Declaration of the Rights
Two “Revolutionary” Documents The Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson America, 1776 The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Marquis de Lafayette France, 1789 Identify ideas within Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence that are clear evidence of the influence of John Locke and other Enlightenment thinkers. Who do you think is the main audience? Why? Where is the evidence of the influence of Jefferson’s Declaration and the American Revolution in de Lafayette’s Declaration? Who do you think is the main audience? Why

8 French Revolution Key Events
Think about the specific significance of each of the “Key Events” in shaping the outcomes of the French revolution.

9 French Revolution Storyboard
Directions: Event at top, colored image in center, caption at bottom.

10 The Enlightenment Political & Legal Equality (Rousseau)
Personal Freedoms (Voltaire) Social Contract (Hobbes) Popular Sovereignty & Natural Rights (Locke) Global Influence of Enlightenment Values American Revolution

11 Inept Ruler? King Louis XVI

12 French Society First Estate: Catholic clergy Second Estate: nobility
.5% pop. Did not pay taxes Second Estate: nobility 1.5% pop. Exempt from many taxes Third Estate: Rest of Population Bourgeoisie – wealthy middle class Sans-culottes – working class Provided bulk of French tax revenue

13 Q. What can you infer from the pie graphs on why a revolution occurred in France?

14 Political inequalities for Middle Class
First Estate Second Estate Third Estate X X X X X X X X X X X X 1 Vote 1 Vote X= Representative 1 Vote

15 Financial Crisis During 1780s, 50% of revenue went to pay off debts
American Revolution Lavish lifestyle of the monarchy Series of bad harvests 1787 & 1788 Bread prices went up 50% in 1789 Need for tax reform Louis XVI hoped to raise taxes on the aristocracy Aristocracy resisted reforms Forced Louis to call the Estates-General for the first time since 1614

16 Discussion Questions What were the similarities between the long-term causes of the American and French Revolutions? Differences?

17 Calling of the Estates-General
May 5, 1789

18 The National Assembly and Tennis Court Oath
June 20, 1789 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

19 Why Revolution? Revolutionaries demanded end to the
Ancien Regime “Old Order” Absolutism Noble & Church feudal privileges Slogan of Revolution “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” (brotherhood)

20 Phase I Moderate/liberal Goal- create constitutional monarchy

21 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
Marquis de Lafayette The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen June 20, 1789 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

22 Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen
a. based on ideas of the Enlightenment and the Declaration of Independence b. all people are equal before the law c. freedom of speech, press and religion d. protected against arbitrary arrest and punishment e. did not* grant equal rights to women

23 Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen
a. based on ideas of the Enlightenment and the Declaration of Independence

24 Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen
Passed by the National Assembly on August 26, 1789 Not a Constitution but a statement of general principals Defines individual and collective rights Does not address women or slavery

25 Storming of the Bastille
- Members of the 3rd Estate took it over to gain gunpowder & free political prisoners Importance = Symbolized the start of the revolution “Bastille Day” = National holiday; July 14

26 Storming of the Bastille

27 Great Fear - France enters “Great Fear” – general revolts against Old Feudal Regime; clergy, nobility

28 March on Versailles Oct. 5, 1789

29 Women’s March on Versailles
Storming of Versailles October 1, 1789 -Results - Royal family forced to come to Paris - Louis forced to sign new constitution - France now a constitutional monarchy

30 Critical Intro: Why do you think all of the events leading up to the “Reign of Terror” were viewed as “moderate” considering some of the violent actions during those events?

31 Phase II (1792-1794) Radical Goal- a republic; eliminate monarchists and counterrevolutionaries

32 European Nations Attack France
Arrest of Louis XVI August 10, 1792 Nations (Great Britain, Spain, Austria, Prussia) take advantage of instability – Attack France

33 Two Political Parties Jacobins gain control
Jacobins – rejected anything that resembled the old order and wanted more change a. led by Maximilien Robespierre Girondists – felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class Jacobins gain control

34 Why were all events up to the Reign of Terror considered “Moderate”?
Critical Intro. Why were all events up to the Reign of Terror considered “Moderate”? Arrest of Louis XVI August 10, 1792

35 Radicals Take Control Arrest of Louis XVI August 10, 1792

36 Decline of the Monarchy
Louis XVI tried to flee with his family to Austria a. was caught and returned to Paris neighboring countries began to worry about their own monarchies French émigrés (nobles who fled from France) tried to convince other countries to restore Louis XVI

37 Execution of Louis XVI January 21, 1793

38 Monarchy dead; Republic is born
Jacobin (radical revolutionaries) Reforms Universal adult male suffrage Universal military duty Abolished slavery Fuels Haitian Revolution Increased rights of women Could not participate in politics Attacked Catholicism Spirit of nationalism

39 “Reign of Terror”

40 Reign of Terror Led by Maximilien Robespierre
Find & eliminate enemies of the state Monarchists counterrevolutionaries As many as 40,000 killed by guillotine video “The first maxim of our politics ought to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror.”

41 British View of Reign of Terror

42 End of the Terror Robespierre is killed July 28, 1794
French Revolution part 3 French Revolution part 4 Robespierre is killed French Revolution part 5 July 28, 1794

43 Phase III (1794-1815) Conservative/reactionary
Goal- To end “terror” and establish Directory

44 Directory and Rise of Napoleon

45 Rise of Napoleon Directory = Ineffective governing body following “Terror” Failed to solve economic problems of France Napoleon staged a coup d'état in 1799 Becomes emperor in 1804

46 Goals of Napoleon increase French nationalism control of Europe
improve education a. set up technical schools, universities and secondary schools required all citizens to pay taxes Establish Central Bank improve the legal system a. simplified the French law code into the Napoleonic Code

47 Napoleonic Code, 1804 Purpose = reform the French legal code to reflect the principles of the French Rev. Create 1 law code for France Influenced European legal codes

48 Building His Empire after defeating Austria and Italy, he convinced Russia to drop out of the war a. Also invaded Spain & Portugal b. Britain was left as the only country opposing Napoleon Continental System – ordered all European nations to stop trade with Britain Goal = isolate Britain & promote Napoleon’s mastery over Europe

49 The Continental System

50 Domestic Policies of Napoleon
Maintained some rights gained during the revolution Freedom of religion Napoleonic Code (Civil Code) Schools and universities Reversed other gains Rights of women Freedom of expression Reformed economy Revised tax code Central bank

51 Napoleon’s Empire

52 Napoleon’s Empire

53 Downfall of Napoleon 1812 – Napoleon invaded Russia with a 600,000 men
the Russians executed a “scorched-earth” policy = no food or shelter for French troops Napoleon had to withdraw because of the harsh Russian winter the Russians attacked them the whole way back 500,000 died French severely weakened = Spain, Russia, Prussia, Britain, Austria and Italy attacked France March 14, 1814 – Napoleon was forced to abdicate the throne and was exiled to Elba

54 Napoleon’s Failed Invasion of Russia

55 Napoleon’s Empire Left: Napoleon’s Empire by 1812
Above: Napoleon’s Retreat from Russia

56 Napoleon on Elba This should NOT be a prison

57 Final Defeat Napoleon escapes Elba Leads France for 100 days
Europeans invade France & defeat Napoleon for good at Waterloo. Exiled to St. Helena

58 Battle of Waterloo British and Prussians Defeat Napoleon for good

59 Napoleon’s Downfall Could not conquer British navy
Guerilla movements in Spain and Portugal Failed invasion of Russia Final defeat at Waterloo

60 Napoleon Banished to St. Helena

61 Legacy of Napoleon Unsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French domination. Napoleonic Code – great influence on modern European legal codes Spread of nationalism in Europe German and Italian unification Greek independence

62 Legacy of the French Revolution
Global Independence movements Haitian Revolution Latin American independence Triggered by Napoleon’s invasion of Spain Egypt broke away from Ottoman Empire Slave Trade and Slavery England abolished slave trade in 1807; slavery in 1833 Brazil—Last to abolish slavery (1888) Abolition of serfdom Except in Russia

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