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Industrial Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "Industrial Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrial Revolution

2 7-3 Explain how the Industrial Revolution caused economic, cultural, and political changes around the world. Objective: identify why England was the ideal place to start factories and explain why it started in England.

3 What is it? A change from making goods by hand at home to having factories with machines making goods.

4 Causes: Agricultural Revolution: small farms turned into large more productive farms. In the late 1700’s, early advancements were made in technology and machinery. The Industrial Revolution caused major economic, cultural and political changes. 1) Enclosure Movement: landowners fenced off their land and whole areas could grow the same crop.

5 Enclosure Movement Info
In the middle ages, Nobles owned the land and serfs lived on it. (Review from 6th grade) The rich still own the land, and are forced to rent it to the poor by law The poor just practiced subsistence or tenant farming, called cottage system If not tenant farming, people would move to the cities.

6 Large farms Parliament made a new law that the rich could fence off their land and do with it what they wanted. All those small time subsistence farmers get kicked out. The land owners convert their lands into giant farms that create a surplus of food and material.

7 Before and After

8 Crop Rotation 2) Crop Rotation: Farmers using different crops on the same soil to replenish the nutrients Ex. Tobacco, Cotton, Soy Beans, fallow More food was grown= better nutrition= more people

9 Technology 3) Advanced Agricultural Technology Ex. Cotton gin
The Agricultural Revolution led to an increase in population, which forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or move to the cities.

10 Where the I.R. Began and WHY: Great Britain (England)
Great Britain: starts the Industrial Revolution because they had the right mixture of: -Plentiful Natural Resources (like coal) -Rivers and Harbors -Experienced entrepreneurs (businessmen) -Rising Population -Political Stability (no revolutions) -Increased world trade -Economic prosperity and growth (right time to make money)

11 Reflect: did we learn the objective?
Objective: identify why England was an ideal place to start factories and explain why it started in England.

12 Exit Question Why did the Industrial Revolution start in England? A. England has lots of natural rivers B. England had lots of people who spoke English C. England was politically unstable

13 Standard and Objective
7-3 Explain the causes and course of the Industrial Revolution, including rural-to-urban migration. Objective: TSWBAT identify the impact of rural-to-urban migration.

14 Rural-to-Urban Migration:
The Agricultural Revolution led to increased population. This forced lots of people to move: from the country to the cities. Many cities doubled in population during the Industrial Revolution.

15 Country Life

16 City-Life How does this compare to country?

17 Why were they moving. How do you think this changed their lives
Why were they moving? How do you think this changed their lives? How did it change cities?

18 -began with the invention of machines
The Industrial Revolution was an economic revolution, and economic changes were widespread and still impact our world today. These changes led to cultural and political changes. ECONOMIC CHANGES: -began with the invention of machines -new textile machines for spinning and weaving that had previously been done by hand increased production of cloth goods. -modernization of the textile technology revolutionized industrialization. -the flying shuttle advanced textile production by doubling the amount of weaving a worker could do in one day.

19 The “spinning jenny” was added later and allowed a spinner to spin 8 threads at one time.

20 At first operated by hand, these machines were soon powered by the water frame.
-In 1779, the spinning mule was invented as a combination of the spinning jenny and water frame, and the mule produced a stronger product. In 1787, the water-powered loom increased the speed of weaving. - The cotton gin increased cotton production following its invention in 1793. - People now depended on large, expensive machines and factories were built to house all of these machines. - Factories were now being built near rivers and streams. -After the steam engine was invented (James Watts) factories began being built away from water sources and the steam engine became the new power source for machines. -Coal and iron were the main resources used to power and build the engines and machines.

21 Transportation and Productivity:
-improved with the development of the steam engine -the steam engine was used to power steamboats and locomotives, leading to the development of canals and railways for trade and transportation -The railroad boom created new jobs for railway workers and miners were needed to obtain coal to power the new engines -trade over long distances and travel for people became easier -the division of labor developed as individuals were assigned specific jobs/tasks which led to increased production of goods and increased output of manufactured goods -Mass production allowed goods to be produced for cheaper prices making them more affordable for the growing population. -workers spent long hours working in factories (14 hour days, 6 days a week) -working conditions were dangerous and often resulted in injury -More $ was earned in factories than on farms, leading to a large rural-to-urban migration

22 Rural-to-Urban Migration:
-led to social changes -the division of labor made clear the division between the worker and owner classes -many cities doubled in population during this time in history -because of low pay for workers and poor living conditions in cities were unregulated, housing conditions were poor and crowded without basic utilities such as running water -people lived in unsanitary conditions with pollution from factories -crime increased due to poverty and police protection was inadequate (The middle and upper classes, usually business owners or other professionals lived in nicer homes in the suburbs and were a reflection of the growing class divisions)

23 Political Changes: Further economic changes began due to the dangerous working conditions and growing class divisions which led to political changes Laissez-faire capitalism was the foundation of the industrial revolution in which all factors of production were privately owned with no govt. interference Capitalism was based on competition, supply and demand, and self-interest Supporters of capitalism opposed the creation of minimum wage laws and better working conditions because they thought it would upset the free market system and weaken the wealth Socialism at the time offered the working class more protection than capitalism did, and it promised to distribute the wealth according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, in the writing of The Communist Manifesto. Marx provided the fuel for future reforms and revolutions

24 In addition to socialism, labor unions and reform laws came about in the 1800’s to help correct the problems between social classes. Unions negotiated for better working conditions, higher pay, and shorter working hours, and they would strike if demands were not met. The unions were restricted at first, but over time achieved success. In the 1830’s, the British Parliament began regulating mine and factory conditions for women and children , bringing much needed reforms. Individual gaps in wealth were a problem and a global gap was also occurring. As industrialized nations gained power over non-industrialized nations, the industrial powers began looking to exploit weaker nations for resources and markets which led to Imperialism. Imperialism was born out of the industrial era.

25 Reflect: Objective: TSWBAT identify the impact of rural-to-urban migration.

26 Exit Question What was the impact of rural-to-urban migration? A. Lots of people moved from the city to the country B. Lots of people moved from the country to the city C. Most people stayed where they were from and didn’t move

27 Standard and Objective
7-3 Explain the causes and course of the Industrial Revolution, including the impact of the growth of population and the changes in the organization of work and labor. Objective: TSWBAT explain urbanization and capitalism during the Industrial Revolution

28 Thursday: Urbanization and Capitalism
1. Urbanization is the movement of people to cities and was part of the large rural-to-urban migration movement. Why would people move to the cities?

29 Factories Factories were built in existing cities or established towns near water sources. With the invention of machines, spinning and weaving previously done by individuals in the home were moved to the factories. Workers spent long hours in the factories, often 14 hours a day 6 days a week.

30 Pair-Share: What is this place?

31 Watch your hands! Working conditions were dangerous and often resulted in injury, from which the owner didn’t have to pay.

32 All for the money! Individuals could earn more in factories than on farms. Many cities doubled in population.

33 Who needs clean water? Living conditions in cities were unregulated, which led to: Poor housing conditions Not enough police protection Unsanitary conditions

34 Aren’t we squeaky clean?!

35 Factories created radically different lifestyles because hired individuals were assigned a specific task, leading to the division of labor.

36 Capitalism 1. Laws of competition 2. Supply and Demand
Capitalism is the foundation of the Industrial Revolution! And is based on: 1. Laws of competition 2. Supply and Demand 3. Self-interest

37 All for the money!!! This is an economic system where all factors of production were PRIVATELY owned and there was no government interference. Laissez-faire means ‘hands off’ aka government is not involved in business.

38 It’s good to be the owner
Many factories did very well and made a profit, which created an even bigger gap between the rich and the poor. Supporters of capitalism (factory owners) opposed the creation of minimum wage laws and better working conditions, because they believed it would upset the free-market system and reduce how much money was made.

39 Owner Letter (Model) Dear Mom,
My factory is going pretty well. Most of my workers work about 14 hours a day 6 days a week. I know they’re pretty tired, but man we are making tons of textiles. What used to take days to make clothing now takes hours. I love that I own my own business and can make my own decisions. I live in a nice lavish house far away from my workers with servants and fancy furniture. You should come visit sometime and I’ll take you on a tour!

40 Assignment: Factory Worker Letter
Imagine that you were a factory worker in England. Write a ¾ to 1 page letter home to a relative in the country and explain these things: 1. Why it’s crowded in cities 2. Living Conditions 3. Factory life 4. Gap between rich and poor 5. Why is there a factory owner (think capitalism) Each number is worth 20 points

41 Reflect: Did we learn our objective?
Objective: TSWBAT explain urbanization and capitalism during the Industrial Revolution

42 Exit Question How did capitalism and urbanization help the success of factories? A. The government begged country peasants to move to the cities. B. Private owners provided jobs for people who had moved from the country to the city C. It helped make factories safe and clean for workers.

43 Unhappy workers Over time, this led to the working class being oppressed more by the middle and upper class, and eventually gave way to the support to a whole new economic system: socialism.

44 Standard and Objective
7-3.5 Explain the impact of the new technology that emerged during the Industrial Revolution, including the changes that promoted the industrialization of textile production in England. Objective: identify major technologies and explain their impact during the Industrial Revolution.

45 Industrial Revolution
New Technologies during the Industrial Revolution

46 Cotton Gin Increased Production of cotton
Removed the seeds and burs 50X faster than one human Eli Whitney How does this change how cotton is picked?

47 Flying Shuttle Doubled the amount one person could weave
Was operated by hand John Kay

48 Spinning Jenny Improved Flying shuttle
8x the speed of the flying shuttle Could be operated by a water frame James Hargreaves How would this replace hand-made cloth?

49 Water Frame Used water to power spinning machines
Invented by Richard Arkwright

50 Steam Engine Replaces water power with steam power
factories no longer have to be on rivers Mobile power source… James Watt Watt- becomes the measure of energy How would this change factory locations?

51 Transportation Steam engines power steam boats and trains
Faster, more reliable transportation Building rail roads is a new job How would trains and steam engines impact the Industrial Revolution?

52 Station Rotation Model: Sample Station Question
Take out a half sheet of paper and number it 1-7 leaving a space between each number. Go around the room with you groups (TAKE YOUR NOTES) and answer the questions about the inventions. Answer together and discuss but write your own answer on your own sheet We’ll go over answers at the end.

53 Station Rotation Answers
they could pick more cotton with the machine than by hand Spinning Jenny (fastest) Both make cloth, but Spinning Jenny is faster and doesn’t require human hands to work it To help the wood quickly go through the cloth without getting caught It made traveling by land fast and reliable. They didn’t have to be close to rivers anymore

54 Reflection: Did we learn the objective?
Objective: identify major technologies and explain their impact during the Industrial Revolution.

55 Exit Question How did the invention of new technologies during the Industrial Revolution help the textile industry? A. It allowed factory owners to raise the prices of goods they made B. It allowed for factory owners to replace people completely with machines C. It allowed for lots of goods to be made quickly and cheaply.

56 Textile Mill Activity As you know, the Industrial Revolution began with innovations in the textile industry. Women and children worked long hours in harsh conditions to make some money in mills. Safety was never a priority for mill owners and workers who were injured were never compensated and were simply replaced.

57 Textile Mill Activity Today in class we will be recreating a Textile Mill. Students will be creating Necklacese (skring) trinkets. You will be doing so under the strict guide lines of the rules set out by the owner. At the end of the day you will have a grade based on how well you made your Necklace.

58 Factory: Standard and Objective
7-3.4 Explain the causes and course of the Industrial Revolution, including the organization of work and labor. Objective: TSWBAT explain the organization and work of a factory with a simulation.

59 Last few minutes to reflect:
Did we learn our objective? Objective: TSWBAT explain the organization and work of a factory with a simulation. On the back of your contract: tell me what you thought of this experience. How does today’s activity relate to the Industrial Revolution?

60 Exit Question How was Ms. Smith’s factory different to real factories during the Industrial Revolution? A. Factory owners would always treat their workers kindly B. There would be no loud noises and sounds in a factory C. There would be no pressure to work as quickly as possible D. Unlike Ms. Smith’s 50 minute class, real workers would have to work for 12 hours a day in a factory.

61 Standard and Objective
7-3.4 Explain the causes and course of the Industrial Revolution in Europe, Japan, and the United States. Objective: TSWBAT identify the expansion of the Industrial Revolution

62 Spread of Industrial Revolution
Though the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, it spread to other areas where they had the right mixture of resources and money to start factories like: - United States - Japan - Continental Europe

63 United States - Mostly focused in the Northeastern region (New England) - Started with textiles

64 United States - Samuel Slater memorized plans for machinery (it was forbidden to take such information out of Great Britain) and built the first water-power textile mill in America in Pawtucket, Rhode Island - Slater’s ‘Rhode Island Plan’ hired entire families and created new company towns.

65

66

67 United States Lowell, Massachusetts became another model town of mechanization by hiring young, single women as their primary workers in the factory. This became known as the ‘Lowell Method’

68 Lowell Girls

69 Spread of Industrialism Where and what

70 Japan -Industrialization began as a response to growing imperialistic threats against the nation. - The Mejii era, begun in 1867, brought the beginnings of modernization and industrialization - Became a competitive industrial country by the early 1900s.

71 Japan

72 In Continental Europe the spread of industrialization was slowed by Napoleonic Wars

73 Continental Europe -Belgium followed Britain’s lead and industrialized in 1799 -Germany followed in 1835 with factories and railroads, but this eventually fed its military power - While some countries industrialized and drastically changed their environment, France remained mostly agricultural.

74 Assignment: Nystrom Maps
Open up a Nystrom Atlas to pages Complete the questions and we will go over the answers at the end of class. Share responsibility and rotate questions. Five questions will be assigned at random and checked for a grade. READ THE DIRECTIONS CAREFULLY!!!!!

75 Reflect: Did we learn our objective?
Objective: TSWBAT identify the expansion of the Industrial Revolution

76 Exit Question How did the Industrial Revolution spread to other parts of the world? A. Great Britain invited other countries to come and tour their factories B. Plans for machines start leaking out of Great Britain C. Eli Whitney wrote a book called How to Build Factory Machines.

77 Standard and Objective
7-3.5 Explain the impact of the new technology that emerged during the Industrial Revolution, including the impact of interchangeable parts and mass production. Objective: TSWBAT explain the impact of interchangeable parts and mass production

78 Interchangeable Parts and Mass Production
Interchangeable Parts: many identical parts were made rather than having unique hand-made parts like before. This led to stuff being mass produced and easy to repair.

79 Example:

80 Getting on the same page
This process was ongoing throughout the 19th century as these things were being developed and refined: Precise measurement Standardization How business operated

81 Mass Production Mass production allowed for goods to be made for a cheaper price and also made items more available to more people, instead of just rich people.

82 Interchangeable Parts
Eli Whitney Allowed for easier repairs and fixes Custom parts are more expensive Allows for quicker, easier construction

83 Assembly Lines Henry Ford – Ford Cars
Workers each have a special job to complete No one worker completes whole product much faster production of identical products

84 K-NEX! 4-5 students will be selected for this activity
Students will recreate Ms. Carson’s model in an assembly line (Mass Production) Students will then change out the long grey rods with shorter orange ones. (Interchangeable Parts)

85 Wrap-Up questions 1. What is mass production and interchangeable parts? 2. What effect do you think mass production had on the world? 3. How did the activity help you understand interchangeable parts? 4. What other products could we have done this activity with?

86 Reflect Did we learn our objective?
Objective: TSWBAT explain the impact of interchangeable parts and mass production

87 Exit Questions (True/False)
Interchange Parts allowed for items to be easy to repair. Mass Production helps makes goods cheaper.

88 Standard and Objective
7-3.4 Explain the causes and course of the Industrial Revolution, including the development of socialism. Objective: TSWBAT explain the development of socialism and unions.

89 Review Recap: What was going on in the Carson Factory on Friday?
Was it publicly or privately owned? What was Ms. Carson most interested in: worker welfare or profit? How is profit related to capitalism?

90 Unhappy workers Over time, capitalism and corruption led to the working class being oppressed more by the middle and upper class, and eventually gave way to the support to a whole new economic system: socialism.

91 Not all it’s cracked up to be…
Socialism: system that would provide for the greater welfare of the workers by allowing the government to plan the economy to promote equality and end poverty.

92 Socialism vs Capitalism
Socialism offered more protection to the workers than capitalism. Socialism also promised to spread the wealth to more people in need.

93 Who came up with it? Karl Marx and Frederich Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto. 1. It proposed radical socialism. 2. It wanted the proletariats (‘have nots’) to overthrow the bourgeoisie (‘haves’ or owners). 3. This didn’t happen during the Industrial Revolution, but later in future revolutions.

94 Unions In addition to rise of socialism, labor unions and reform laws were created to help close the gap between the rich and poor. Unions negotiated for: 1. better working conditions 2. higher pay 3. shorter hours If a union demands were not met, the workers would strike (or refuse to work).

95 Reform Laws Some reform came in the 1830’s, British Parliament began regulating mine and factory conditions for women and children.

96 Station Rotation Model: Sample Station Question
Take out a half sheet of paper and number it 1-7 leaving a space between each number. Go around the room with you groups (TAKE YOUR NOTES) and answer the questions about the inventions. Answer together and discuss but write your own answer on your own sheet We’ll go over answers at the end.

97 Station Answers 1. Proletariats are the ‘have nots’ and Bourgeoisie are the ‘haves’[money]. 2. Because they want to end poverty and inequality between the rich and poor. 3. Ex. Workers would have been able to sit and they wouldn’t have been yelled at. 4. Ex. Have the lights on and workers be allowed to talk. 5. They needed more protection and sometimes worked more dangerous jobs (especially children) 6. It would spread the wealth to more people instead of having a handful of people with most of the money 7. They would lose money.

98 Reflect Did we learn our objective?
Objective: TSWBAT explain the development of socialism and unions.

99 Exit Question All of the following were conditions that led to the development of socialism and unions EXCEPT: A. Workers were paid the same as the owners B. The growing gap between rich and poor C. Many factories were not safe for workers

100 Model: Owner Letter Dear Karl and Frederich, I don’t agree with your new economic system called socialism. If everyone was given equal pay, no one would be motivated to work. It’s the competition with other factories and the pressure to make as much as possible that keeps my factory in business. If the government took over factories, it wouldn’t be as productive and would lose money. Capitalism seems like the best option.

101 Assignment: Factory Worker Letter Part II
Write a 1/2 to 1 page letter to your factory owner explain why or why not socialism would be better for you. Talk about how capitalism and socialism compare Your working conditions How you are not the only unhappy worker and if you are all thinking of quitting or striking.


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