Presentation on theme: "FIVE HOT TOPICS IN CAMPUS TECHNOLOGY: Presentation for the Deans Council Jillian Bracken, Anna Hobby, and Bryan Schlein The Florida State University."— Presentation transcript:
FIVE HOT TOPICS IN CAMPUS TECHNOLOGY: Presentation for the Deans Council Jillian Bracken, Anna Hobby, and Bryan Schlein The Florida State University
Technology is not a panacea for everything that ails higher education. Rather than believing that every[one]… should be using technology, we need to think strategically. Where can we use technology intelligently to make a real difference to our institutions in confronting… critical issues? - Carol Twigg (2005) - president of the National Center for Academic Transformation
Goals of Presentation To examine five areas of technology that play important roles in a university setting, focusing on issues that affect the daily lives of students, staff, and faculty members. To highlight technological trends in higher education and include literature and resource references that are relevant to and useful for the Deans Council. To provide interactive web links to supplemental websites within the presentation to allow for hands-on interaction with recommended sources. To objectively outline the benefits & drawbacks of each identified issue.
Clarification of Presentation Terminology Internet (noun): a large computer network linking smaller computer networks worldwide. Online (adjective): operating under the direct control of, or connected to, a main computer (opposed to off-line); connected by computer to one or more other computers or networks, as through a commercial electronic information service or the Internet. E-mail (noun): a system for sending messages from one individual to another via telecommunications links between computers or terminals. List Server (noun): any program that distributes messages to a mailing list; the mailing list that receives the messages is often called a ListServ. E-Commerce (noun): commerce that is managed electronically, as over the Internet. Cybersecurity (noun): precautions taken to guard against crime, attack, sabotage, espionage, etc. as they pertain to the Internet and/or on-line computer activity.
What is a blog? –An online diary that acts as a personal chronological log of thoughts published on a Web page. It is also called a weblog or web log. –To blog is to write entries in, add material to, or maintain a weblog. Uses of the blog: (taken from www.educause.edu/eli/)www.educause.edu/eli/ –Engage people in knowledge sharing, reflection, and debate; they often attract a large and dedicated readership. –An important component of the Internet landscape, providing authors and readers with an avenue for unedited expression, reaction, and connection, without the censorship of mediated chat rooms or formal media outlets. Because blogs are so easy to make and maintain, open discussions can be easily created at any point in time, allowing for input from members of the Internet community on any topic. Blogs foster the growth of communities, and the dynamics of collaborative filtering and recommending/referring may provide new ways to evaluate, vet, and critique student- created knowledge. Topic 1: Blogging Importance of Issue and an In-depth Look at the Issue
Blogging is changing the way that people interact with one another.
Topic 1: Blogging Benefits and Concerns A blog allows students a way to talk about themselves and their concerns openly whenever they want to. Blogs are maintained by individuals and may include information that is inaccurate. Blogs are unmediated and are often used as a soap box for individuals to voice their own opinions and beliefs. A blog may include content that has been used without proper attribution. Colleges and universities should also keep a close eye on blogs that are hosted on institutional servers: It should be made clear that an individuals blog does not ever state the opinion of the institution nor is a blog considered to represent the institution. Blogs are highly volatile. Bloggers can edit or delete posts, and this transient nature can make blogs difficult to archive or index. A concern for many institutions is the anonymous blog since it is impossible to address where a certain allegation (be it directed towards a university administrator or faculty member) is coming from. Robert Iosue, President of York College of Pennsylvania, stated in his 2006 letter to the CHE blogging anonymously… should give colleges the incentive to frame new protocols, just as they did with anonymous letters. If faculty members do not deal with this growing issue, they can expect rumor, innuendo, and strife to dominate their campuses.
Topic 1: Blogging Benefits and Concerns Blogs in Education (http://awd.cl.uh.edu/blog/) discusses the possibilities for beneficial use of blogs for both students and instructors:http://awd.cl.uh.edu/blog/ Options for instructors using blogs: –Content-related blog as professional practice –Networking and personal knowledge sharing –Instructional tips for students –Course announcements and readings –Annotated links –Knowledge management Options for students using blogs in your courses include: –Reflective or writing journals –Knowledge management –Assignment submission and review –Dialogue for group work; share course-related resources
The Pros and Cons of Blogging: Although blogs allow for students to easily share their ideas, sometimes the allegations made within blog postings can have serious implications for university administrators.
Topic 1: Blogging Case Study: State University of New York College of Technology at Alfred (as reported in the Chronicle of Higher Educations 2006 article entitled Attack of the Blog) –Summer of 2005: College president Uma G. Gupta was attacked in student blog – called abysmal and incompetent. –Disgruntled employees at the institution posted similar complaints. –December 2005: SUNY officials investigated tension between administrators and faculty members at the institution; found the blog to be symbolic of a troubled campus stating that the absence of on-campus venues for open communication had caused complaints to be aired through blogs. –Within a year, the institution pushed for a vote of no-confidence in Ms. Gupta as president. –Ms. Gupta soon resigned from her post. –The student blogger remained anonymous throughout entire situation. Ms. Gupta describes the predicament she faced as a Hobsons choice: If she tried shutting down the blog, she would be viciously attacked for violating principles of academic freedom. But if she let the blog sit online, she would let unfounded allegations take hold and help dictate the future of her presidency. Ms. Gupta blames the blog for the breakdown in communications, but professors… say the administration never seemed interested in communicating with the faculty. –Issue of free speech vs. unfounded allegations. –Brings to light the need for outlets for students, staff, and faculty to voice concerns to prevent complaints from being voiced anonymously and without any basis; this could be through the creation of a university blog system.
Topic 1: Blogging Resources to Address the Concern Sample University Blog System – University of Minnesota UThink Blogs http://blog.lib.umn.edu/ - UThink blogs are available to the faculty, staff, and students of the University of Minnesota, and are intended to support teaching and learning, scholarly communication, and individual expression for the U of M community. Information about Anonymous Blogging http://www.eff.org/Privacy/Anonymity/blog-anonymously.php http://www.eff.org/Privacy/Anonymity/blog-anonymously.php - Gives information to people wanting to maintain anonymous blogs: useful information for an administrator faced with the situation of addressing an anonymous blogger. Frequently Asked Questions for Student Bloggers http://www.eff.org/bloggers/lg/faq-students.php http://www.eff.org/bloggers/lg/faq-students.php - Discusses issues of safety and security, laws governing free speech and what institutions can do in response to blog content HigherEd Blog: Transforming academic communities with new tools of the social web - http://www.higheredblogcon.com/http://www.higheredblogcon.com/ - Admissions information, alumni relations, communication and marketing, library resources, teaching resources, and websites and web development.
Institutional Spam is defined as the policy under which mass communication from the institution to students or groups of students is permitted or not permitted, and the corresponding approval process for submitting requests. Lazar, J., Preece, J. (2003) state that, spam is becoming an increasing problem. One estimate is that the amount of spam has increased 600% in the last year, another estimate is that 12-15% of all e-mail traffic is spam. Institutions are worried about the amount of emails that are being sent out to students that may be taking up space not only in the email accounts of students but also on university servers. There are two main ways that institutions are filtering spam: 1) spam filters; and 2) message moderation. Filters use computer programs to identify individual emails as potential spam, whereas message moderation can be done manually or through a computer programs that evaluates emails sent to groups. Many institutions are developing guidelines in which the institution and student groups must follow for their emails not to be considered institutional spam. Many of these guidelines follow the institutional mission. Topic 2: Institutional Spam Importance of Issue and an In-depth Look at the Issue
Topic 2: Institutional Spam Benefits and Drawbacks Questions to consider when making decisions regarding institutional spam: –Is it ethically right for institutions to filter the email communication of students, faculty and staff? –Should spam automatically be deleted before arriving to an email box or should it be filtered and put into an email folder labeled junk email? –How long should spam be kept on an institutional server before it is deleted. (Many schools are deleting spam after 7 days if unread. This has saved space on institutional servers.) Institutions should look at sending out a minimal amount of institutional spam. Some schools have started limited mass emails to one email a week sent out from a central office. The central office approves all information that is contained in the email through developed guidelines. Filtering spam has limited the amount of viruses that infect campus computers. Moderated ListServs assist in eliminating institutional Spam. All information is moderated before being sent out and only those who subscribe to the ListServ receive the information.
Topic 2: Institutional Spam Resources to Address the Concern The University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College: Campus Community Email Guidelines http://blue.utb.edu/newsandinfo/Pages/campus_community_email_guidelines.htm Creates clear Criteria that must be met for mass email distribution: Email should be news worthy & relevant to faculty, staff, & students Minimal deadlines for submittal Length of article Must be written in third person No personal events should be advertised Sample Publicity Request Form: https://blue.utb.edu/newsandinfo/news/publicity_requestform.htm https://blue.utb.edu/newsandinfo/news/publicity_requestform.htm Cranfield University UBE Spam Reduction Policy http://www.cranfield.ac.uk/ccc/email/siteblocking.html http://www.cranfield.ac.uk/ccc/email/siteblocking.html - Discusses what spam is and why it is bad. This site gives helpful tips on what it means to block sites and gives great suggestions for students and administrators who may be looking to address spam issues.
Student Interactions Technology has played a major role in changing the interactions students have with each other and with the institution as a whole. Students have less face-to-face contact (not only with each other, but with campus administrators) because so many essential university services are available online. The introduction of an increased number of online and/or virtual classrooms gives students the opportunity to take classes without ever stepping foot on a college campus. This can limit student interactions to only online communication. Students use of individual entertainment and communication devices, including iPods and cell phones, can isolate students and affect their ability to confront their peers. The social networking sites Facebook (www.facebook.com) and MySpace (www.myspace.com) have greatly influence student interaction and the overall campus atmosphere at many institutions. They have raised issues of privacy and identity protection due to the amount of information that students make available to the Internet community.www.facebook.comwww.myspace.com Student Internet Use Students increased use of the Internet for blogging, e-mail, and text messaging (through popular programs like AOL Instant Messenger and MSN Messenger) has resulted in the creation of an Internet-specific language. This language uses abbreviations, acronyms, phonetics, emoticons (picture symbols used to represent emotions), and slang terminology. A sample of Internet Speech is given on the next slide. Topic 3: Technology & Student Culture Importance of Issue and an In-depth Look at the Issue
Taken from NetLingo: The Internet Dictionary (http://www.netlingo.com/)http://www.netlingo.com/ An Attempt at Instant Message Translation: Early on Sunday morning, an extraordinary event occurred to one of our local three clowns. Jenny arrived at church Sunday morning and she was introduced to a young man named Brad. There was an immediate connection between the two. Brad asked if Jenny would come over during the service and would help lead the three clowns in a praise song. She happily agreed. Through the course of the morning, there was plenty of smiling and interaction. Jenny immediately was interested in Brad. Later, in an interview, Jenny confessed that she thought Brad was nice and a good Christian. She said he was a different kind of nice and there was something different about him. This story is far from over. There will inevitably be a friendship that will later start. The changing face of college student communication – IM (instant messenger) language is appearing in both informal computer-based student conversations & in academic papers.
Topic 3: Technology & Student Culture Benefits and Drawbacks Computers have become commonplace in the college classroom, as more and more institutions implement policies mandating that every student on campus has a computer. Although the computer can be seen as a helpful tool for note-taking in class, students will often become distracting by the opportunity their computer provides them to surf the Internet, check e-mail and/or send instant messages (IM) to friends.
Plagiarism and Collaboration Students use their computers to access information to complete class assignments, often searching for articles and books through online electronic journal databases and online library catalogues. A national survey published in Education Week found that 54% of students admitted to plagiarizing from the internet; 74% of students admitted that at least once during the past school year they had engaged in "serious" cheating; and 47% of students believe their teachers sometimes choose to ignore students who are cheating. (http://www.plagiarism.org/technology.html)http://www.plagiarism.org/technology.html Students can sometimes struggle to establish what information on the Internet can be seen as credible or scholarly, often leading to academic references of poor quality. One of the most popular sight that students are using more and more is Wikipedia. (www.wikipedia.com)www.wikipedia.com "[Plagiarism] is one of those areas in the academy that no one wants to talk about and is often rewarded for not addressing actively." -- an Associate VP of Student Life, as posted in The Chronicle of Higher Education's "Colloquy." Topic 3: Technology & Student Culture Importance of Issue and an In-depth Look at the Issue
Internet language gives students the chance to explore and create a new means of communicating. The downside to this is that students are using Internet language in their assignments, causing them to often receive poor grades because of their spelling/grammar choices. Teachers are struggling to understand Internet language and are not willing to reward it with positive grades. Internet language is valuable to students because it is more like talking than writing and allows for a less-formal means of communication among their peers. Students find using internet language assists them in completing assignments quickly and writing rough drafts, which they edit later. Kristin Philipkoski (2005) states that, traditional linguists fear the internet damages our ability to articulate properly but she challenges us to recognize that communicating using instant messenger, text messaging, even blogging are changing the way humans communicate. Institutions need to work to actively monitor plagiarism on campus. Use of services like Turnitin (www.turnitin.com) can work to monitor student use of plagiarized material. This site features several success stories of institutions who strengthened their honor codes through plagiarism detection with the help of the Turnitin software.www.turnitin.com Gilroy (2004), reports that as institutions struggle with technology policy- making, college officials are asking student governments 'to lend a hand. Two years ago, at the, University of Nebraska, the student association considered a bill that would ban-cell phones in classrooms; however, since there was no means of enforcement, they voted to post signs in every classroom reminding students to turn off their cellular phones during class. The policy has had limited success. Professors report that when they don't allow calls in-class, students get up and walk out to take them in the halls. Although technology can be an excellent tool to communicate with students and advertise on-campus events, it will be an ongoing challenge for colleges to pull their students away from their iPods and cell phones to interact with each other in more traditional on-campus social events. Topic 3: Technology & Student Culture Benefits and Drawbacks
Topic 3: Technology & Student Culture Resources to Address the Concern Meet the Millennials: The Net Generation Goes to College Tech-savvy 'Millennials' have lots of gadgets, like to multitask, & expect to control what, when, & how they learn. Should colleges cater to them? (http://chronicle.com/free/v52/i07/07a03401.htm)http://chronicle.com/free/v52/i07/07a03401.htm This article gives an excellent overview of who the millennial generation is, what they expect of their college experience and sheds light on the future of student technology on college campuses. Born between roughly 1980 and 1994, the Millennials have already been pegged and defined by academics, trend spotters, and futurists: They are smart but impatient. They expect results immediately. They carry an arsenal of electronic devices -- the more portable the better. Raised amid a barrage of information, they are able to juggle a conversation on Instant Messenger, a Web-surfing session, and an iTunes playlist while reading Twelfth Night for homework. Whether or not they are absorbing the fine points of the play is a matter of debate. Preventing Plagiarism http://www.plagiarism.org/research_site/e_home.html Helpful information on what plagiarism is, how to identify and prevent it, and answers to questions about fair use, public domain and copyright laws. http://www.plagiarism.org/research_site/e_home.html Dealing with Facebook (www.facebook) There are many helpful examples of how institutions have responded to Facebook:www.facebook http://www.hastings.edu/downloads/FBnotice.htm (Hastings College)http://www.hastings.edu/downloads/FBnotice.htm http://www.goucher.edu/x14095.xml (Goucher College)http://www.goucher.edu/x14095.xml http://www.rollins.edu/it/policies/facebook.shtml (Rollins College)http://www.rollins.edu/it/policies/facebook.shtml http://www.cit.cornell.edu/policy/memos/facebook.html (Cornell U)http://www.cit.cornell.edu/policy/memos/facebook.html http://www.stedwards.edu/counsel/images/Centre%20College%20Facebook.ppt
Topic 4: Network Security Identified as top concern due to increasing use of internet as means of disseminating important information – New York Times (2006) reported that a study by Public Policy Institute for AARP last July, using data compiled by Identity Theft Resource Center, determined that of 90 million records reportedly compromised in various breaches between Jan 1, 2005, and May 26, 2006, 43 % were at educational institutions. They cited UCLA and University of Colorado at Boulder as examples. Networks are used for e-mail and ListServ communication, distance education/on-line courses, e-commerce (paying tuition, buying books online), digital archives, data management, and is the gateway for most student interaction with the institution. Increased reliability on network to support university makes security of the information an utmost priority. Information like credit card numbers & Social Security numbers are shared through networks on a daily basis. Peterson (2004), a policy analyst for the Educause Security Task Force, commented in his letter to the editor of the Chronicle of Higher Education that cybersecurity is a serious issue… and universities must do their part to improve the security of campus networks and information systems. More awareness needed: Kernan (2005) states that colleges lack plans for recovering from security breaches and other problems. Importance of Issue and an In-depth Look at the Concern
There is a great need for increased education and awareness about the fragility of an institutions network: information should be given to students, staff and faculty through training that strives to educate students, staff, and faculty on the benefits and dangers of using a network for academic and business purposes. Special attention should be given to educating students on how to know when it is safe to put personal information (credit card numbers, SSNs) out on a network. The business side of institution should be heavily monitored and secured – money and information transactions requires institution to be extra mindful of cybersecurity. Many institutions have moved to having tuition payments, housing payments, meal-plan payments, etc. all on-line. Keep a close eye on network usage: policies need to be established to address and adjudicate violations of specified guidelines. Risk Assessment is a must – efforts must be made to identify risks in network security; develop measures to address problems and maintain the safety of confidential information Network management is a very costly process. Ongoing assessment and upgrades are needed, and staff are necessary to monitor network on an ongoing basis. Topic 4: Network Security Benefits and Drawbacks
With the Internet comes access to a world of information and communication. Higher Education Administrators need to work to keep their institutions network safe to make sure that the Internet serves students in the most positive, and safest, way possible.
Topic 4: Network Security Resources to Address the Concern Sample Ad for mandatory antivirus software required on all computers at Temple University. Mandatory antivirus software on all on- campus computers is an excellent way to maintain network security at the most basic level. In this particular case, students and staff at the institution were provided with this software at no cost.
Resources to Address the Concern Suggested Resource: EDUCAUSE (www.educase.edu) Transforming Education through Information Technologieswww.educase.edu EDUCAUSE/Internet Security Task Force http://www.educause.edu/security http://www.educause.edu/security - Tip on how to handle sensitive or personal data - Resource Center: Cyber Awareness - Discussion Group on Security Topics - Data Incident Notification Tool - Information Security Governance Assessment Tool - Framework to conduct Risk Assessment - Research and Educational Networking Information Sharing and Analysis Center (REN-ISAC) EDUCAUSE Cybersecurity Resource Center http://www.educause.edu/cybersecurity http://www.educause.edu/cybersecurity Effective IT Security Practices Guide https://wiki.internet2.edu/confluence/display/secguide/ https://wiki.internet2.edu/confluence/display/secguide/ Topic 4: Network Security
Sustainability is a very relevant and important buzzword in the institutional setting; the ability to upgrade and maintain current and cutting edge technological resources for students, staff, faculty and administrators is going to be a large indicator of institutional success in the future. The definition of sustainability is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). Elfland (2006) commented that colleges and universities are ideally positioned to be leaders in demonstrating the economic benefits of sustainable design and construction in her discussion of the future of campus design. Sustainability in the college environment is important both for the economic status of an institution, and to students who will be benefiting from a campus that teaches and challenges them to take care of their resources and plan for the future. Sustainability in technology planning is extremely important. Technology changes constantly, and finding practices that prevent waste due to materials that will quickly become outdated is key. If administrators, faculty and staff cannot use these resources and work with the changes then the upgrades are waste. Topic 5: Sustainability Importance of Issue and an In-depth Look at the Concern
Technology is becoming a key factor in prospective students college search and in maintaining current students. Valuable technology resources attract and retain students. With so many technological upgrades and advances, it can be a struggle to keep on top of the latest trends.
"Many faculty members, particularly those from the liberal arts and humanities, have approached technology with a certain wariness and skepticism. They still wonder, 'Does technology genuinely enhance learning?' Some ask, 'How can technology really advance our understanding of the language in Hamlet, for example?' Yet more and more tech-savvy professors are also coming to see the extraordinary value of research access through technology in ways that older scholarship models simply could not provide. Blackboard, even to the skeptics, offers tools to develop a bond between professors and students that was never possible in the past. - Fedo (2007) – from the Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(18), B7. Topic 5: Sustainability Importance of Issue and an In-depth Look at the Concern
According to the Mobile Wireless Outlook Report, by the end of 2002, fully half of the U.S. labor force had wireless voice, pagers, or mobile computing devices. The centers report further says that by some estimates, "one-third of the worlds population will own a wireless device by 2008." Since colleges typically are well ahead of business on the technology curve, those numbers are almost certainly larger for higher education (Briggs, 2007) Information like this shows that college campuses must keep up with technological advances. One of the major facets of upgrades currently is having a wireless campus, with wireless academic buildings, outdoor areas, and residence halls. Strategic and Master Plans must account for these types of upgrades in order to remain competitive. Strategic planning for residence halls must look very hard at what technological resources need to be figured in to the plan. Plans often take several years to come to fruition, so in order to keep up with the millennial generation of digital natives administrators must plan for the future; retinal scanners, completely wireless buildings, and media connectivity are all things that are now current. Trainings and support opportunities are becoming necessary for faculty, staff, and administrators as upgrades are made to the university. All the technology in the world is of no use to the university if it is not understand and used to its fullest capabilities. Making technology training a mandatory part of working for the institution is one way to sustain resources. Topic 5: Sustainability Importance of Issue and an In-depth Look at the Concern
Many companies are looking to get their technological advances used, so cost can be lower than one thinks to upgrade. At Arizona State University, President Crow stated we're not paying for student e-mail services or student home pages anymore. Somebody else is doing that. And we take all the resources that we've saved and flip them into innovation. We had digital bandwidth we weren't using that people had been protecting like cavemen for 30 years. We leased it to Sprint for $30-million and now have a new revenue source. So we're not letting finances become the barrier. With so many technological advances being made every day, and the plethora of programs and software, CIOs are in a position where they really need to look at what assessment and outcomes have come from different technologies before purchasing them. This requires a lot of time and research which can be a drawback and a hindrance to sustainability. One drawback to upgrading and sustaining technology is that Faculty are often not excited about learning new material, and students arent excited about increased technology fees. Upgrading technology resources can cut labor costs, this is seen as both a negative and a positive depending on the perspective. It is, however, a creative way nonetheless to upgrade without increasing costs. Topic 5: Sustainability Benefits and Drawbacks
Campus Technology – Education Technology for Higher Education (http://www.campustechnology.com)http://www.campustechnology.com –Find information and resources about technology as they relate to higher education. –Includes a listing of conferences on campus technology. The 21 st Century Project (http://www.21stcenturyproject.com/)http://www.21stcenturyproject.com/ –The 21st Century Project of the Association of College and University Housing Officers–International (ACUHO-I) is a multi-phased initiative leading to the construction of a new, state-of-the-art residential facility for colleges and universities. In addition to creating one or more prototype residential facilities on several campuses, the project will assist colleges and universities in designing new residential facilities that reflect the ever-changing roles that residences play in the collegiate experience. Educause Professional Development Opportunities (http://www.educause.edu/pd)http://www.educause.edu/pd –Learn about professional development opportunities at EDUCAUSE whose mission is to advance higher education by promoting the intelligent use of information technology. Topic 5: Sustainability Resources to Address the Concern
Today, technology can be seen in almost every aspect of higher education, whether it is student services and human resources software, course management systems for on-site and distance courses, the increase in communication with students via e-mail, laptops in classrooms, hybrid classes, faculty in one state teaching for institutions in another via distance, or faster and greater access to research materials via the Internet. How technology will affect higher education in the future is hard to predict, but there is no reason to believe that efforts to expand the use of technology will abate. - American Federation of Teachers Website (http://www.aft.org/topics/tech-highered/index.htm)
Additional Resources Not Previously Listed in Presentation Briggs, Linda L. (2007). Funding Your Next Wireless Project. Retrieved on 02/16/07 from Campus Technology Magazine (http://campustechnology.com). Gilroy, M. (2004). Invasion of the Classroom Cellphones. Educational Digest, 69(6), 56-60. Hemphill, B. O., Coakley, M. J., & Baumann, J. A. (2006). Futuristic Dialogue: Plotting the Course of College Housing. Retrieved on 02/15/07 from NETRESULTS, NASPA. http://www.naspa.org. http://www.naspa.org Iosue, R. V. (2006). Bloggers vs. college administrators – letter to the editor. The Chronicle for Higher Education, 53(8), 63. Kiernan, V. (2005). More college say security is top technology concern, survey finds. The Chronicle of Higher Education, Information Technology Section, 42. Hughes, J. R., Siegel, P.M., & Suess, J. J. (2007). Higher education-industry collaborations to improve security. George Mason University, University of California, Davis, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, ID: NMD07006. Lazar, J., & Preece, J. (2003). Stop the Spam. Chi2003, Extended Abstracts (CD-ROM). Managing IT From the Top Down (2007). The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved on 02/10/07 from http://chronicle.com, Volume 53, Issue 18, Page B1.http://chronicle.com Philipkoski, K. (2005). The web not the death of language. Retrieved on 02/10/07 from Wired News http://www.wired.com/news/culture/0,1284,66671,00.html.http://www.wired.com/news/culture/0,1284,66671,00.html The good, the bad, and the future in campus design (2006); The Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(34), 28 Twigg, C., & Stoll, C. (2005). Face-off: Technology as teacher. The Chronicle for Higher Education, 52(16), 12. World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987) Our Common Future. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press. Zeller, T. (2006). Link by link; An ominous milestone: 100 million data leaks. New York Times, Business/Financial Desk Late Edition, C3(3).