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Child Development Chapter 9 Part I

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Presentation on theme: "Child Development Chapter 9 Part I"— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Development Chapter 9 Part I
William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005

2 Summary A human being is inherently motivated biological patterned
able to be conditioned sensing & perceiving emotional intelligent knowledge creating think rationally language using social 2 2

3 Basic Issues and Methodology
Developmental psychology The study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the life span Controversial issues Nature-nurture debate Characteristics and environmental variables interact so that the same environment can have different effects, depending on the characteristics of each child 2 2

4 Basic Issues and Methodology
Approaches to studying developmental change Cross-sectional study A type of developmental study in which researchers compare groups of participants of different ages on certain characteristics to determine age-related differences Longitudinal study A type of developmental study in which the same group of participants is followed and measured at different ages 2 2

5 Stages of Prenatal Development
Germinal stage The 2-week stage when the zygote travels to the uterus and attaches itself to the uterine wall; this is also when rapid cell division occurs Embryonic stage When the embryo develops all of the systems, organs, and structures of the body Lasts from the beginning of week 3 through week 8 Fetal stage Lasts from the end of week 8, when bone cells form, until birth Several studies of newborns have shown that they remember sounds to which they were exposed in utero 2 2

6 Prenatal Development Negative influences on prenatal development
Smoking and drinking alcohol Poor diet (especially protein in last trimester) Fetal alcohol syndrome A condition, caused by maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, in which the baby is born mentally retarded, with a small head and facial, organ, and behavioral abnormalities Drug addictions HIV/Aids Low birth weight A baby weighing less than 5.5 pounds 2 2

7 Infancy Reflexes and motor development
During the first few days after birth, neonates’ movements are dominated by reflexes Neonates Newborn infant up to 1 month old Reflexes Inborn, unlearned, automatic responses to certain environmental stimuli 2 2

8 Infancy Reflexes and motor development
Most motor milestones result from maturation Development also proceeds from the center of the body outward (proximal – distal) Experience may also accelerate motor development 2 2

9 Infancy 2 2

10 Infancy 2 2

11 Sensory and Perceptual Development
Vision Newborns focus best on objects about 9 inches away, and they can follow a slowly moving object By 2 to 3 months of age, most infants prefer human faces to other visual images Depth perception After children beginning crawling, become aware of depth Hearing and other senses At birth, the newborn’s hearing is much better developed than her vision Newborns also prefer their own mother’s voice to that of an unfamiliar female 2 2

12 Learning Habituation Memory
A decrease in response or attention to a stimulus as an infant becomes accustomed to it Major technique in studying infant learning Memory 3-day-old newborns could retain in memory for 24 hours a speech sound that had been presented repeatedly the day before 2 2

13 Attachment The strong affectionate bond a child forms with the mother or primary caregiver Harry Harlow’s study of infant monkeys Studies suggested that physical nourishment alone is not enough to bind infants to their primary caregivers Found that it was contact comfort – the comfort supplied by bodily contact – rather than nourishment that formed the basis of the infant monkey’s attachment to its mother 2 2

14 Attachment Development of attachment in humans John Bowlby
The primary caregiver holds, strokes, and talks to the baby and responds to the baby’s needs In turn, the baby gazes at, listens to, and moves in synchrony with the caregiver’s voice John Bowlby Believes that attachment behavior serves the evolutionary function of protecting the infant from danger 2 2

15 Attachment Separation anxiety Stranger anxiety
The fear and distress shown by toddlers when their parent leaves, occurring from 8 to 24 months and reaching a peak between 12 and 18 months Stranger anxiety A fear of strangers common in infants at about 6 months and increasing in intensity until about 12 months, and then declining in the second year 2 2

16 Attachment Ainsworth’s attachment categories
Identified four patterns of attachment: Secure Avoidant Resistant Disorganized/disoriented Secure attachment is the most common pattern across cultures 2 2

17 Father-Child Relationship
Children who experience regular interaction with their fathers tend to have higher IQs do better in social situations and at coping with frustration Sons display positive parenting when they have children of their own Children whose fathers exhibit antisocial behavior, such as deceitfulness and aggression, are more likely to demonstrate such behavior themselves 2 2

18 Father-Child Relationship
Father absence is also related to children’s reduced self-confidence in problem solving low self-esteem depression suicidal thoughts behavioral problems such as aggression and delinquency early sexual behavior for girls and teen pregnancy 2 2

19 Father-Child Relationship
Mothers are more likely to cushion their children against overstimulation Fathers more likely to engage in stimulating activity When the mother and father have a good relationship, fathers tend to spend more time with and interact more with their children 2 2

20 Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development
The oral stage (birth to 1 year) The mouth is the primary source of an infant’s sensual pleasure Freud claimed that difficulties at the oral stage can result in personality traits such as either excessive dependence, optimism, and gullibility or extreme pessimism, sarcasm, hostility, and aggression The anal stage (1 to 3 years) During the anal stage, children derive sensual pleasure, Freud believed, from expelling and withholding feces 2 2

21 Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development
The phallic stage (3 to 5 or 6 years) During the phallic stage, children learn that they can derive pleasure from touching their genitals The latency period (5 or 6 years to puberty) The sex instinct is repressed and temporarily sublimated in school and play activities, hobbies, and sports The genital stage (from puberty on) In the genital stage, the focus of sexual energy gradually shifts to the opposite sex for the vast majority of people 2 2

22 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
The process of cognitive development Schemes An cognitive action plan to be used in a specific circumstance Equilibration The process of keeping schemes in balance with the environment 2 2

23 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
The process of cognitive development Adaptation The process of modifying perceptions or cognitive schemes in order to attain equilibrium with the demands of the environment Assimilation The process by which new objects, events, experiences, or information are incorporated into existing schemes Accommodation The process by which existing schemes are modified and new schemes are created to incorporate new objects, events, experiences, or information 2 2

24 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
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25 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
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26 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
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27 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
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28 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
An evaluation of Piaget’s contribution Piaget relied on observation and on the interview technique, which depended on verbal responses Newer techniques requiring nonverbal responses have shown that infants and young children are more competent than Piaget proposed Few developmental psychologists believe that cognitive development takes place in the general stage-like fashion proposed by Piaget Another criticism comes from research showing that formal operational thought is not universal 2 2

29 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural View
Believed language-based spontaneous behaviors exhibited by children were important to the process of cognitive development Infants have innate capacities perception ability to pay attention capacities of memory Believed that talking to oneself – private speech – is a key component in cognitive development Saw a strong connection among social experience speech cognitive development 2 2

30 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural View
Zone of proximal development range of cognitive tasks that the child cannot yet perform alone but can learn to perform with the instruction, help, and guidance of a parent, teacher, or more advanced peer 2 2

31 Information-Processing Approach
Processing speed Robert Kail Found that information-processing speed increases dramatically as children move from infancy through childhood Increased processing speed is associated with improved memory 2 2

32 Information-Processing Approach
Memory Short-term memory develops dramatically during an infant’s first year Children use strategies for improving memory increasingly as they mature cognitively One universal strategy for holding information in short-term memory is rehearsal Organization is a very practical strategy for storing information in such a way that it can be retrieved without difficulty 2 2

33 Information-Processing Approach
Theory of mind A fundamental developmental task for children is coming to understand how people may differ greatly in what they know and what they believe Reaching a level of cognitive maturity in which an individual is aware of his or her own thoughts and has an understanding about their nature of thought involves acquiring what is referred to as a theory of mind Metacognition—the process of thinking about how you or others think 2 2


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