Presentation on theme: "American History (CHA3U1)"— Presentation transcript:
1 American History (CHA3U1) ReconstructionAmerican History (CHA3U1)
2 Introduction Confederate war veterans returned to devastated land African Americans quickly learned that freedom didn’t mean equalityReadmitting Southern states to the Union difficult because of white Southern bitterness & Radical Republicans in Congress
3 Frederick DouglassThe arm of the Federal government is long, but it is far too short to protect the rights of individuals in the interior of distant States. They must have the power to protect themselves, or they will go unprotected, in spite of all the laws the Federal government can put upon the national statute-book. - Frederick Douglass, 1866
4 Where did it begin? Reconstruction Began as War Measure First came the Emancipation ProclamationLincoln’s 10% Plan - Proclamation of Amnesty and ReconstructionGoal was an easy peace to shorten war and to absorb the South back into the Union as quickly and painlessly as possible
5 Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln issued it on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war.The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free13th Amendment – made all slaves free in 1865
6 Emancipation Proclamation Con’t Although the Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in the nation, it captured the hearts and imagination of millions of Americans and fundamentally transformed the character of the war. (they couldn’t enforce it in the southern states they did not control)After January 1, 1863, every advance of federal troops expanded the domain of freedom.The Proclamation announced the acceptance of black men into the Union Army and NavyBy the end of the war, almost 200,000 black soldiers and sailors had fought for the Union
7 Lincoln’s Second Inaugural With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan--to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.
8 Lincoln’s 10% PlanLincoln offered a full pardon to any Southerner, with the exception of certain leaders, who would take an oath to support “the Constitution of the United States and the Union of the States thereunder.”Those who took the oath in each state could vote to form a new state government.Lincoln promised to recognize the new government if two conditions were met: the new government accepted the elimination of slavery as required by the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863; and the number of those voting for the new government was at least 10 percent of those who had voted in the 1860 presidential election.
9 Wade-Davis Bill, July 1864 Benjamin F Wade The bill was designed to punish the South and to make it subservient to the Republican Party in the North.The bill limited voting on new state constitutions to those who had never joined the rebel causeIt required a loyalty oath by the majority of a state's citizensIt permanently deprived former rebel leaders of the right to vote.Lincoln killed the bill by using his pocket veto, and as long as he lived this plan made little headway.Benjamin F Wade
10 After Slavery New Ways of Life The Plight of Landowners some slaves agreed to stay and work the land for housing, food and cash after crops harvested Many lost land because Confederate money worthless therefore couldn’t pay taxes or debtsThe Plight of Workers poor whites / African Americans tenant farmers / sharecroppers
11 The Freedman’s BureauThe Freedmen's Bureau was established in the War Department on March 3, 1865.The Bureau supervised all relief and educational activities relating to refugees and freedmen (ie. including issuing rations, clothing and medicine)The Bureau assumed custody of confiscated lands or property in the former Confederate States, border states, District of Columbia, and Indian Territory.They also built schools
12 Sec. 2: Reconstructing the South Presidential ReconstructionLincoln’s Plan amnesty / pardon to all Southerners who pledged an oath of loyalty to the United States African Americans could return to Africa or colonize CaribbeanThe Radical Republicans’ Plan harsher thanLincoln’s plan military rule
16 Reconstructing the South Johnson’s Program President after Lincoln assassinated tried to implement Lincoln’s generous plan but Radical Republicans refused to co-operate disagreed with having former Confederate leaders electedWhite Men & Black Codes states allowed to create their own laws that denied African Americans many basic rights such as voting or gov’t education
17 Reconstructing the South Presidential ReconstructionThe North Responds April 1866 Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill giving citizenship to African Americans and all the rights entailedThe Fourteenth Amendment defined citizenship to include African Americans who were guaranteed equal protection under the law
18 Sec. 2: Reconstructing the South Radical ReconstructionReconstruction Plans appreciative African Americans would vote for Radical RepublicansReconstruction Legislation March 1867 Reconstruction Act passed putting the South under five district military rule until the states gave African Americans the right to voteFormer Confederate states could not elect people to Congress until they passed the 14th Amendment15th Amendment passed taking away state power to control voting, but not enforced
19 Reconstructing the South Scalawags (Union sympathizers) and carpetbaggers (Northerners) despisedcarpetbaggers was the term southerners gave to northerners who moved to the South during the Reconstruction era, between 1865 and 1877.They formed a coalition with freedmen (freed slaves), and scalawags (southern whites who supported Reconstruction) in the Republican Party.Together they politically controlled former Confederate states for varying periods, 1867–1877.
20 Reconstructing the South Carpetbag GovernmentThe Radicals in Power reduce Presidential powerChallenging the Tenure Law Pres. Johnson twice fired Edwin Stanton a supporter of RadicalsJohnson Impeached May 16, 1868 Senate voted 35 to 19 to convict Pres, one vote shyThe 1868 Election General Grant won as a Radical Republican to become new President
22 Restoring Southern Power Opponents of Reconstruction set up secret societies (e.g. KKK) wore out RadicalsThe Compromise of 1877Electoral Commission disputed Pres vote in 1876 given to Republican candidate HayesReaching an Agreement Democrats outraged so Republicans promised South power, funds and removal of federal troops
23 Restoring Southern Power After ReconstructionSegregation separation of races made legal by Supreme Court ruling Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional Jim Crow laws followThe “New South” industrialization with Northern financing brought railroads, factoriesFew Gains for African Americans temporary gains soon gone with economic slavery
24 ConclusionCivil War devastated the South but in the long run the abolition of slavery helped the South to industrialize and diversify its economyUnfortunately it would take another 100 years for African Americans to gain political and economic equality