Presentation on theme: "Learning Chapter 5 Part I"— Presentation transcript:
1 Learning Chapter 5 Part I William G. HuittLast revised: May 2005
2 The Reality of Humankind HumanityAnimalVegetableMineralPsychology, Sociology, AnthropologyZoologyBotanyPhysics, Chemistry22
3 Animals vs Human Share with animals Learning through respondent (classical) conditioning (Pavlov)Learning through instrumental (operant) conditioning (Watson, Thorndike, Skinner)SimilarSensation and perceptionMemory and reasoningAffect and emotions (Freud)Develop relationships with others (Erikson)22
4 Animals vs Human Unique to humans Create symbols for realities; abstract symbolic thought as mature adults (Piaget)Conscious, self-reflection (Bandura)Plan alternate strategies, engage in forethought (Intelligence, Sternberg, Gardner)Regulate own behavior (Dweck, Bandura)Search for meaning (Frankl)Susceptible to subtle spiritual influences (transpersonal, Maslow)22
5 LearningA relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potential (i.e., knowledge, capability, or attitude) that is acquired through experience or practice and cannot be attributed to illness, injury, or maturation.Behavioral definition would focus exclusively on overt or measurable behaviorBehaviorists recognize that learning is an internal event. However, it is not recognized as learning until it is displayed by overt behavior.22
6 Behavioral Learning Theory The behavioral learning theory is represented as an S-R paradigm. The organism is treated as a “black box.” We only know what is going on inside the box by the organism’s overt behavior.Stimulus(S)Organism(O)Response(R)
7 Classical Conditioning A learning process through which one stimulus comes to predict the occurrence of another stimulus and elicits a response similar to or related to the response evoked by that stimulusStimulusAny event or object in the environment to which an organism responds; plural is “stimuli”22
8 Classical Conditioning Pavlov was studying the digestive system of dogs and became intrigued with his observation that dogs deprived of food began to salivate when one of his assistants walked into the room.He began to investigate this phenomena and established the laws of classical conditioning.Skinner renamed this type of learning "respondent conditioning” since in this type of learning, one is responding to an environmental antecedent.
9 Classical Conditioning General model: Stimulus (S) elicits >Response (R)Classical conditioning starts with a reflex (R): an innate, involuntary behavior.This involuntary behavior is elicited or caused by an antecedent environmental event.Example: air is blown into your eye, you blink. You have no voluntary or conscious control over whether the blink occurs or not.
10 Classical Conditioning The specific model for classical conditioning is:A stimulus will naturally (without learning) elicit or bring about a reflexive responseUnconditioned Stimulus (US) elicits > Unconditioned Response (UR)
11 Classical Conditioning Eyeblink responsePuff of air in eyeContraction of pupilLight in eyeStartleLoud noiseSalivationFoodUnconditioned Response (UR)Unconditioned Stimulus (US)22
12 Classical Conditioning The specific model for classical conditioning is:Neutral Stimulus (NS) --- does not elicit the response of interestThis stimulus (sometimes called an orienting stimulus as it elicits an orienting response) is a neutral stimulus since it does not elicit the Unconditioned (or reflexive) Response.
16 Classical Conditioning The Neutral Stimulus (NS) is transformed into a Conditioned Stimulus (CS).That is, when the CS is presented by itself, it elicits or causes the CR (which is the same involuntary response as the UR.The name changes because it is elicited by a different stimulus.This is written CS elicits > CR.
18 Classical Conditioning John Watson and emotional conditioningLittle Albert (a healthy and emotionally stable 11-month-old infant) showed no fear except of the loud noise Watson made by striking a hammer against a steel bar near Albert’s head22
20 Classical Conditioning In the area of classroom learning, classical conditioning is seen primarily in the conditioning of emotional behavior.Things that make us happy, sad, angry, etc. become associated with neutral stimuli that gain our attention.
21 Classical Conditioning Example:Child is harassed at schoolChild feels bad when harassedChild associates being harassed and schoolChild begins to feel bad when she thinks of school
22 Classical Conditioning In order to extinguish the associated of feeling bad and thinking of school, the connection between school and being harassed must be broken.
23 Classical Conditioning John Watson and emotional conditioningWatson also had ideas for removing fears and laid the groundwork for some behavior therapies used todayPeter (3-year-old who was afraid of rabbits) was put in a high chair and given candy while a rabbit was in a cage at a safe distance from himThe rabbit was moved closer with each sessionSome of Peter’s friends were brought in to play with the rabbit to show Peter first-hand that the rabbit was safeBy the end of the sessions Peter lost his fear of rabbits22
24 Classical Conditioning Biological predispositionsResearch has shown that humans are more easily conditioned to fear stimuli, such as snakes, that can have very real negative effects on their well-beingMartin SeligmanSaid that the most common fears “are related to the survival of the human species through the long course of evolution”Suggested that humans and other animals are prepared to associate only certain stimuli with particular consequences22
25 Classical Conditioning Biological predispositionsTaste aversionsThe dislike and/or avoidance of a particular food that has been associated with nausea or discomfort22
26 Classical Conditioning Biological predispositionsGarcia and KoellingExposed rats to a three-way conditioned stimulus: a bright light, a clicking noise, and flavored waterFor one group of rats, the unconditioned stimulus was being exposed to X-rays or lithium chloride, either of which produces nausea and vomiting several hours after exposure; for the other group, the unconditioned stimulus was an electric shock to the feetThe rats in one group associated nausea only with the flavored water; those in the other group associated electric shock only with the light and the sound22
27 Classical Conditioning Biological predispositionsGarcia and KoellingGarcia and Koelling’s research established two exceptions to traditional ideas of classical conditioningFirst, the finding that rats formed an association between nausea and flavored water ingested several hours earlier contradicted the principle that the conditioned stimulus must be presented shortly before the unconditioned stimulusThe finding that rats associated electric shock only with noise and light, and nausea only with flavored water, revealed that animals are apparently biologically predisposed to make certain associations and that associations between any two stimuli cannot be readily conditioned22
28 Classical Conditioning Biological predispositionsGustavson and othersUsed taste aversion conditioning to stop wild coyotes from attacking sheep in the western United StatesSet out lamb flesh laced with lithium chloride, a poison that made the coyotes extremely ill but was not fatalAfter only one or two experiences, the coyotes would get sick even at the sight of a lamb22
29 Classical Conditioning Biological predispositionsBernstein and othersDevised a technique to help cancer patients avoid aversions to desirable foodsA group of cancer patients were given a novel-tasting, maple-flavored ice cream before chemotherapyThe nausea caused by the treatment resulted in a taste aversion to the ice creamResearchers found that when an unusual or unfamiliar food becomes the “scapegoat,” other foods in the patient's diet may be protected and the patient will continue to eat them regularly22
30 Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning in everyday lifeResearch suggests that the inability to acquire classically conditioned responses may be the first sign of Alzheimer’s disease, a sign that appears prior to any memory lossEmotional behavior very susceptible to classical conditioningThrough classical conditioning, environmental cues associated with drug use can become conditioned stimuli and later produce the conditioned responses of drug craving22
31 Classical Conditioning Neurological basis of classical conditioningAn intact amygdala is required for conditioning of fear in both humans and animals, and context fear conditioning further depends on the hippocampusResearch clearly indicates that the cerebellum is the essential brain structure for motor conditioning and also the storage site for the memory traces formed during such conditioning22
32 Classical Conditioning Factors influencing classical conditioningThere are four major factors that facilitate the acquisition of a classically conditioned responseHow reliably the conditioned stimulus predicts the unconditioned stimulusThe number of pairings of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulusThe intensity of the unconditioned stimulusThe temporal relationship between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus22