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Microcomputer Architecture

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Computers - Basic Architecture Computers have: –Input –Output –Storage (Memory) –Connectivity (can be seen as an IO channel)

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Using the Computer

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Basic components Certain Key Components –The Central Processor –Central Memory (RAM - Volatile Memory) –Permanent Storage –Input –Output

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What Do Computers Do? They add –They Subtract Which is negative addition –They multiply Which is adding multiple times –They Divide Which is negative adding a bunch of times –They do more complicated things – Square roots, power functions, exponentiation, logarithms –All by numeric approximation – which is addition They move the data around that they add. Thats all…

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The CPU Functions as the arithmetic unit of the computer It operates according to its clock cycle A 1.8 GHz computer has a clock that cycles 1.8 billion times per second

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Some simple binary arithmetic People count by 10s –Because we have ten fingers Computers count by ones –Because magnetic storage media can electricity can be easily set to on and off –Or 0 and 1

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Counting in Base 2 (Binary) DecimalBinary 00 11 210 311 4100 5101 6110 7111

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Other Bases are useful as well DecimalBinaryHexaDecimal 000 111 2102 3113 41004 51015 61106 71117 810008 910019 101010A 111011B 121100C 131101D 141110E 151111F

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Binary addition Adding Binary Numbers is Simple –3 Rules 0 + 0 = 0 1 + 0 = 1 1 + 1 = 10 ( = 0 and carry the 1 to the next higher column)

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Graphic Representation of Addition 00000010Register 1 00000010Register 2 00000100Accumulator

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Does this look familiar Binary Addition is the electrical/electronic application of the exclusive or from logic Many numbers that are encountered frequently in computers arise from binary arithmetic More Info

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Get on the Bus Computers read data on the buses that te CPU has Two Buses of note –Data Bus The data read into (or written from) the CPU or memory –Address Bus The spot in memory to read from or write to

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Digital Systems So, in the end, we can see that computers simply move ad add 0s and 1s. And out of this, we can build incredibly rich and complex experiences Such as ******** Or…

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