Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Frontiers of Western Philosophy Empiricism John Locke Bishop George Berkeley David Hume (1632-1704 CE) (1685 – 1753 CE) (1711 – 1776 CE)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Frontiers of Western Philosophy Empiricism John Locke Bishop George Berkeley David Hume (1632-1704 CE) (1685 – 1753 CE) (1711 – 1776 CE)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Frontiers of Western Philosophy Empiricism John Locke Bishop George Berkeley David Hume ( CE) (1685 – 1753 CE) (1711 – 1776 CE)

2 Empiricism Empiricism: all of our knowledge comes through the use of the five senses.

3 Empiricism Empiricism: all of our knowledge comes through the use of the five senses. The external world causes visual perception which causes knowledge

4 Empiricism Empiricism: all of our knowledge comes through the use of the five senses. A belief is a basic empirical belief if and only if it is a direct result of sensation. I seem to see a tree.

5 Empiricism Empiricism: all of our knowledge comes through the use of the five senses. Basic empirical belief serve as the foundation. Non-basic beliefs are justified through inference from basic empirical beliefs. Basic empirical beliefs Non-basic beliefs

6 Empiricism is one kind of foundationalism. Different kinds of foundationalism depend on (1) what is required to be a basic belief and (2) what kind of connection is required between basic and non-basic beliefs. Basic beliefs Non-basic beliefs

7 Cartesian foundationalism Descartes would say that (1) basic belief must be absolutely certain (indubitable) and (2) non-basic beliefs must be supported by logically valid arguments from basic beliefs. Basic beliefs: absolutely certain Non-basic beliefs

8 Empiricism Empiricism: all of our knowledge comes through the use of the five senses. Arguments for Empiricism: 1.Empirical beliefs seem more reliable than others.

9 Empiricism Empiricism: all of our knowledge comes through the use of the five senses. Arguments for Empiricism: 1.Empirical beliefs seem more reliable than others. 2.Only empirical beliefs can tell us what the external world is like.

10 Empiricism Empiricism: all of our knowledge comes through the use of the five senses. Arguments for Empiricism: 1.Empirical beliefs seem more reliable than others. 2.Only empirical beliefs can tell us what the external world is like. 3.The success of science confirms the reliability of the senses.

11 Empiricism Empiricism: all of our knowledge comes through the use of the five senses. Arguments against Empiricism: 1.The senses do not present the world as it really is.

12 Arguments against Empiricism: 1.The senses do not present the world as it really is. For example: colors, tastes, smells and textures are experiences that human minds have; they are not direct experiences of things in the world.

13 Arguments against Empiricism: 1.The senses do not always present the world as it really is in itself. For example: colors, tastes, smells and textures are experiences that human minds have; they are not direct experiences of things in the world. So we must distinguish the following things:

14 John Locke: A primary quality in an object produces ideas in humans that really resemble the object as it is in itself (for example, shape, size, motion).

15 John Locke: A primary quality in an object produces ideas in humans that really resemble the object as it is in itself (for example, shape, size, motion). A secondary quality in an object produces ideas in humans that do not really resemble the object as it is in itself (for example, color, taste, smell).

16 John Locke: A primary quality in an object produces ideas in humans that really resemble the object as it is in itself (for example, shape, size, motion). A secondary quality in an object produces ideas in humans that do not really resemble the object as it is in itself (for example, color, taste, smell). Shape: yes Color: no

17 An Objection from Berkeley: The ideas caused by Lockes primary qualities (such as shape, size, and motion) seem to depend on the observer in the same way that the ideas caused by secondary qualities do. So they are not really qualities of the objects in themselves, either.

18 Arguments against Empiricism: 1.The senses do not always present the world as it really is in itself. 2. The senses can only confirm particular cases, not general truths. (This is the problem of induction.)

19 Particular vs. General Claims: A particular claim is about some specific object or event. A general claim is about kinds of objects or events, but does not mention any specific object or event.

20 Particular vs. General Claims: A particular claim is about some specific object or event. For example, This Power Point presentation is fascinating. A general claim is about kinds of objects or events, but does not mention any specific object or event. For example, All Power Point presentations are fascinating.

21 Arguments against Empiricism: 1.The senses do not always present the world as it really is in itself. 2. The senses can only confirm particular cases, not general truths. (This is the problem of induction.) This swan is white...

22 Arguments against Empiricism: 1.The senses do not always present the world as it really is in itself. 2. The senses can only confirm particular cases, not general truths. (This is the problem of induction.) This swan is white... ? All swans are white.

23 The Problem of Induction: No number of particular observations will justify a universal conclusion. Bertrand Russell ( CE)

24 The Problem of Induction: No number of particular observations will justify a universal conclusion. All of our observations concerning the world have occurred in the past, so we cannot assume that the future will be like the past. Bertrand Russell ( CE)

25 The Problem of Induction: No number of particular observations will justify a universal conclusion. All of our observations concerning the world have occurred in the past, so we cannot assume that the future will be like the past. For all we know, then, tomorrow the world might be completely different than it is today. Bertrand Russell ( CE)

26 Empiricism Empiricism: all of our knowledge comes through the use of the five senses. Empiricism seems to limit us to knowing only the present contents of our immediate sense experiences; it does not justify beliefs about the past or the future or general beliefs in universal principles. Basic empirical beliefs Non-basic beliefs


Download ppt "Frontiers of Western Philosophy Empiricism John Locke Bishop George Berkeley David Hume (1632-1704 CE) (1685 – 1753 CE) (1711 – 1776 CE)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google