Presentation on theme: "Technology & Student Affairs A course to help the next generation of professionals A.J. Stramaski Jamie Holmes Georgia Southern University."— Presentation transcript:
Technology & Student Affairs A course to help the next generation of professionals A.J. Stramaski Jamie Holmes Georgia Southern University
We, the committee of academic enhancement have been charged with the purpose of creating a course dealing with technologys impact on Student Affairs to be added to the curriculum of our respective Student Personnel Administration preparation programs. The following presentation outlines the proposed course and provides justification of the course through research on the emerging trends in Student Affairs. Committee Purpose
Purpose and justification for the course The influx of technology into the Student Affairs profession has created a need for increased technological literacy. It is every practitioners responsibility to become computer literate. But what is computer literacy? Simply knowing how to use word processing programs is not the answer. In the future, computer literacy will mean being able to access the Internet and what ever it evolves into; knowing how to use email and listservs to converse with colleagues, researchers in the field, and students and staff; working with campus technicians to improve student services (Benedict 1994). Technological changes are here to stay, because of this; Student Affairs Practitioners are faced with a new responsibility, being knowledgeable about the changing uses of technology. Student Affairs Practitioners need to take responsibility to become knowledgeable and begin to develop competency in this field because it will be a core competency in the next century (Benedict 1994).
The support is out there for the need for technological competencies to be developed. This course will serve as a mean to acquire those technological competencies. This committee strongly believes that not including a technology based Student Affairs course will negatively impact the students we are preparing to enter the field. Faculty consortium institutions can become leaders in the field by offering this Technology and Student Affairs course.
Recognizing the need for change Because the nature of Higher Education is changing, it is imperative for Student Affairs Administrators, and the faculty of preparation programs to embrace and be on the forefront on changing the nature of the field. College students have become increasingly dependent on computers when compared to the rest of the population, according to a recent nationwide study (Coopersmith 2003). Recognizing that students have become increasingly dependent on technology provides rationale that Student Affairs Administrators need to be more vigilant in their focus of the services they offer students. The increased student dependency on technology has caused a tremendous need for Student Affairs Administrators to be able to provide technologically based services. This trend also makes it the responsibility of Student Personnel Administration programs to provide future professionals with knowledge of the trends and issues regarding technology.
Technology trends in Student Affairs Increased reliance on technology in classroom experiences. Increased reliance on technology in the students out-of- classroom experiences. Increased reliance on technology in administrative and support services. The growth of distance/virtual education. The virtual impossibility of keeping up with technological innovations. Taken from ACPAs Higher Education Trends for the Next Century
Evaluation of the emerging trends Of the trends listed by Upcraft and Terenzini, two are more pronounced for the Student Affairs field. Those two trends are the increased reliance on technology in the out-of-class experience, and increased use of technology by administrative and support services. These trends have caused Student Affairs Practitioners to be on the look out for ways to increase virtual student services, although it may antithetical to the very nature of the field.
Addressing the high-tech versus high touch paradox Technology is undoubtedly changing the course of the Student Affairs profession. Students are more technologically advanced than many Administrators. Student Affairs Administrators need to accept that they need to provide technology driven services to meet the expectations of the students. More will need to be done in the future if were to retain student loyalty to institutionally provided services (Moneta 2001). Student services must be adapted to balance the high- tech services versus the high-touch traditional services.
Proposed Syllabus for the course: Weeks 1 - 3 Week 1 – Introduction to course topics and material to be presented. Week 2 – Increased use of web-based student services (Part 1) Learning Objective – To have students gain introductory knowledge to the various self-service applications available to students. Also the studentswill be taught basic operations of software being used byJudicial Affairs officers. Week 3 – Increase use of web-based services (Part 2) Learning Objective – To acquire functional knowledge of software such as Banner. Begin to realize the interconnectedness of Student Affairs.
Syllabus for Weeks 4 - 6 Week 4 – Student reliance on, and demand for technology Learning Objective – Recognize the growing trends of technology use among college students. Recognize the growing demand for technology by traditional and non-traditional students. Week 5 – Assessment services utilizing technology Learning Objective – Acquire knowledge on the various assessment software. Learn how to evaluate and use assessment effectively. Week 6 – Legal and ethical issues (Part 1) Learning Objective – To develop a working understanding of the various laws impacting technology on campuses. To learn how students may be effected by these laws. To learn about the various types of Internet Crime that students participate in.
Syllabus for Weeks 7 – 9 Week 7 – Legal and ethical issues (Part 2) Learning Objective – To learn about the ADA laws that regard technology, in particular BOBBY compliance. To learn to apply Kitcheners five principles of ethics to the technology based services provided to the students. Week 8 – Internet Addiction Learning Objective – To gain general knowledge of Internet Addiction. To learn how to recognize Internet Addiction. To learn how to help those students who suffer from Internet Addiction. Week 9 – Use of Online Communities by Student Affairs Practitioners Learning Objective – To see how universities are making use of online communities. To learn how to critique the online communities. To see how social interactive theories can be applied to these online communities.
Syllabus for Weeks 10 - 11 Week 10 – Use of Smart cards Learning Objective - To learn how technologies other than web-based services are being used by Student Affairs Officials. To understand that smart card technology can have a substantial impact on the students lives. Week 11 – The Technology Gap Learning Objective – To understand how the technology gap effects traditional versus non- traditional students. To understand how the technology gap is effecting student-staff relations. To understand how there is technology gap occurring between younger and older staff members.
Syllabus for Weeks 12 - 14 Week 12 - Accessibility Issues of technology Learning Objective – To develop an understanding of how Student Affairs Practitioners need to address issues of technology accessibility. To become aware of the various factors that contribute to students being denied access to technology. Week 13 – The Principles of Good Practice and technology Learning Objective – Apply the principles of good practice to technology based services. To understand how technology effects the principles. Week 14 – Web portal services Learning Objective – To recognize how web portals are useful for Student Affairs Practitioners. To learn how to critique web portals. Learn how to implement effective web portals.
Week 1 Topic Description This course will serve as a broad based reference and introduction to the changing trends faced by Student Affairs. Topics that will be discussed in this course will range from the increased usage of online services to legal and ethical issues regarding technology, to various programs that have been developed to aid the student affairs field. This course will allow student the opportunity to learn how technology is affecting the field because the course is designed to provide a broad range of topics.
Week 2 Topic Description The goal of this topic is to introduce the graduate student to the various services that are being utilized by the Student Affairs Administrators to provide services for the students. Every aspect of student affairs work has become increasingly vigilant in providing technologically based services for students. One of the main areas this has increased is with the use of the web self-service applications. Self-service applications allow students to view grades, account balances, change their personal information, apply for housing, contact their academic advisors, and keep current on the status of their financial aid. Two examples of self-service programs: Georgia Southern University (WINGS)WINGS University of Colorado at Boulder (Personal Look-Up Service)Personal Look-Up Service What is the importance of these all-in-one self-service applications?
Week 2 Topic Description cont. Since a growing number of Student Affairs divisions are providing these features, it is imperative for incoming professionals to recognize the importance of these services. Besides being aware of the student web self-service applications, the Student Affairs professional should also be aware of the employee self- service application. This benefits employees by allowing them to access their: Vacation accrual Compensation Benefits Personal information Changing personal information such as his/her address In the class topic the graduate student will be able to examine and critique various web self-service applications to gain a better understanding of their purpose.
Technology and Judicial Affairs As previously mentioned, technology is changing many, if not, all aspects of student services. This statement would also hold true for those working with Judicial Affairs. Technology has allowed those working with judicial affairs to have online databases that keep track of judicial records. Technology programs such as Adirondak Judicial Officer have made record keeping much more practical in todays world. Technology has made Alcohols 101 CD-ROMs, and online behavior assessment tools a staple in their educational sanctioning toolkit. Students will be taught the basics of Adirondak software in this session of the class.
Week 3 Topic Discussion Because many functional areas with in student affairs show similar student information, it is necessary to have a software package that is a one-stop place to find student information. Banner is a software application that allows members from many different departments to have access to student records. The Registrars Office, the Office of Judicial Affairs, Department of Housing, Health Services, Academic Advisors, the Bursars Office, and the Financial Aid Office all are connected by their access to software such as this. Because so many departments are interconnected by software like Banner, there is a fairly good choice that the graduate students in this preparation program within the consortium will have to develop the skills required to use this software. Also in this weeks topic discussion, will be the use of online course software such as Web-CT. The class will discuss how software such as Web-CT can be of use for students outside of the academic experience.
Week 4 Topic Description Traditionally aged students on todays college and university campus have grown-up in a digital age. The era that we live in now embraces and thrives on new technologies. This spirit of embracing new technology has changed. Along with change, discussion should be held on how traditional and non-traditional students differ in the need for technology advancements. According to the few internet and American Life Project the use of computer technology such as the internet is much higher in college students than in the general population. The increase in internet usage is also prominent in non-traditional students due to the increase in distance education programs, and online courses
Student Reliance on Technology Statistics One-fifth (20%) of todays college students began using computers between the ages of 5 and 8. By the time they were 16 to 18 years old all of todays current college students had begun using computers – and the Internet was a commonplace in the world in which they lived. Eighty-six percent of college students have gone online, compared with 59% of the general population. College students are frequently looking for email, with 72% checking email at least once a day. College Internet users are twice as likely to have ever downloaded music files when compared to all Internet users: 60% of college Internet users have done so compared to 28% of the overall population. Pew Internet Group study, 2002.
Week 5 Topic Description Assessment is a process to gather and obtain information for improvement or change (Diamond, 2002). This gathered evidence describes the effectiveness of the institution. Technology has started to play an important role in assessment of Higher Education Institutions. New survey software streamlines and automates the entire process of developing a questionnaire, distributing it, responding and collecting the responses, and analyzing the results (Survey Software, 2004). By conducting online surveys the surveys may be developed quicker, allow for better presentation of questions, allow for surveys to be pre- populated with data, are easy to distribute, allow surveys to be personalized, allow for validation of responses, eliminate errors, allow for quick turn around of results, and save time and money (Survey Software, 2004).
Week 5 Topic Description cont. Conducting effective online surveys can be made easier when following six key steps: identify your objective, decide what information you need, develop a questionnaire, conduct the survey, analyze the responses, and finally a course of action should be recommended (Survey Software, 2004). It is essential that the Student Affairs Administrator understand the survey software features. The right survey can only be chosen when understanding the six survey function categories: survey creation, survey distribution and tracking, how to take the survey, response collection, survey analysis, and report distribution. A key factor that the Student Affairs Administrator must think about is whether to use a hosted version, the institution host the software with its web browser or product version, the institution must install and maintain the software and make backups on a regular basis. There are many advantages and disadvantages of each that the Student Affairs Administrator must be aware of and fully understand. Choosing survey software is key for Student Affairs Administrators. When choosing survey software Student Affairs Administrators must recognize their needs by identifying the features and how often surveys are needed to be conducted (Survey Software, 2004). Many institutions use SAS or SPSS packages for heavy stat analysis. Understanding these dominant software packages is important for the Student Affairs Administrator. Also understanding derivatives such as Clementine, AMOS, and other tools that have very powerful uses for predictive analysis.
Week 6 Topic Description This topic was chosen to introduce the graduate students to various technology related laws and legal issues that Student Affairs Practitioners need to be knowledgeable about because of the increased use of internet services. One of the main issues facing students is the breaching of Copyright laws. This is an issue that needs to be addressed because to the frequency that students piracy music and movies. Copyright laws such as the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) have been implemented in face of this trend. Copyright law regarding information has also become a hot topic. The Internets ability to provide in almost endless source of information, faculty members are faced with difficulty determining if a student has plagiarized. The second issue to address under this topic is various forms of Internet crime. Activities such as online harassment, online stealing, limits of access to obscure material and computer hacking constitute Internet crime. Issues to be considered under this topic include what do student Affairs Practitioners need to do to address these issues, how can practitioners help students who are victims of these crimes?
Week 7 Topic Description This is a continuation of the previous topic. In this session the topics of Disability issues of technology, and technological ethical conduct will be discussed. Due to the influence of the Americans with Disabilities Act, Student Affairs Practitioners must make a conscientious effort to provide access to the technologically based services that would accommodate those persons with disabilities. Students will be asked to research BOBBY compliance and assisted learning softwares. By having the students address these topics they will gain knowledge and understanding into the area of disability services.
Week 7 Topic Description cont. Ethical considerations for technology use: Ethical standards in the student service field has widely cited and implemented the principles developed by Karen Kitchener. Kitchener has suggested five principles that should be implemented in the student affairs field: Respect Autonomy Do no harm Benefit others Be just Be fair Although these principles were developed prior to technology-based services, they are still applicable in todays world. Adapting the five principles to the technology driven society of college campuses will be the primary topic of discussion. This will provide students with the chance to see how their online actions can and will be effected by ethical decision making.
Week 8 Topic Description Although the Internet has provided a plethora of benefits to its users, there are some problems associated with this new technology. One of the more pressing issues is Internet Addiction (IA). This topic is being addressed because of the amount of time college students spend on the Internet. We, as Student Affairs Practitioners need to be familiar with spotting the signs of IA and be familiar with techniques that could help the students with this type of addiction. This session will begin with an overview of Internet Addiction. Internet Addiction is considered to be a behavioral addiction akin to pathological gambling (Goldberg, 1996; Young 1998).
Recognizing Internet Addiction Internet Addiction can be recognized by the following symptoms, taken from the Illinois Institute for Addiction Recovery (2004) - Preoccupation with the Internet. (Thoughts about previous on-l line activity or anticipation of the next on-line session.) - Use of the Internet in increasing amounts of time in order to achieve satisfaction. - Repeated, unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back, or stop Internet use. - Feelings of restlessness, moodiness, depression or irritability when attempting to cut down use of the Internet. - On-line longer than originally intended. - Jeopardized or risked loss of significant relationships, job, educational or career opportunities because of Internet use. - Lies to family members, therapist, or others to conceal the extent of involvement with the Internet - Use of the Internet as a way to escape from problems or to relieve a dysphoric mood. (e.g., feelings of hopelessness, guilt, anxiety, depression.)
Internet Addiction Strategies As Student Affairs Administrators continue to become more involved with technological services, it is essential for the incoming and current professionals to understand how Internet Addiction can be detrimental to the students. To help students cope with Internet Addiction, Dr. Kimberly Young has created five strategies that should be implemented in student service offices. These strategies are: - Educate administrators and faculty on the dynamics of Internet abuse to raise awareness and prevention throughout the campus system. - Implement resident life educational programs that address student Internet addiction. Similar to alcohol awareness and prevention programs on campus, resident life programs that educate students on the warning signs and risk factors of Internet addiction are known to promote early detection and reduce incidence. - Encourage students to seek counseling when Internet-triggered problems arise.
Internet Addiction Strategies cont. - Emphasize the importance of student participation in the social world the campus offers. Campuses offer a variety of social clubs and organizations for student involvement and growth and administrators are now actively encouraging students to join these clubs and to get offline. Bring in campus speakers to discuss cyber-behavior to help expand students understanding of the implications of this new technology (Young, 2001) In this course topic, we would like the students to develop a sense of the symptoms and problems associated with Internet Addiction. Also, we want to be able to provide students with the resources needed to help those students who may be afflicted with Internet Addiction
Week 9 Topic Description This topic will introduce students to ways Student Affairs Practitioners have created on-line communities and what is needed to create effective online communities. This topic will also provide the graduate students a model to see how Social Interaction theories are being implemented within these on-line communities. To build an Online community, students will be asked to reference the online source Seven Steps to Building Electronic Communities. As a project for this topic Students will be asked to work in groups to propose an online community for Student Affairs.Seven Steps to Building Electronic Communities Examples of Online Communities include: North Carolina State Universitys WolfwebWolfweb Student.com
Week 9 Topic Description cont. Banduras social learning theory emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others (T.I.P. 2003). Todays students participate in an ever increasing amount of online interactions. Although the majority available on the topic of web-based interactions paints a negative picture, it is possible to have positive social interactions online. The relationships developed in online settings can be as important for social interaction learning as the interactions people encounter on face-to-face basis. It is important to remember that the internet provides a new culture in which people are interacting. As students participate in these online interactions, they are learning ways to communicate by seeing how other users are acting in the community.
Week 10 Topic Description Understanding new technology available for todays Higher Education Institutions is essential for Student Affairs Administrators. One of the latest and most advanced forms of identification is the Smart card. Smart cards are students identification card that includes their picture on the front with a computer chip and a magnetic stripe on the back (Blumenstyk, 1999). Embedded in the plastic of a smart card are electronic components capable of memory and processing (Roach, 1999). Smart cards may be used for security in residence halls, computer labs, and other areas that need to be protected. Other uses of the smart card is library check out, paying for student services, accessing campus activities, and use of card as a bank card or credit card. Understanding what a Smart Card is, how the Student Affairs Administrator may implement it on campus, and the advantages and disadvantages of this all encompassing identification card is important for any professional.
Week 11 Topic Description It is imperative for the Student Affairs Administrator to evaluate the technological skill levels of the students, staff, and faculty when technology is being used in most aspects of the campus. Student Affairs Administrators must learn how to prepare in-services so that they may regularly update the faculty and staff on the new technology changes. For faculty and staff that need more than updates regular workshops must be offered so that there is adequate knowledge and skill level of the technological resources. Many students today enter their first year of college with vast knowledge of technology but what about those who may be behind or are coming back to college after many years off? The Student Affairs Administrator must learn how to adequately access a students knowledge of technology and train students so that they can perform well at a secondary institution that relies on technology. For some institutions this may be a workshop offered for students but other it may be incorporating technology-learning sessions into the classroom, or a special class for those students that may not be adequately prepared. In this topic Student Affairs Administrators will learn how to evaluate students skills levels, the best ways to teach different technological aspects, how to plan a workshop, and how to prepare a successful in-service.
Week 12 Topic Description This topic will address the issue of technology accessibility. Primarily, this topic will discuss the problems faced by persons with disabilities. Student Affairs Practitioners need to be cognizant of the requirements imposed on technology by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 and Rehabilitation Act of 1973.requirements Providing web-based services increases access to the technology available at the university. Student Affairs Practitioners have the responsibility of making sure that the services they provide to increase access to technology, do not at the same time inhibit access for students with disabilities. Since Student Affairs Practitioners are providing more technology based services, they must take the effort to be familiar with the ADA stipulations. Those institutions who do not provide compliant web-based services, can be faced with law suits under the ADA. Students will be asked to research the various requirements imposed by the ADA and provide evaluations of the web-based services compliance with the ADA and the Rehabilitation Act.
Week 13 Topic Description In 1996, the then Presidents of ACPA and NASPA, initiated a joint association effort to create a document would be seen as a guide for quality practice in Student Affairs. The result of this collaboration was the establishment of Principles of Good Practice for Student Affairs. The Seven Principles are: - Engages students in active learning. - Helps students develop coherent values and ethical standards. - Sets and communicates high expectation for student learning. - Uses systematic inquiry to improve student and institutional performance. - Uses resources effectively to achieve institutional missions and goals. - Forges educational partnerships that advance student learning. - Builds supportive and inclusive communities.
Week 13 Topic Description cont. This topic will address how technological student services are being implemented while still applying the Principles of Good Practice. Students will be asked to assess online student services to see if they are making use of the Principles of Good Practice. To aid in this assessment activity, students should make use of the technology continuum, and decision-making outline provided by Boulais and Sturgis (2003).continuumdecision-making
Week 14 Topic Description The topic of discussion this week is the use of web-portals by Student Affairs Practitioners. Web-portals are websites that act like a door way to a group of similarly related websites. Offering web-portals is becoming an increasingly apparent trend among many colleges and universities. To understand this trend, students will be asked to research web-portals of different universities, and then create a sample web-portal site for their institution. This topic will provide the students with an increased knowledge base of the technology needed to create web-portals.
Using models to create web portals Using the model from Santa Barbara City College, and other models that students can find through research, they will be asked to create sample web portals for Student Affairs division at their respective school.
References Introduction to survey software. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2004, from http://www.web-based-survey-software.org/index.php?tpl=wbss/wisshttp://www.web-based-survey-software.org/index.php?tpl=wbss/wiss Conduct online surveys or be left out. (n.d.) Retrieved February 12, 2004, from http://www.web-based-survey-software.org/index.php?tpl=wbss/cosoblo http://www.web-based-survey-software.org/index.php?tpl=wbss/cosoblo How to conduct effective online surveys. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2004, from http://www.web-based-survey- software.org/index.php?tpl=wbss/htceoshttp://www.web-based-survey- software.org/index.php?tpl=wbss/htceos Understanding survey software features. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2004, from http://www.web-based-survey-software.org/index.php?tpl=wbss/ussf http://www.web-based-survey-software.org/index.php?tpl=wbss/ussf Hosted or posted?. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2004, from http://www.web-based-survey-software.org/index.php?tbl=wbss/hophttp://www.web-based-survey-software.org/index.php?tbl=wbss/hop Procedures for Section 508 compliance. (n.d.). Retrieved February 13, 2004, from http://www.iddl.vt.edu/red/accessibility/ http://www.iddl.vt.edu/red/accessibility/ ACPA & NASPA. (1997). Principles of good practice in Student Affairs. Retrieved February 10, 2004, from http://acpa.nche.edu/pgp/principle.htmhttp://acpa.nche.edu/pgp/principle.htm Beard, K. W. (2002). Internet addiction: current status and implications for employees. Journal of Employment Counseling, 39, 2-11. Blumenstyk, G. (1999, September 10). Some students think smart identification cards go too far. Chronicle of Higher Education, 46(3), A39.
References continued Boulais, N. & Sturgis, T. (2003, October). Changing the channel: Using technology effectively in Student Affairs. Student Affairs Online, Article 3. Retrieved February 9, 2004, from http://www.studentaffairs.com/ejournal/Fall_2003/ChangingtheChannel.htm http://www.studentaffairs.com/ejournal/Fall_2003/ChangingtheChannel.htm Brown, S. J., & Malaney, G. D. (2001). How NASPA Members Use the Internet, NASPA Journal, 38(3), 302-325. Coopersmith, S. (n.d.). Study: Students Depend on Web. Retrieved February 10, 2004, from http://www.youngmoney.com/print.asp/328http://www.youngmoney.com/print.asp/328 Hall, A. S., & Parsons, J. (2001). Internet Addiction: College Student Case Study Using Best Practices in Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23(4), 312-327. Hamre, W., & Pickett, R. (2002). Building Portals for Higher Education. New Directions for Institutional Research, 113, 37-55. Hansen, S. (2000). Excessive Internet usage or Internet Addiction? The implications of diagnostic categories for student users, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18, 232-236. Kennedy, M. (2002). Wired for protection. American School & University, 74(10), 50B. Kitchener, K.S. (1985). Ethical principles and ethical decisions in student affairs. In H.J. Canon & R.D. Brown (Eds.), Applied ethics in student services (New directions for student services No. 30, 17-30). SF, Jossey Bass.
References continued Komives, S. R. (2004). The Changing Nature of Work in Higher Education, In C. S. Johnson, & H. E. Cheatham (Eds.), Higher Education trends for the next century: A research agenda for student success [Electronic version]. Kruger, K. (2003, Fall). Online Student Services: Where is your Campus?. Leadership Exchange, 23-24. McGowan, M. (2000, April). Author paints picture of modern college students during NIU visit. Northern Today, 1-2. Moneta, L. (2001, January 8). Online and physical services: A Student Affairs paradox. Netresults [Electronic version]. Retrieved February 9, 2004, from http://www.naspa.org/membership/mem/nr/article.cofm?id=87http://www.naspa.org/membership/mem/nr/article.cofm?id=87 Pew Internet Group. (2002, September 15). The Internet goes to college: How students are living in the future with todays technology. Retrieved February 10, 2004, from http://www.pewinternet.org/reports/toc.asp?Report=71http://www.pewinternet.org/reports/toc.asp?Report=71 Roach, R. (2001, March 15). AOL Time Warner playing a part in bridging the technology gap. Black Issues in Higher Education, 18(2), 34-37. Roach, R. (1999, August 19). The Higher Education technology revolution. Black Issues n Higher Education, 16(13), 92-96. Silverman, T. (2001). Expanding community: the internet and relational theory. Community, Work & Family, 4(2), 231-238.
References continued Sun Microsystems. (1998). Higher Education and information technology trends and issues. Palo Alto, CA: Baltzer-Sutton Associates. Upcraft, M.L. & Terenzini, P.T. (1997). Looking beyond the horizon: Trends shaping Student Affairs. In C.S. Johnson, & H.E. Cheatham (Eds.), Higher Education trends for the next century: A research agenda for student success [Electronic version].
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