Presentation on theme: "Adolescence and Adult Development Chapter 10 Part I William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005."— Presentation transcript:
Adolescence and Adult Development Chapter 10 Part I William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005
Summary –biological –able to be conditioned –sensing & perceiving –emotional –intelligent –knowledge creating –think rationally –language using –social A human being is inherently –motivated –patterned –developing
Lifespan perspective –The view that changes happen throughout the lifespan and that interdisciplinary research is required to fully understand human development Eriksons psychosocial theory –Proposed the only major theory of development to include the entire lifespan –Psychosocial stages Eriksons eight developmental stages through the lifespan are each defined by a conflict that must be resolved satisfactorily in order for healthy personality development to occur Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
Erik Erikson was a follower of Sigmund Freud who broke with his teacher over the fundamental point of what motivates or drives human behavior. For Freud it was biology or more specifically the biological instincts of life and aggression. For Erikson, the most important force driving human behavior and the development of personality was social interaction.
Erikson left his native Germany in the 1930's and immigrated to America where he studied Native American traditions of human development and continued his work as a psychoanalyst. Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
Eriksons view was that the social environment combined with biological maturation provides each individual with a set of crises that must be resolved. The individual is provided with a "sensitive period" in which to successfully resolve each crisis before a new crisis is presented. Eriksons Psychosocial Theory The results of the resolution, whether successful or not, are carried forward to the next crisis and provide the foundation for its resolution.
Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy Child develops a belief that the environment can be counted on to meet his or her basic physiological and social needs. Eriksons Eight Stages
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Toddlerhood Child learns what he/she can control and develops a sense of free will and corresponding sense of regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of self-control. Eriksons Eight Stages
Initiative vs. Guilt Early Childhood Child learns to begin action, to explore, to imagine as well as feeling remorse for actions. Eriksons Eight Stages
Industry vs. Inferiority Middle Childhood Child learns to do things well or correctly in comparison to a standard or to others Eriksons Eight Stages
Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence Develops a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desires social identity personal identity Eriksons Eight Stages
Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adulthood Develops ability to give and receive love; begins to make long-term commitment to relationships Eriksons Eight Stages
Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood Develops interest in guiding the development of the next generation Eriksons Eight Stages
Ego- integrity vs. Despair Later Adulthood Develops a sense of acceptance of life as it was lived and the importance of the people and relationships that individual developed over the lifespan Eriksons Eight Stages
Bingham & Strykers Theory A major criticism of Eriksons theory is that it is based primarily on work done with boys and men. Bingham and Stryker (1995) suggest that development of identity, intimacy and generativity may receive different emphases throughout adulthood for men and women. Bingham, M., & Stryker, S. (1995). Things will be different for my daughter: A practical guide to building her self-esteem and self-reliance. New York: Penguin Books.
Bingham and Stiker propose five stages of socioemotional development for girls and women that parallels those proposed by Erikson, but places different emphases at important sensitive time periods. Bingham & Strykers Theory
Developing the Hardy Personality Through age 8 Feel in control of own life, committed to specific activities, look forward to challenge and opportunity for growth Bingham & Strykers Theory
A Hardy Personality Suzanne Kobasa Ouellette, a professor at the City University of New York suggests that a hardy personality is based on three C's: – control, – commitment, and – challenge.
Ouellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills: –Recognize and tolerate anxiety and act anyway; –Separate fantasy from reality and tackle reality; –Set goals and establish priorities; A Hardy Personality
–Project into the future and understand how today's choices affect the future; –Discriminate and make choices consistent with goals and values; –Set boundaries and limits. Ouellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills:
A Hardy Personality Ouellette proposes that these can be developed through the acquisition of eight specific skills: –Ask assertively for wants and desires; –Trust self and own perceptions.
Form Identity as an Achiever Age 9-12 Develop steady, durable core of self as person who is capable of accomplishment in a variety of areas (e.g., intellectual, physical, social, potential career) Bingham & Strykers Theory
Skill Building for Self- Esteem Age Feeling of being worthy, deserving, entitled to assert needs and wants; confidence in ability to cope with life Bingham & Strykers Theory
Strategies for Self- Sufficiency (Emotional- Financial) Age Sense of responsibility for taking care of herself and, perhaps, a family; based on a sense of autonomy Bingham & Strykers Theory
Satisfaction in Work and Love Adulthood Contentedness in personal accomplishments and social/personal relationships Bingham & Strykers Theory
Theories Compared The competencies for developing a hardy personality seem to be very similar to the to the outcomes of a satisfactory resolution of the first three crises proposed by Erikson: – Trust vs. Mistrust – Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt – Initiative vs. Guilt
Theories Compared What may be different is that these are not the traditional desired outcomes of infancy and early childhood for girls. Rather there may be a tendency to socialize girls to be more acquiescent and dependent, which is to their detriment in terms of further development.
Theories Compared Eriksons stage of Industry vs. Inferiority seems to be essentially equivalent to Bingham and Strykers Form Identity as an Achiever. For boys, there may be more of an opportunity to address the issue of any deficiencies in a sense of accomplishment within the stage of identity formation.
Theories Compared However, it is likely that if girls have not successfully developed a sense of accomplishment during middle and late childhood, it may be a decade or more before there is an opportunity to again tackle this issue. This is because as girls attend to the issue of identity, their natural attention to relationships produces a different pathway for identity development.
Self-Esteem Another issue is the drop in self-esteem that occurs naturally as a part of adolescence in modern society. The importance of self-esteem for girls in the adolescent years cannot be overemphasized.
Self-Esteem A study by the American Association of University Women (AAUW, 1991) showed that girls had a precipitous drop in self-esteem between elementary and high school. While boys also showed a decline it was not nearly as dramatic.
Self-Esteem Percentage Responding Positively to the statement "I am happy the way I am" High % Elementary SchoolDecrease Boys European-Am Girls African-Am Girls Hispanic-Am Girls
Theories Compared A major difference between the Erikson and Bingham-Stryker models occurs in the stages of adulthood. –In Erikson's model the crisis of young adulthood is intimacy versus isolation. –In the Bingham-Stryker model the crisis is emotional and financial self-sufficiency.
Theories Compared The difference may lie in gender expectations. Men are expected to become self-sufficient; the male crisis is one of establishing intimacy. Women are expected to establish relationships; the female crisis is autonomy in terms of taking care of themselves emotionally and financially.
Theories Compared Similar differences exist in middle and older adulthood. –Erikson considers two separate crises: Generativity and Ego Integrity. –Bingham and Stryker hypothesize one crisis for adult women: Satisfaction in Work and Love
Adolescence The developmental stage that begins at puberty and encompasses the period from the end of childhood to the beginning of adulthood Puberty –Physical changes of puberty Puberty begins with a surge in hormone production, which, in turn, causes a number of physical changes –Cognitive changes Potential for moving into Formal Operational Thought
Kohlbergs (1984) theory Kohlberg, L. (1984). The psychology of moral development. San Francisco: Harper & Row. –Believed moral reasoning closely related to cognitive development and evolves in stages –Studied moral development by presenting a series of moral dilemmas to male participants from the United States and other countries –Focused primarily on moral values, such as fairness, justice, equity, and human dignity Moral Development
Research on Kohlbergs theory –Miller and Bersoff Found great differences between the Indian and the United States cultures on postconventional moral reasoning common Indiastressed interpersonal responsibilities over obligations to further justice Americansemphasized a personal or rights- oriented view over responsibilities to others Moral Development
Gilligans (1982) theory Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. – Critiqued Kohlbergs work in terms of moral development of girls and women – Relationships and the morality of care Moral Development
Gilligans (1982) theory Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. – Critiqued Kohlbergs work in terms of moral development of girls and women – Relationships and the morality of care Moral Development –Equivocal empirical support –Qualitative analysis versus a priori classification system
Parental Relationships Adolescents with permissive parents –more likely to use alcohol and drugs –more likely to have conduct problems –less likely to be engaged in school Steinberg suggested authoritarian parenting tied to parents strong belief that the childs accomplishments are attributable to –his own efforts –those of his family
Parents may adopt an authoritarian approach when childs peer values and norms do not support academic pursuits –Firm behavioral control exhibited by parents helps to counteract the effects of peers who engage in deviant behavior Parental Relationships
Peer Group Interactions with peers are critical while young people are fashioning their identities Teens tend to associate with peers who have same values and behavior patterns When parents adapt their approaches to parenting based on a teenagers behavior and his or her peer associations, parental influence can counteract the negative effects of deviant peers
Teen Pregnancy Risk factors for teen parenthood –poverty –poor school performance –drug use –early dating –early sexual activity –multiple sex partners –peer rejection –aggressive behavior –delinquency
Teen Pregnancy Risk factors for teen parenthood –Boys who grow up without a father in the home are more likely to impregnate a girl –Many teenage girls are eager to take on the mother role and appear to be quite committed to being good parents
Teen Pregnancy Consequences for mother and child –A higher proportion of pregnant teens than older mothers come from poor backgrounds; they are less likely to receive early prenatal medical care and adequate nutrition –As a result, pregnant teenagers are at higher risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and complications during delivery –Among young women who give birth before age 18 and choose to keep their babies, half never complete high school –Programs to help mothers stay in school and to learn how to take care of their babies do make a difference
Teen Pregnancy Consequences for teen fathers –By age 20, about 12 percent of participants had become fathers, some as early as age 14 –Becoming a teen father was associated with a large increase in delinquent behavior in the year following the babys birth –School drop-out rates were also dramatically higher for teen fathers