Presentation on theme: "Adolescence and Adult Development Chapter 10 Part I"— Presentation transcript:
1Adolescence and Adult Development Chapter 10 Part I William G. HuittLast revised: May 2005
2Summary A human being is inherently motivated biological patterned developingbiologicalable to be conditionedsensing & perceivingemotionalintelligentknowledge creatingthink rationallylanguage usingsocial22
3Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Lifespan perspectiveThe view that changes happen throughout the lifespan and that interdisciplinary research is required to fully understand human developmentErikson’s psychosocial theoryProposed the only major theory of development to include the entire lifespanPsychosocial stagesErikson’s eight developmental stages through the lifespan are each defined by a conflict that must be resolved satisfactorily in order for healthy personality development to occur22
4Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson was a follower of Sigmund Freud who broke with his teacher over the fundamental point of what motivates or drives human behavior.For Freud it was biology or more specifically the biological instincts of life and aggression.For Erikson, the most important force driving human behavior and the development of personality was social interaction.
5Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Erikson left his native Germany in the 1930's and immigrated to America where he studied Native American traditions of human development and continued his work as a psychoanalyst.
6Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Erikson’s view was that the social environment combined with biological maturation provides each individual with a set of “crises” that must be resolved.The individual is provided with a "sensitive period" in which to successfully resolve each crisis before a new crisis is presented.The results of the resolution, whether successful or not, are carried forward to the next crisis and provide the foundation for its resolution.
7Erikson’s Eight Stages Child develops a belief that the environment can be counted on to meet his or her basic physiological and social needs.Trust vs. MistrustInfancy
8Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Erikson’s Eight StagesChild learns what he/she can control and develops a sense of free will and corresponding sense of regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of self-control.Autonomy vs. Shame & DoubtToddlerhood
9Erikson’s Eight Stages Child learns to begin action, to explore, to imagine as well as feeling remorse for actions.Initiative vs. GuiltEarly Childhood
10Industry vs. Inferiority Erikson’s Eight StagesChild learns to do things well or correctly in comparison to a standard or to othersIndustry vs. InferiorityMiddle Childhood
11Identity vs. Role Confusion Erikson’s Eight StagesDevelops a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desiressocial identitypersonal identityIdentity vs. Role ConfusionAdolescence
12Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops ability to give and receive love; begins to make long-term commitment to relationshipsIntimacy vs. IsolationYoung Adulthood
13Generativity vs. Stagnation Erikson’s Eight StagesDevelops interest in guiding the development of the next generationGenerativity vs. StagnationMiddle Adulthood
14Ego-integrity vs. Despair Erikson’s Eight StagesDevelops a sense of acceptance of life as it was lived and the importance of the people and relationships that individual developed over the lifespanEgo-integrity vs. DespairLater Adulthood
15Bingham & Stryker’s Theory A major criticism of Erikson’s theory is that it is based primarily on work done with boys and men.Bingham and Stryker (1995) suggest that development of identity, intimacy and generativity may receive different emphases throughout adulthood for men and women.Bingham, M., & Stryker, S. (1995). Things will be different for my daughter: A practical guide to building her self-esteem and self-reliance. New York: Penguin Books.
16Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Bingham and Stiker propose five stages of socioemotional development for girls and women that parallels those proposed by Erikson, but places different emphases at important sensitive time periods.
17Developing the Hardy Personality Bingham & Stryker’s TheoryFeel in control of own life, committed to specific activities, look forward to challenge and opportunity for growthDeveloping the Hardy PersonalityThrough age 8
18A Hardy PersonalitySuzanne Kobasa Ouellette, a professor at the City University of New York suggests that a hardy personality is based on three C's:control,commitment, andchallenge.
19A Hardy PersonalityOuellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills:Recognize and tolerate anxiety and act anyway;Separate fantasy from reality and tackle reality;Set goals and establish priorities;
20A Hardy PersonalityOuellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills:Project into the future and understand how today's choices affect the future;Discriminate and make choices consistent with goals and values;Set boundaries and limits.
21A Hardy PersonalityOuellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills:Ask assertively for wants and desires;Trust self and own perceptions.
22Form Identity as an Achiever Bingham & Stryker’s TheoryDevelop steady, durable core of self as person who is capable of accomplishment in a variety of areas (e.g., intellectual, physical, social, potential career)Form Identity as an AchieverAge 9-12
23Skill Building for Self-Esteem Bingham & Stryker’s TheoryFeeling of being worthy, deserving, entitled to assert needs and wants; confidence in ability to cope with lifeSkill Building for Self-EsteemAge 13-16
24Strategies for Self-Sufficiency (Emotional-Financial) Bingham & Stryker’s TheorySense of responsibility for taking care of herself and, perhaps, a family; based on a sense of autonomyStrategies for Self-Sufficiency (Emotional-Financial)Age 17-22
25Satisfaction in Work and Love Bingham & Stryker’s TheoryContentedness in personal accomplishments and social/personal relationshipsSatisfaction in Work and LoveAdulthood
26Theories ComparedThe competencies for developing a “hardy personality” seem to be very similar to the to the “outcomes of a satisfactory resolution” of the first three crises proposed by Erikson:Trust vs. MistrustAutonomy vs. Shame & DoubtInitiative vs. Guilt
27Theories ComparedWhat may be different is that these are not the traditional desired outcomes of infancy and early childhood for girls.Rather there may be a tendency to socialize girls to be more acquiescent and dependent, which is to their detriment in terms of further development.
28Theories ComparedErikson’s stage of “Industry vs. Inferiority” seems to be essentially equivalent to Bingham and Stryker’s “Form Identity as an Achiever.”For boys, there may be more of an opportunity to address the issue of any deficiencies in a sense of accomplishment within the stage of identity formation.
29Theories ComparedHowever, it is likely that if girls have not successfully developed a sense of accomplishment during middle and late childhood, it may be a decade or more before there is an opportunity to again tackle this issue.This is because as girls attend to the issue of identity, their natural attention to relationships produces a different pathway for identity development .
30Self-EsteemAnother issue is the drop in self-esteem that occurs naturally as a part of adolescence in modern society.The importance of self-esteem for girls in the adolescent years cannot be overemphasized.
31Self-EsteemA study by the American Association of University Women (AAUW, 1991) showed that girls had a precipitous drop in self-esteem between elementary and high school.While boys also showed a decline it was not nearly as dramatic.
32Self-EsteemPercentage Responding Positively to the statement "I am happy the way I am"High %Elementary School DecreaseBoysEuropean-Am GirlsAfrican-Am GirlsHispanic-Am Girls
33Theories ComparedA major difference between the Erikson and Bingham-Stryker models occurs in the stages of adulthood.In Erikson's model the crisis of young adulthood is intimacy versus isolation.In the Bingham-Stryker model the crisis is emotional and financial self-sufficiency.
34Theories Compared The difference may lie in gender expectations. Men are expected to become self-sufficient; the male crisis is one of establishing intimacy.Women are expected to establish relationships; the female crisis is autonomy in terms of taking care of themselves emotionally and financially.
35Theories ComparedSimilar differences exist in middle and older adulthood.Erikson considers two separate crises: Generativity and Ego Integrity.Bingham and Stryker hypothesize one crisis for adult women: Satisfaction in Work and Love
36AdolescenceThe developmental stage that begins at puberty and encompasses the period from the end of childhood to the beginning of adulthoodPubertyPhysical changes of pubertyPuberty begins with a surge in hormone production, which, in turn, causes a number of physical changesCognitive changesPotential for moving into Formal Operational Thought22
37Moral Development Kohlberg’s (1984) theory Kohlberg, L. (1984). The psychology of moral development. San Francisco: Harper & Row.Believed moral reasoning closely related to cognitive development and evolves in stagesStudied moral development by presenting a series of moral dilemmas to male participants from the United States and other countriesFocused primarily on moral values, such as fairness, justice, equity, and human dignity
39Moral Development Research on Kohlberg’s theory Miller and Bersoff Found great differences between the Indian and the United States’ cultures on postconventional moral reasoning commonIndia—stressed interpersonal responsibilities over obligations to further justiceAmericans—emphasized a personal or rights-oriented view over responsibilities to others22
40Moral Development Gilligan’s (1982) theory Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Critiqued Kohlberg’s work in terms of moral development of girls and womenRelationships and the morality of care
42Moral Development Gilligan’s (1982) theory Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Critiqued Kohlberg’s work in terms of moral development of girls and womenRelationships and the morality of careEquivocal empirical supportQualitative analysis versus a priori classification system
43Parental Relationships Adolescents with permissive parentsmore likely to use alcohol and drugsmore likely to have conduct problemsless likely to be engaged in schoolSteinberg suggested authoritarian parenting tied to parents’ strong belief that the child’s accomplishments are attributable tohis own effortsthose of his family22
44Parental Relationships Parents may adopt an authoritarian approach when child’s peer values and norms do not support academic pursuitsFirm behavioral control exhibited by parents helps to counteract the effects of peers who engage in deviant behavior22
45Peer GroupInteractions with peers are critical while young people are fashioning their identitiesTeens tend to associate with peers who have same values and behavior patternsWhen parents adapt their approaches to parenting based on a teenager’s behavior and his or her peer associations, parental influence can counteract the negative effects of deviant peers22
46Teen Pregnancy Risk factors for teen parenthood poverty poor school performancedrug useearly datingearly sexual activitymultiple sex partnerspeer rejectionaggressive behaviordelinquency22
47Teen Pregnancy Risk factors for teen parenthood Boys who grow up without a father in the home are more likely to impregnate a girlMany teenage girls are eager to take on the mother role and appear to be quite committed to being good parents22
48Teen Pregnancy Consequences for mother and child A higher proportion of pregnant teens than older mothers come from poor backgrounds; they are less likely to receive early prenatal medical care and adequate nutritionAs a result, pregnant teenagers are at higher risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and complications during deliveryAmong young women who give birth before age 18 and choose to keep their babies, half never complete high schoolPrograms to help mothers stay in school and to learn how to take care of their babies do make a difference22
49Teen Pregnancy Consequences for teen fathers By age 20, about 12 percent of participants had become fathers, some as early as age 14Becoming a teen father was associated with a large increase in delinquent behavior in the year following the baby’s birthSchool drop-out rates were also dramatically higher for teen fathers22