Presentation on theme: "Research Methods Seminar Data Collection"— Presentation transcript:
1Research Methods Seminar Data Collection Getting StartedResearch MethodsNextResearch Methods Seminar Data CollectionChoosing a StrategyQuantitative DataQualitative Data
2Choosing A Research Strategy PreviousNextThe general principle is that the research strategy or strategies, and the methods or techniques employed must be appropriate for the questions you answerQuantitative / QualitativeQualitative Methods:“An array of interpretive techniques which seek to describe, decode, translate and otherwise come to terms with the meaning, not the frequency, of certain more or less naturally occurring phenomena in the social world” (Van Maanen (1983)
33 Traditional Research Strategies PreviousNextExperimentalmeasuring the effects of manipulating one variable on another variableCase Studydevelopment of detailed, intensive knowledge about a single ‘case’, or of a small number of related ‘cases’Surveycollection of information in standardised form from groups of peopleMay also have a Hybrid Strategy or Action Research
4Classification of the Purposes of Enquiry PreviousNextExploratory:to find out what is happeningto seek new insightsto ask questionsto assess phenomena in a new lightusually, but not necessarily, qualitative
5Classification of the Purposes of Enquiry PreviousNextDescriptive:to portray an accurate profile of persons, events or situationsrequires extensive previous knowledge of the situation etc. to be researched or described, so that you know appropriate aspects on which to gather information.May be qualitative and/or quantitativeExplanatory:seeks an explanation of a situation or problem, usually in the form of causal relationships
6Purpose & StrategyPreviousNextPast use of the 3 main strategies has tended to make following links:case studies as appropriate for exploratory worksurveys as appropriate for descriptive studiesexperiments as appropriate for explanatory studiesNB: These links are not immutable & each strategy can be used for any or all of the three purposes (See Yin, 1981)
7Strategy & Question Experiment & Case Study How Why Survey Who What PreviousNextStrategyResearch QuestionExperiment & Case StudySurveyHowWhyWhoWhatWhereHow much / how many
8Collecting Quantitative Data Getting StartedPreviousNextResearch MethodsCollecting Quantitative DataSamplesSurveysPitfalls etc...
9What Data is needed to solve it Research DesignResearch QuestionPreviousNextDefining the ProblemWhat Data is needed to solve it
10Typical Stages Problem Definition Review of Secondary Sources PreviousNextTypical StagesProblem DefinitionReview of Secondary SourcesSelect Appropriate Approach for the Collection of New (Primary) InformationDetermine the Details of the Research DesignData CollectionAnalysis and Interpretation of the DataEvaluation and Recommendations
11Research MethodsPreviousNextData TypesSecondary Data - Information that that is available from existing published sourcesInternal to the CompanyExternal to the CompanyPrimary Data - Information has been collected for the first timeCan come from internal sourcesExternal sources - survey data etc..
12Data Sources Cont. Primary Data is usually collected by the means of: PreviousNextPrimary Data is usually collected by the means of:A SurveyDepth InterviewsObservation of behaviourEstablishing Motivationsetc..
13The Questionnaire and its Design Research MethodsFirstPreviousNextThe Questionnaire and its DesignThe questionnaire is usually the common form of collection of survey data
14Classify - organizations or people Describe Behaviour PreviousNextQuestions can either:Classify - organizations or peopleDescribe BehaviourDiscover Attitudes and Perceptions
15PreviousNextTypes of QuestionsOpen Ended - Some sort of free form and expression on the part of the respondentClosed ( Structured)Yes/NoMultiple ChoiceRankingsCheck Lists
16Wording the Questions Avoid Ambiguity PreviousNextWording the QuestionsAvoid AmbiguityConsider the Respondent’s ability to answerConsider the Respondent’s willingness to answerAvoid Influencing the Answer
17Question Sequence Initial questions to provide motivation PreviousNextInitial questions to provide motivationLogical order - general to the specific. This is known as funnelling.Rotating the questions to reduce biasDifficult questions - where do you place these in the questionnaire ?Routing and Excluding - be careful of the logic of your questionnaire.
18Some Standard Questions PreviousNextSome Standard QuestionsHave you ever?Do you ever ?How Often ?When did you last ?Who does it ?In what way do you do it ?Which do you do more ?In the future will you ?
19Some Points to Consider PreviousNextIs your questionnaire too long ?Do you need cards for your respondents ?Do you need to aid recall ?What is going to happen after the survey ?Avoid multi punch data - this leads to coding problems and data analysis problemsHow are you going to administer the survey?
20PreviousNextMeasuring AttitudesAttitudes influence preferences and are related to behaviour. They usually contain three components:BeliefsEmotions andBehaviour
21Measuring Attitudes Two Stages: Use: PreviousNextTwo Stages:Pilot - some form of depth interview with a small group to ascertain the key characteristicsSurvey to measure the attitudes and perceptionsUse:Adjective check listsMultiple choice questionsRating scales: Monopolar vs Bipolar Scales, Likert Scales - 5 point or 7 point scales
22Some Problems with Scales PreviousNextSome Problems with ScalesAre the chosen adjectives ambiguous ?Can meaning differ between respondents ?Scale length - short scales may not be sensitive enough, long scales may be unmanageable.What about the ‘don’t know’Respondents often tend to choose the mid point.
23How do you Reach your Respondent ? PreviousNextHow do you Reach your Respondent ?MailTelephonePersonal InterviewAll have different advantages and disadvantages for the researcher - Follow up to obtain a better response rate.
24Sampling Why do we sample ? Types of Sample Issues about Samples Research MethodsFirstPreviousNextSamplingWhy do we sample ?Types of SampleIssues about SamplesSample Size CalculatorMarket ResearchGlossary of sampling and quantitative research
25Basic Premise of Sampling PreviousNextThe researcher is looking to generate data has is representative of the population from which the sample is drawn.Samples are practical as resources are finiteSamples can give an accurate view of a phenomenon.
26Sampling Process Decisions PreviousNextWho is to be surveyed ? The sampling unit.How many to be sampled ? The sample size.How can they be selected ? The sampling procedure.
27Sampling Procedures Two broad categories: Probability Samples PreviousNextTwo broad categories:Probability SamplesRandom - everyone in the population has an equal change of being chosen.Stratified Random Sample - to account for a variable in the populationSequential SampleCluster Sample
28Sampling ProceduresPreviousNextThe opposite of Probability Samples is the Non Probability Sample:Quota SamplesJudgmental Samples
29PreviousNextSampling ProceduresIn Selecting samples and sample size allow for non response. This can reduce the validity of your resultsAlso be aware of bias in your survey.Bias in non responseBias by the interviewerBias through the questions askedSample biasBias from the respondents
30Sample Frame Adequacy - in coverage of the population PreviousNextAdequacy - in coverage of the populationCompleteness - missing units cannot be selected introducing biasNo duplication - double countingAccuracy - is the sample frame up to date ?Convenience - Can the sample units be accessed at reasonable cost ?
31Finally Editing Coding - think about your coding for data input PreviousNextEditingHas each relevant questions been answered ?Accuracy - some inaccuracies can be spotted by eye.Uniformity - have interviewers interpreted the questions and instructions in a uniform way ?Coding - think about your coding for data inputTabulating - think about your tables and cross tabulations. This is useful for the next stage on analysis
32Research MethodsPreviousNextQualitative Data Techniques
33Planning Qualitative Research Research MethodsPreviousNextPlanning Qualitative ResearchQualitative design involves articulatingcompelling & researchable questionssalient to target respondents
34PreviousNextQualitative ResearchQualitative inquiry demands an ever-present curiosity on the one hand and an ever-present suspicion on the other. The curiosity is manifested in the uneasiness with existing answers. This uneasiness generates new questions (Hawes,1975)Works at many levels In the early stages the researcher asks questions about a problem that grows increasingly subtle, pertinent and penetrating.
35Qualitative ResearchPreviousNextIn the field questions used as navigational tools - simple, naive, wise or purposely contradictory ones; asking the same question of a number of people; mutating it to fit different segments, expertise, etc.
36Qualitative ResearchPreviousNextQualitative researchers develop unique design solutions for every projectNeed for understanding drives the qualitative researcher to take time to understand culture or research segment.Not just a language issue, social/cultural taboos as well.
37Some issues of importance PreviousNextUncertain control qualitative researcher can expect to exercise in the fieldResearcher must be able to fit-in with events or people, that operate by their own rules of conduct. Must learn when to watch, when to listen, when to go with the action, when to reflect on pieces of info, and when to intervene tactically (& tactfully). This is totally alien to quantitative research which strives to be in control.
38Summary of Qualitative Design Process PreviousNext1. Question formulation in myriad forms is the core feature of designing and starting a study.2. Every scene & situation presents a unique, never-before encountered configuration of features, requiring strategic flexibility on the part of the investigator.3. The researcher willingly shares control in the research scene in the interest of learning the rules and meanings of social life from the inside.
39PhenomenologyPreviousNextThis kind of inquiry recognises that the phenomena being studied are sentient.Ambiguity is anticipated and planned for.The best preparation consists of a sense of purpose, some researchable questions, an understanding of resources available and an idea of the overall features and dynamics of the setting to be entered.Link with presentation on Research Approach
40Qualitative Data Collection Research MethodsPreviousNextQualitative Data CollectionDepth Interviews (Individual & Group)Allows access to a different level of reality, ...deeper than in quantitative research.Interviews are dominant method in qualitative research.
41Depth Interviews – individual and group PreviousNextDepth Interviews – individual and groupTotally different from structured, rigid quantitative interviews, qualitative interviews referred to as “conversation with a purpose”! The interview is loose, informal, flexible, interactive.But interviewing is not just conversation, it is informedby its purpose .... conversation occurs within thisremit.
42Depth Interviews – individual and group PreviousNextDepth Interviews – individual and groupProcess is also dynamic ...“What distinguishes in-depth interviewing is that the answers given continually inform the evolving conversation. Knowledge thus accumulates withmany turns at talk. It collects in stories, asides, hesitations, expressions of feeling and spontaneous associations ... The specific person interviewing the “I” that I am, personally contributes to the creation of the interview’s content because I follow my own perplexities as they arise in our discourse.” (Paget 1983)
43Observation Guidelines: Research MethodsPreviousNextGuidelines:Best conducted in relationships with respondents.Characterised by a difficult and often ambiguous course of study.Analyst must be disciplined.Requires attention to detail.Invaluable for ethnography and case study research.Observation allows the subtleties of responses to be noted and placed within the overall spectrum of data collected for the study.
44Observation Participant observation preferred ... Research MethodsPreviousNextObservationParticipant observation preferred ...“The participant observer gathers data by participating in the daily life of the group or organisation he studies.He watches the people he is studying to see what situations they ordinarily meet and how they behave in them. He enters into conversation with some or all of the participants in these situations and discovers their interpretations of the events he has observed.” (Backer 1970)
45Case Study Methodology Research MethodsPreviousNextTypical features:selection of a single case (or a small number of related cases) of a situation, individual or group of interest or concernstudy of the case in its contextcollection of information via a range of datacollection techniques including observation, interview and documentary analysisResourcesCase Study Method
46Case Study Methodology PreviousNextCase study is a strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence (Robson, 1993)
47Characteristics of Qualitative Research PreviousNextDIAGNOSTICDEEPER UNDERSTANDINGIMPRESSIONISTICPROBINGOBSERVES & REFLECTSSUBJECTIVE
48Focus of Qualitative Research PreviousNextWHAT?WHY?HOW?NOT HOW MANY
49Qualitative Approach Used in Research Requiring: PreviousNextEXPLORATION OF CONSUMER MOTIVATIONS, ATTITUDES & BEHAVIOURIDENTIFICATION OF DISTINCT BEHAVIOURAL GROUPS
50Qualitative Research Techniques PreviousNextDEPTH INTERVIEWSFOCUS GROUPSPROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES
51Characteristics of Depth Interviews Research MethodsPreviousNextCharacteristics of Depth InterviewsUNSTRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIREQUESTION AREAS (DERIVED FROMRESEARCH OBJECTIVES), NOTFORMAL QUESTIONSRESPONDENT TALKS FREELY WITHINCONFINES OF BRIEF
52Characteristics of Depth Interviews PreviousNextCharacteristics of Depth InterviewsINTERVIEWER PROMPTS AS NECESSARYDURATION - 1 TO 3 HOURS
53Characteristics of Focus Group Interviews Research MethodsPreviousNextCharacteristics of Focus Group Interviews6 TO 12 PEOPLERESPONDENTS UNIFORM TO CREATECOHESIVE GROUPFRIENDS OR RELATIVES NOTRECOMMENDEDOPINIONS ASKED, DISCUSSED AS AGROUP
54Characteristics of Focus Group Interviews PreviousNextCharacteristics of Focus Group InterviewsINTERVIEWER FACILITATES DISCUSSIONDURATION 1 TO 3 HOURS
55Advantages of Depth and Focus Group Interviews PreviousNextRICHNESS OF INFORMATIONINSIGHT & UNDERSTANDINGEXPLORATION
56Disadvantages of Depth and Focus Group Interviews PreviousNextNEED SKILLED INTERVIEWSLACK OF STRUCTUREDURATION OF INTERVIEWDIFFICULT TO SET UPDIFFICULT TO MODERATESPECIALISTS FOR DATA ANALYSIS REQUIRED
57Qualitative vs Quantitative Research Research Research MethodsPreviousNextQualitative vs Quantitative Research ResearchQUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVEEXPLORATION ASSESSMENTDIAGNOSIS DESCRIPTIONUNDERSTANDING QUANTIFICATIONINSIGHT ENUMERATIONAGGREGATION
58Qualitative vs Quantitative Research Research PreviousNextQualitative vs Quantitative Research ResearchQUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVEUNSTRUCTURED STRUCTUREDFLEXIBLE RIGIDUNSTRUCTURED/ STRUCTUREDSEMI-STRUCTUREDSMALL SAMPLE LARGE SAMPLE
59Qualitative Approach Used in Research Requiring: PreviousNextGREATER UNDERSTANDING & KNOWLEDGECLARIFICATION OF REAL ISSUESGENERATION OF HYPOTHESISIDENTIFICATION OF RANGE OF BEHAVIOUR