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Adolescence and Adult Development Chapter 10 Part I

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1 Adolescence and Adult Development Chapter 10 Part I
William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005

2 Summary A human being is inherently motivated biological patterned
developing biological able to be conditioned sensing & perceiving emotional intelligent knowledge creating think rationally language using social 2 2

3 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
Lifespan perspective The view that changes happen throughout the lifespan and that interdisciplinary research is required to fully understand human development Erikson’s psychosocial theory Proposed the only major theory of development to include the entire lifespan Psychosocial stages Erikson’s eight developmental stages through the lifespan are each defined by a conflict that must be resolved satisfactorily in order for healthy personality development to occur 2 2

4 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
Erik Erikson was a follower of Sigmund Freud who broke with his teacher over the fundamental point of what motivates or drives human behavior. For Freud it was biology or more specifically the biological instincts of life and aggression. For Erikson, the most important force driving human behavior and the development of personality was social interaction.

5 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
Erikson left his native Germany in the 1930's and immigrated to America where he studied Native American traditions of human development and continued his work as a psychoanalyst.

6 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
Erikson’s view was that the social environment combined with biological maturation provides each individual with a set of “crises” that must be resolved. The individual is provided with a "sensitive period" in which to successfully resolve each crisis before a new crisis is presented. The results of the resolution, whether successful or not, are carried forward to the next crisis and provide the foundation for its resolution.

7 Erikson’s Eight Stages
Child develops a belief that the environment can be counted on to meet his or her basic physiological and social needs. Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy

8 Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
Erikson’s Eight Stages Child learns what he/she can control and develops a sense of free will and corresponding sense of regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of self-control. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Toddlerhood

9 Erikson’s Eight Stages
Child learns to begin action, to explore, to imagine as well as feeling remorse for actions. Initiative vs. Guilt Early Childhood

10 Industry vs. Inferiority
Erikson’s Eight Stages Child learns to do things well or correctly in comparison to a standard or to others Industry vs. Inferiority Middle Childhood

11 Identity vs. Role Confusion
Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desires social identity personal identity Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence

12 Erikson’s Eight Stages
Develops ability to give and receive love; begins to make long-term commitment to relationships Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adulthood

13 Generativity vs. Stagnation
Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops interest in guiding the development of the next generation Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood

14 Ego-integrity vs. Despair
Erikson’s Eight Stages Develops a sense of acceptance of life as it was lived and the importance of the people and relationships that individual developed over the lifespan Ego-integrity vs. Despair Later Adulthood

15 Bingham & Stryker’s Theory
A major criticism of Erikson’s theory is that it is based primarily on work done with boys and men. Bingham and Stryker (1995) suggest that development of identity, intimacy and generativity may receive different emphases throughout adulthood for men and women. Bingham, M., & Stryker, S. (1995). Things will be different for my daughter: A practical guide to building her self-esteem and self-reliance. New York: Penguin Books.

16 Bingham & Stryker’s Theory
Bingham and Stiker propose five stages of socioemotional development for girls and women that parallels those proposed by Erikson, but places different emphases at important sensitive time periods.

17 Developing the Hardy Personality
Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Feel in control of own life, committed to specific activities, look forward to challenge and opportunity for growth Developing the Hardy Personality Through age 8

18 A Hardy Personality Suzanne Kobasa Ouellette, a professor at the City University of New York suggests that a hardy personality is based on three C's: control, commitment, and challenge.

19 A Hardy Personality Ouellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills: Recognize and tolerate anxiety and act anyway; Separate fantasy from reality and tackle reality; Set goals and establish priorities;

20 A Hardy Personality Ouellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills: Project into the future and understand how today's choices affect the future; Discriminate and make choices consistent with goals and values; Set boundaries and limits.

21 A Hardy Personality Ouellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills: Ask assertively for wants and desires; Trust self and own perceptions.

22 Form Identity as an Achiever
Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Develop steady, durable core of self as person who is capable of accomplishment in a variety of areas (e.g., intellectual, physical, social, potential career) Form Identity as an Achiever Age 9-12

23 Skill Building for Self-Esteem
Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Feeling of being worthy, deserving, entitled to assert needs and wants; confidence in ability to cope with life Skill Building for Self-Esteem Age 13-16

24 Strategies for Self-Sufficiency (Emotional-Financial)
Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Sense of responsibility for taking care of herself and, perhaps, a family; based on a sense of autonomy Strategies for Self-Sufficiency (Emotional-Financial) Age 17-22

25 Satisfaction in Work and Love
Bingham & Stryker’s Theory Contentedness in personal accomplishments and social/personal relationships Satisfaction in Work and Love Adulthood

26 Theories Compared The competencies for developing a “hardy personality” seem to be very similar to the to the “outcomes of a satisfactory resolution” of the first three crises proposed by Erikson: Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt

27 Theories Compared What may be different is that these are not the traditional desired outcomes of infancy and early childhood for girls. Rather there may be a tendency to socialize girls to be more acquiescent and dependent, which is to their detriment in terms of further development.

28 Theories Compared Erikson’s stage of “Industry vs. Inferiority” seems to be essentially equivalent to Bingham and Stryker’s “Form Identity as an Achiever.” For boys, there may be more of an opportunity to address the issue of any deficiencies in a sense of accomplishment within the stage of identity formation.

29 Theories Compared However, it is likely that if girls have not successfully developed a sense of accomplishment during middle and late childhood, it may be a decade or more before there is an opportunity to again tackle this issue. This is because as girls attend to the issue of identity, their natural attention to relationships produces a different pathway for identity development .

30 Self-Esteem Another issue is the drop in self-esteem that occurs naturally as a part of adolescence in modern society. The importance of self-esteem for girls in the adolescent years cannot be overemphasized.

31 Self-Esteem A study by the American Association of University Women (AAUW, 1991) showed that girls had a precipitous drop in self-esteem between elementary and high school. While boys also showed a decline it was not nearly as dramatic.

32 Self-Esteem Percentage Responding Positively to the statement "I am happy the way I am" High % Elementary School Decrease Boys European-Am Girls African-Am Girls Hispanic-Am Girls

33 Theories Compared A major difference between the Erikson and Bingham-Stryker models occurs in the stages of adulthood. In Erikson's model the crisis of young adulthood is intimacy versus isolation. In the Bingham-Stryker model the crisis is emotional and financial self-sufficiency.

34 Theories Compared The difference may lie in gender expectations.
Men are expected to become self-sufficient; the male crisis is one of establishing intimacy. Women are expected to establish relationships; the female crisis is autonomy in terms of taking care of themselves emotionally and financially.

35 Theories Compared Similar differences exist in middle and older adulthood. Erikson considers two separate crises: Generativity and Ego Integrity. Bingham and Stryker hypothesize one crisis for adult women: Satisfaction in Work and Love

36 Adolescence The developmental stage that begins at puberty and encompasses the period from the end of childhood to the beginning of adulthood Puberty Physical changes of puberty Puberty begins with a surge in hormone production, which, in turn, causes a number of physical changes Cognitive changes Potential for moving into Formal Operational Thought 2 2

37 Moral Development Kohlberg’s (1984) theory
Kohlberg, L. (1984). The psychology of moral development. San Francisco: Harper & Row. Believed moral reasoning closely related to cognitive development and evolves in stages Studied moral development by presenting a series of moral dilemmas to male participants from the United States and other countries Focused primarily on moral values, such as fairness, justice, equity, and human dignity

38 Moral Development

39 Moral Development Research on Kohlberg’s theory Miller and Bersoff
Found great differences between the Indian and the United States’ cultures on postconventional moral reasoning common India—stressed interpersonal responsibilities over obligations to further justice Americans—emphasized a personal or rights-oriented view over responsibilities to others 2 2

40 Moral Development Gilligan’s (1982) theory
Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Critiqued Kohlberg’s work in terms of moral development of girls and women Relationships and the morality of care

41 Moral Development

42 Moral Development Gilligan’s (1982) theory
Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Critiqued Kohlberg’s work in terms of moral development of girls and women Relationships and the morality of care Equivocal empirical support Qualitative analysis versus a priori classification system

43 Parental Relationships
Adolescents with permissive parents more likely to use alcohol and drugs more likely to have conduct problems less likely to be engaged in school Steinberg suggested authoritarian parenting tied to parents’ strong belief that the child’s accomplishments are attributable to his own efforts those of his family 2 2

44 Parental Relationships
Parents may adopt an authoritarian approach when child’s peer values and norms do not support academic pursuits Firm behavioral control exhibited by parents helps to counteract the effects of peers who engage in deviant behavior 2 2

45 Peer Group Interactions with peers are critical while young people are fashioning their identities Teens tend to associate with peers who have same values and behavior patterns When parents adapt their approaches to parenting based on a teenager’s behavior and his or her peer associations, parental influence can counteract the negative effects of deviant peers 2 2

46 Teen Pregnancy Risk factors for teen parenthood poverty
poor school performance drug use early dating early sexual activity multiple sex partners peer rejection aggressive behavior delinquency 2 2

47 Teen Pregnancy Risk factors for teen parenthood
Boys who grow up without a father in the home are more likely to impregnate a girl Many teenage girls are eager to take on the mother role and appear to be quite committed to being good parents 2 2

48 Teen Pregnancy Consequences for mother and child
A higher proportion of pregnant teens than older mothers come from poor backgrounds; they are less likely to receive early prenatal medical care and adequate nutrition As a result, pregnant teenagers are at higher risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and complications during delivery Among young women who give birth before age 18 and choose to keep their babies, half never complete high school Programs to help mothers stay in school and to learn how to take care of their babies do make a difference 2 2

49 Teen Pregnancy Consequences for teen fathers
By age 20, about 12 percent of participants had become fathers, some as early as age 14 Becoming a teen father was associated with a large increase in delinquent behavior in the year following the baby’s birth School drop-out rates were also dramatically higher for teen fathers 2 2

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