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Colin Clarke-Hill and Ismo Kuhanen 1 Research Methods Seminar Data Collection Choosing a Strategy Quantitative Data Qualitative Data Getting StartedNextResearch.

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Presentation on theme: "Colin Clarke-Hill and Ismo Kuhanen 1 Research Methods Seminar Data Collection Choosing a Strategy Quantitative Data Qualitative Data Getting StartedNextResearch."— Presentation transcript:

1 Colin Clarke-Hill and Ismo Kuhanen 1 Research Methods Seminar Data Collection Choosing a Strategy Quantitative Data Qualitative Data Getting StartedNextResearch Methods

2 First 2 Choosing A Research Strategy The general principle is that the research strategy or strategies, and the methods or techniques employed must be appropriate for the questions you answer Quantitative / Qualitative Qualitative Methods: –An array of interpretive techniques which seek to describe, decode, translate and otherwise come to terms with the meaning, not the frequency, of certain more or less naturally occurring phenomena in the social world (Van Maanen (1983) PreviousNext

3 First 3 3 Traditional Research Strategies Experimental –measuring the effects of manipulating one variable on another variable Case Study –development of detailed, intensive knowledge about a single case, or of a small number of related cases Survey –collection of information in standardised form from groups of people May also have a Hybrid Strategy or Action Research PreviousNext

4 First 4 Classification of the Purposes of Enquiry Exploratory: –to find out what is happening –to seek new insights –to ask questions –to assess phenomena in a new light –usually, but not necessarily, qualitative PreviousNext

5 First 5 Descriptive: –to portray an accurate profile of persons, events or situations –requires extensive previous knowledge of the situation etc. to be researched or described, so that you know appropriate aspects on which to gather information. –May be qualitative and/or quantitative Explanatory: –seeks an explanation of a situation or problem, usually in the form of causal relationships –May be qualitative and/or quantitative Classification of the Purposes of Enquiry PreviousNext

6 First 6 Purpose & Strategy case studies as appropriate for exploratory work surveys as appropriate for descriptive studies experiments as appropriate for explanatory studies NB : These links are not immutable & each strategy can be used for any or all of the three purposes (See Yin, 1981) Past use of the 3 main strategies has tended to make following links: PreviousNext

7 First 7 Experiment & Case Study Survey How Why Who What Where How much / how many StrategyResearch Question Strategy & Question PreviousNext

8 Colin Clarke-Hill and Ismo Kuhanen 8 Collecting Quantitative Data Samples Surveys Pitfalls etc... Research Methods PreviousNextGetting Started

9 First 9 Research Design Defining the Problem What Data is needed to solve it Research QuestionPreviousNext

10 First 10 Typical Stages Problem Definition Review of Secondary Sources Select Appropriate Approach for the Collection of New (Primary) Information Determine the Details of the Research Design Data Collection Analysis and Interpretation of the Data Evaluation and Recommendations PreviousNext

11 First 11 Data Types Secondary Data - Information that that is available from existing published sources –Internal to the Company –External to the Company Primary Data - Information has been collected for the first time –Can come from internal sources –External sources - survey data etc.. NextPreviousResearch Methods

12 First 12 Data Sources Cont. Primary Data is usually collected by the means of: –A Survey –Depth Interviews –Observation of behaviour –Establishing Motivations –etc.. PreviousNext

13 Colin Clarke-Hill and Ismo Kuhanen 13 The Questionnaire and its Design The questionnaire is usually the common form of collection of survey data NextPreviousFirstResearch Methods

14 First 14 Questions can either: Classify - organizations or people Describe Behaviour Discover Attitudes and Perceptions PreviousNext

15 First 15 Types of Questions Open Ended - Some sort of free form and expression on the part of the respondent Closed ( Structured) –Yes/No –Multiple Choice –Rankings –Check Lists PreviousNext

16 First 16 Wording the Questions Avoid Ambiguity Consider the Respondents ability to answer Consider the Respondents willingness to answer Avoid Influencing the Answer PreviousNext

17 First 17 Question Sequence Initial questions to provide motivation Logical order - general to the specific. This is known as funnelling. Rotating the questions to reduce bias Difficult questions - where do you place these in the questionnaire ? Routing and Excluding - be careful of the logic of your questionnaire. PreviousNext

18 First 18 Some Standard Questions Have you ever? Do you ever ? How Often ? When did you last ? Who does it ? In what way do you do it ? Which do you do more ? In the future will you ? PreviousNext

19 First 19 Some Points to Consider Is your questionnaire too long ? Do you need cards for your respondents ? Do you need to aid recall ? What is going to happen after the survey ? Avoid multi punch data - this leads to coding problems and data analysis problems How are you going to administer the survey? PreviousNext

20 First 20 Measuring Attitudes Attitudes influence preferences and are related to behaviour. They usually contain three components: –Beliefs –Emotions and –Behaviour PreviousNext

21 First 21 Measuring Attitudes Two Stages: –Pilot - some form of depth interview with a small group to ascertain the key characteristics –Survey to measure the attitudes and perceptions Use: –Adjective check lists –Multiple choice questions –Rating scales: Monopolar vs Bipolar Scales, Likert Scales - 5 point or 7 point scales PreviousNext

22 First 22 Some Problems with Scales Are the chosen adjectives ambiguous ? Can meaning differ between respondents ? Scale length - short scales may not be sensitive enough, long scales may be unmanageable. What about the dont know Respondents often tend to choose the mid point. PreviousNext

23 First 23 How do you Reach your Respondent ? Mail Telephone Personal Interview All have different advantages and disadvantages for the researcher - Follow up to obtain a better response rate. PreviousNext

24 Colin Clarke-Hill and Ismo Kuhanen 24 Sampling Why do we sample ? Types of Sample Issues about Samples Sample Size Calculator Market Research Glossary of sampling and quantitative research NextPreviousFirstResearch Methods

25 First 25 Basic Premise of Sampling The researcher is looking to generate data has is representative of the population from which the sample is drawn. Samples are practical as resources are finite Samples can give an accurate view of a phenomenon. NextPrevious

26 First 26 Sampling Process Decisions Who is to be surveyed ? The sampling unit. How many to be sampled ? The sample size. How can they be selected ? The sampling procedure. NextPrevious

27 First 27 Sampling Procedures Two broad categories: Probability Samples –Random - everyone in the population has an equal change of being chosen. –Stratified Random Sample - to account for a variable in the population –Sequential Sample –Cluster Sample NextPrevious

28 First 28 Sampling Procedures The opposite of Probability Samples is the Non Probability Sample: –Quota Samples –Judgmental Samples NextPrevious

29 First 29 Sampling Procedures In Selecting samples and sample size allow for non response. This can reduce the validity of your results Also be aware of bias in your survey. –Bias in non response –Bias by the interviewer –Bias through the questions asked –Sample bias –Bias from the respondents NextPrevious

30 First 30 Sample Frame Adequacy - in coverage of the population Completeness - missing units cannot be selected introducing bias No duplication - double counting Accuracy - is the sample frame up to date ? Convenience - Can the sample units be accessed at reasonable cost ? NextPrevious

31 First 31 Finally Editing –Has each relevant questions been answered ? –Accuracy - some inaccuracies can be spotted by eye. –Uniformity - have interviewers interpreted the questions and instructions in a uniform way ? Coding - think about your coding for data input Tabulating - think about your tables and cross tabulations. This is useful for the next stage on analysis NextPrevious

32 First 32 Research Methods Qualitative Data Techniques NextPrevious

33 Colin Clarke-Hill and Ismo Kuhanen 33 Planning Qualitative Research Qualitative design involves articulating compelling & researchable questions salient to target respondents NextPreviousResearch Methods

34 First 34 Qualitative Research Qualitative inquiry demands an ever-present curiosity on the one hand and an ever-present suspicion on the other. The curiosity is manifested in the uneasiness with existing answers. This uneasiness generates new questions (Hawes,1975) Works at many levels... In the early stages the researcher asks questions about a problem that grows increasingly subtle, pertinent and penetrating. NextPrevious

35 First 35 Qualitative Research In the field questions used as navigational tools - simple, naive, wise or purposely contradictory ones; asking the same question of a number of people; mutating it to fit different segments, expertise, etc. NextPrevious

36 First 36 Qualitative Research Qualitative researchers develop unique design solutions for every project Need for understanding drives the qualitative researcher to take time to understand culture or research segment. Not just a language issue, social/cultural taboos as well. NextPrevious

37 First 37 Some issues of importance Uncertain control qualitative researcher can expect to exercise in the field Researcher must be able to fit-in with events or people, that operate by their own rules of conduct. Must learn when to watch, when to listen, when to go with the action, when to reflect on pieces of info, and when to intervene tactically (& tactfully). This is totally alien to quantitative research which strives to be in control. NextPrevious

38 First 38 Summary of Qualitative Design Process 1.Question formulation in myriad forms is the core feature of designing and starting a study. 2.Every scene & situation presents a unique, never-before encountered configuration of features, requiring strategic flexibility on the part of the investigator. 3.The researcher willingly shares control in the research scene in the interest of learning the rules and meanings of social life from the inside. NextPrevious

39 First 39 Phenomenology This kind of inquiry recognises that the phenomena being studied are sentient. Ambiguity is anticipated and planned for. The best preparation consists of a sense of purpose, some researchable questions, an understanding of resources available and an idea of the overall features and dynamics of the setting to be entered. Link with presentation on Research ApproachLink with presentation on Research Approach NextPrevious

40 First 40 Depth Interviews (Individual & Group) Allows access to a different level of reality,...deeper than in quantitative research. Interviews are dominant method in qualitative research. Qualitative Data Collection NextPreviousResearch Methods

41 First 41 Depth Interviews – individual and group Totally different from structured, rigid quantitative interviews, qualitative interviews referred to as conversation with a purpose! The interview is loose, informal, flexible, interactive. But interviewing is not just conversation, it is informed by its purpose.... conversation occurs within this remit. NextPrevious

42 First 42 Depth Interviews – individual and group Process is also dynamic... What distinguishes in-depth interviewing is that the answers given continually inform the evolving conversation. Knowledge thus accumulates with many turns at talk. It collects in stories, asides, hesitations, expressions of feeling and spontaneous associations... The specific person interviewing the I that I am, personally contributes to the creation of the interviews content because I follow my own perplexities as they arise in our discourse. (Paget 1983) NextPrevious

43 First 43 Observation Guidelines: Best conducted in relationships with respondents. Characterised by a difficult and often ambiguous course of study. Analyst must be disciplined. Requires attention to detail. Invaluable for ethnography and case study research. Observation allows the subtleties of responses to be noted and placed within the overall spectrum of data collected for the study. NextPreviousResearch Methods

44 First 44 Observation Participant observation preferred... The participant observer gathers data by participating in the daily life of the group or organisation he studies. He watches the people he is studying to see what situations they ordinarily meet and how they behave in them. He enters into conversation with some or all of the participants in these situations and discovers their interpretations of the events he has observed. (Backer 1970) NextPreviousResearch Methods

45 First 45 Case Study Methodology Typical features: –selection of a single case (or a small number of related cases) of a situation, individual or group of interest or concern –study of the case in its context –collection of information via a range of data – collection techniques including observation, interview and documentary analysis NextPreviousResearch Methods Resources Case Study MethodCase Study Method

46 First 46 Case Study Methodology Case study is a strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence (Robson, 1993) PreviousNext

47 First 47 Characteristics of Qualitative Research DIAGNOSTIC DEEPER UNDERSTANDING IMPRESSIONISTIC PROBING OBSERVES & REFLECTS SUBJECTIVE NextPrevious

48 First 48 Focus of Qualitative Research WHAT? WHY? HOW? NOT HOW MANY NextPrevious

49 First 49 Qualitative Approach Used in Research Requiring: EXPLORATION OF CONSUMER MOTIVATIONS, ATTITUDES & BEHAVIOUR IDENTIFICATION OF DISTINCT BEHAVIOURAL GROUPS NextPrevious

50 First 50 Qualitative Research Techniques DEPTH INTERVIEWS FOCUS GROUPS PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES NextPrevious

51 First 51 Characteristics of Depth Interviews UNSTRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE QUESTION AREAS (DERIVED FROM RESEARCH OBJECTIVES), NOT FORMAL QUESTIONS RESPONDENT TALKS FREELY WITHIN CONFINES OF BRIEF NextPreviousResearch Methods

52 First 52 Characteristics of Depth Interviews INTERVIEWER PROMPTS AS NECESSARY DURATION - 1 TO 3 HOURS NextPrevious

53 First 53 Characteristics of Focus Group Interviews 6 TO 12 PEOPLE RESPONDENTS UNIFORM TO CREATE COHESIVE GROUP FRIENDS OR RELATIVES NOT RECOMMENDED OPINIONS ASKED, DISCUSSED AS A GROUP NextPreviousResearch Methods

54 First 54 Characteristics of Focus Group Interviews INTERVIEWER FACILITATES DISCUSSION DURATION 1 TO 3 HOURS NextPrevious

55 First 55 Advantages of Depth and Focus Group Interviews RICHNESS OF INFORMATION INSIGHT & UNDERSTANDING EXPLORATION NextPrevious

56 First 56 Disadvantages of Depth and Focus Group Interviews NEED SKILLED INTERVIEWS LACK OF STRUCTURE DURATION OF INTERVIEW DIFFICULT TO SET UP DIFFICULT TO MODERATE SPECIALISTS FOR DATA ANALYSIS REQUIRED NextPrevious

57 First 57 Qualitative vs Quantitative Research Research QUALITATIVEQUANTITATIVE EXPLORATIONASSESSMENT DIAGNOSISDESCRIPTION UNDERSTANDINGQUANTIFICATION INSIGHTENUMERATION AGGREGATION NextPreviousResearch Methods

58 First 58 QUALITATIVEQUANTITATIVE UNSTRUCTUREDSTRUCTURED FLEXIBLERIGID UNSTRUCTURED/STRUCTURED SEMI-STRUCTURED SMALL SAMPLELARGE SAMPLE Qualitative vs Quantitative Research Research NextPrevious

59 First 59 Qualitative Approach Used in Research Requiring: GREATER UNDERSTANDING & KNOWLEDGE CLARIFICATION OF REAL ISSUES GENERATION OF HYPOTHESIS IDENTIFICATION OF RANGE OF BEHAVIOUR NextPrevious

60 First 60 Thats all folks Previous


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