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Hot Topics in Technology for Higher Education University of Central Arkansas Committee for the Deans Council LaCresha Henderson Danielle Joanette NuRodney.

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Presentation on theme: "Hot Topics in Technology for Higher Education University of Central Arkansas Committee for the Deans Council LaCresha Henderson Danielle Joanette NuRodney."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hot Topics in Technology for Higher Education University of Central Arkansas Committee for the Deans Council LaCresha Henderson Danielle Joanette NuRodney Prad Justin Varghese

2 Whats Bringing the Heat? University Spam Blogs LGBTQ Online Distance Education Online Safety/Training

3 Whats Hot about Spam? Spam is the the mass-posting of emails sent to Internet users through many copies or different messages in an effort to impose the information onto people who would not otherwise select to obtain it. The Importance of addressing spam has to do with three areas: Knowing the Harmful issues Discussing the benefits of Preventative Measures Future Implications Spam costs the correspondent very little to send as most of the expenditures are paid or by the receiver or the delivery service rather than by the sender. The majority of spam is commercial advertising typically about unsure products, pyramid scams, quasi-legal services, or get-rich-quick schemes.

4 Fool me once, shame on you; fool me twice, shame on me. Identity Safety is threatened when spammers partake in Phishing By E-mail Phishers are people who attempt to steal your personal information and then your money. The person then sells the data to a "Casher" who is setup to use the data for identity theft, printing credit cards or just stealing your money. Pretending to be from your financial institution, a legitimate retailer or government agency, the emails will contain a link that looks real, saying something like "Click here to Update your account" or to confirm your personal information. Typically, the link will direct you to a fake website that are near-replicas of the real one, making it hard even for experts to distinguish between the real and fake web sites. You enter your personal information onto the web site – and into the hands of identity thieves. The emails can look very official, please click to see samples Phishing: A way spam ends up in your inbox

5 Issues with Spam on Our Campus Issue 1: Time Constraints Spam also hurts consumers. Many people still pay hourly rates for Internet access, including those who use wireless Internet services and business travelers who download e-mail while on the road. These consumers have to pay for the time they spend downloading these unsolicited messages to their computer from the Internet. It takes 10 seconds to recognize that an email contains spam 60 spam emails takes 10 minutes of your time to delete When you click remove from list it automatically doubles the amount of time it takes to delete spam If each student takes 20 minutes a day to delete spam at the University of Central Arkansas that equates to: 20 minutes x 12,000 students = 4,000 hours of wasted learning time each day

6 Issue 2: Harm to Computers Most Internet Service Providers (ISPs) also limit the space available in account mailboxes for consumers to store e-mail messages. Spam fills mailbox space that consumers could utilize for other purposes. Viruses, Trojans, and other malicious scripts can attach themselves to spam and infect your computer the instant you open the message. Spammers also often push their mail throughout other people's systems. This allows spam creators to offload the real costs (CPU time, e-mail account user time, disk space, etc.) onto other innocent third parties. Issues with Spam on Our Campus

7 Issue 3: Harm to Servers Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and other businesses lose millions of dollars and hundreds of hours of productivity as a result of unsolicited commercial e-mail. Spam clogs the Internet, computer systems, and e-mail accounts slowing down operations and at times causing system shutdowns and failures. The Three ways spam can harm the server is: Viruses Bot or Botnet DDOS Distributed Denial of Service Attack Issues with Spam on Our Campus Some spam carry viruses, worms and Trojans with their message. A virus, is like the biological counterpartit attaches itself and depends on a computer program for support. The virus embedded in the spam will try to infiltrate the computer, duplicate and attach itself to as many programs as possible. A bot, or botnet Infects a machine by turning it into a spam server. This spam is difficult to control because each bot in the botnet has a separate address. This becomes difficult to filter out. A DDOS attack is an effort to overwhelm a server with packets that have been crafted to use up as much server time as possible. A DDOS attack can absorb a server's entire capacity and make it unavailable or down to its legitimate users for the duration of the attack.

8 Barracuda Spam Firewall Is an appliance compatible with all email servers and can fit into nearly any corporate or small business environment. It is used by small organizations with as few as 10 employees and large organizations with as many as 200,000 employees. Features of Barracuda include: Anti-spam Anti-virus Anti-phishing Anti-spyware (Attachments) Denial of Service Iron-Port: An appliance that has many features to protect against spam and viruses on the Internet. Such features include: Spam Defense Virus Defense Content Filters GWAVA: Is a software specifically designed for the Novell Groupwise Community with many features Including: Email Policy and Surveillance Anti-Virus Tools Anti-Spam Tools Spam Management Tools Benefits of Embracing Anti-Spam Tools on Our Campus Central Benefit: Minimization of time expenditures, computer and server harm Important tools include Appliances and Software: Picture Retrieved from:

9 Future Implications of Spam User Perception Spam may affect internet users by causing them to desert many public discussion forums for fear that their e-mail addresses will be harvested and added to junk mail lists. Many are afraid to give their addresses out in even legitimate commerce for fear of being added to and traded among thousands of mailing lists. Genuine businesses, institutional faculty, staff and even more specifically, admission officers are having second thoughts to use e-mail to communicate with their prospective customers and students for fear of being branded Net abusers. This distrust threatens to undermine the acceptance and growth of electronic commerce among the legions of new Internet users taking their first steps online. Global Implications Electronic mail is a tool of business and personal communication. It's simple, it's accessible, and it's becoming more and more an essential part of our professional lives. However, there are even more far-reaching potentials of e-mail that have a possibility of being lost if this mode of communication gets destroyed by the increased production of junk e-mail. Technology When responsible computing behavior becomes more popular, tools dealing with Spam Filtering, implementation of spyware and removal procedures, will continue to be strong factors in decreasing the amount of spam created.

10 Whats Hot about LGBTQ Online? LGBTQ Online is the phenomenon of providing students with departmental resources through the internet. This is a hot topic because cyberspace is serving many functions for LGBTQ students. These include: Educating- consists of collecting basic information Networking- allows students to connect with a larger LGBTQ network community Development- facilitates an individuals ability to obtain knowledge on LGBTQ issues and explore alternative ways of self-expression. Examples of such resources include: Princetons LGBTQ Center website: University of Michigans LGBTQ Affairs website:

11 Methods of Using LGBTQ Online Resources Online Searches Potential students in areas where physical LGBTQ resources are scarce can locate institutions of higher education that are LGBTQ-friendly through online searches. Example: The Advocate College Guide for LGBT Students is a book that is easily located on Online Discussion Opportunities and Services Blogs, forums, and websites addressing LGBTQ issues offer 24/7 guidance on developmental issues and support through reaching a larger LGBTQ community. Example: Example: Pennsylvania State has an online LGBTQ resource center that hosts online discussion groups

12 Issues with LGBTQ Interactions Online Issue 1: Compromising Anonymity The internet is a public space and personal information can be foundtherefore putting aspects of the LGBTQ identity online through blogs, facebook profiles, or dating advertisement can have negative repercussions. Issue 2: Personal Safety The precautions of online personal safety are very similar to protective measures we use in everyday life. However, it is often difficult to identify users on the opposite side of computer terminals in chat rooms or blogs. Example: One religious private institution used a gay students blog as evidence to expel him from the campus. Example: Recently in October of 2006, three males were arrested and charged with a hate crime in New York City. These individuals were prosecuted for falsely luring a male through online resources on the pretences they were gay. They arranged to meet in a location where they intended to take personal belongings. When the victim attempted to flee the situation he was struck by a vehicle on a six lane highway.

13 Benefits of Embracing Online LGBTQ on Our Campus Benefit 1: Identifying Allies Benefit 2: Protecting Privacy Benefit 3: Further Development Web sources will allow prospective LGBTQ Students to identify which institution of higher education is friendly to students of the LGBTQ community. Online services allow those who are in the process of coming out, or those who may wish to remain discrete, ways to connect, gain information, and ask questions without exposing themselves Example: In Chickerings Seven Vectors model, the vector of Establishing Identity includes becoming comfortable with ones sexual orientation and the creation of self-concept through roles and lifestyles. Access to online resources and support may help facilitate this process. Access to resources may help interpersonal development.

14 Future Implications of LGBTQ Online Development of the whole LGBTQ student Institutions who make it a point to support and provide access to LGBTQ friendly resources will promote growth and further development of the whole student; especially those identifying as LGBTQ. Development of classes on LGBTQ Studies and incorporation of LGBTQ online issue into diversity training Scholars have discussed that online literacy may be different from academic literacy, and since the using the internet depends on writing skills, there may be a better development in these areas for LGBTQ students than what is seen in the classroom. Making these areas of interest a focus in class work has the potential for further educational development.

15 Whats Hot About Blogs? Blogs have infiltrated every aspect of our lives including Higher Education and Student Affairs. Faculty, staff, and students are using blogs as an extension of in-class teaching and communication. Blogs have begun to impact both teaching and learning methods. The internet blogosphere is incredibly active. There are over 175,000 new blogs every day. Bloggers update their blogs regularly to the extent of over 1.6 million posts per day, or over 18 updates a second. Blogs have changed the face of communication around the world. Blogging continues to experience technological advancements within itself that has changed the perception of institutions. Institutions of higher education have started to sponsor and support blogs.

16 The Basics of Blogs Political (Includes current political topics, commentary and campaign material) Personal (On-line journal and diary) Business (Promotion, advertising, information) Topical (Focuses on single issue or niche Health (Medical news, personal accounts with health issues) Literary (Focuses on a literature topic including the publishing industry) Travel (Travelers share stories and photos) Research (Includes research notes and issue discussions) Educational (Course plan, discussion and announcements) Legal (Legal commentary and case analysis) What is a Blog? A frequent, chronological publication of personal thoughts and web links. Blogs are alternatively called weblogs. Types of Blogs:

17 The Basics of Blogs I. Title: Typically reflects the purpose of the site II. Date and Post Title: Includes the date of publication and overview of the post's subject matter. III. Commentary: Style and content of words vary. Types: Personal Opinionated Topic-oriented Irrelevant IV. Links: Serve as a kind of works cited page, directing readers to additional sources of relevant material. V. Blogrolls: Contains links to other blogs and websites, and can typically be found running down the left or right-hand side of the page. VI. Dialogue: A venue for carrying on simple conversations and disseminating information. VII. Feed: Every blog is published and broadcasted as a Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feed. Feed readers collect and combine feeds to allow readers to browse a central location. VIII. About: Includes the author, contact information and purpose of the blog Components of a Blog:

18 Issues with Embracing Blogs on Our Campus Issue 1: Security and Privacy Issue 2: Academic Freedom Issue 3: Blog Overload Students and faculty may be held accountable for material published in blogs in a negative way. Opinions and views expressed in blogs may affect academic appointments, hiring, and tenure for faculty. Students may be penalized based on conduct codes and computer use policies. Cyberstalking is a new phenomenon that allows anonymous online stalkers to prowl for victims. Online bloggers traditionally provide personal details about their lives. The aggregate information in a personal profile can assist someone interested in pursuing an individual. Faculty requiring students to blog may have an unconstructive effect. Students may experience blog writing burnout. This could hinder effective learning and teaching due to lack of participation. Faculty may underestimate the time required for reading postings which may affect research and publication.

19 Benefits of Embracing Blogs on Our Campus Benefit 1: Promotes Student Engagement and Interaction Benefit 2: Facilitates Small Group Work and Team Building Benefit 3: Encourages Civic Engagement on Campus and within our Communities Blogging enhances learning beyond what is typically utilized in course management systems such as WebCT and Blackboard, which are usually generated and uploaded solely by the instructor. Blogging places some control and participation in the hands of the students which fosters interaction. Blogs are both individualistic and collaborative. They allow self-expression by providing a place where the student can develop highly personalized content while simultaneously allowing student connection with an online community. Peer Reviews and Editing: Instead of devoting in-class time to peer editing, a small group blog can be created. Each student can post his or her rough draft on the group blog. The other members can offer feedback and suggestions for revisions in the comments section. Team Work: Team blogs can be created for groups working on research projects and assignments. The blog can function as a diary of their progress, a note pad for the documentation of ideas, a collection of links to outside resources, and/or a convenient mode of communication. In addition, final drafts can be presented online. Institutionally supported blogs can help individuals connect locally, internationally and globally on common issues and circumstances. Shared information on news, research, and initiatives can help bridge the gap between what is happening globally and in our communities. Example: Park University's blog on International Engagement: http://icce.typepad.com Example: Pace Universitys 4NonProfit blog: http://4nonprofits.org

20 Future Implications of Blogs Institutionally Sponsored Blogs The number of institutions sponsoring blogs may increase. Blogging may also be embraced by more disciplines in higher education and academia as a new form of learning. Institutional Blog Policy Institutional revisions of student conduct codes and computer policy may occur to address blogs. The focus could be the content and use of blogs. Discussion of a blog policy for faculty and staff may be actively addressed beginning with the administrations. Blog Training Blog Training may be integrated into institutional training. Professional conferences and events may increasingly spotlight blogs as a part of sessions including information on new advancements.

21 Whats Hot About Distance Education? The percentage of non-traditional students have increased over the past two decades. Distance Learners are able to select a flexible schedule to accommodate a fulltime job. There is a huge interest in internet usage by younger generations. Distance Education has highly increased over the last decade for students to participate in courses without being present on a physical campus. The following are reasons as to why this trend is occurring: Higher education outsourcing and partnerships are increasing. Instruction is becoming more learner centered, non-linear, and self directed. Traditional campuses are declining, for-profit institutions are growing, and public and private institutions are merging. Distance Education is defined as all credit and non-credit courses and training delivered via electronic means.

22 Students Using Technology for College Credit Examples of Technology used includes: Skype, Podcasting, and Webinars Skype is a peer-to-peer internet telephone directory service which allow individuals the ability of connecting with one another to conduct online chats and video conferencing. Students and professors alike are able to log on into a designated chat room and hold lectures as if they were in a physical classroom. Most features of this technology are free, thus being a benefit for long-distance students. Podcastings are media files distributed over the internet using syndication feeds to play back on portable electronic devices or personal computers. Numerous professors are recording lectures and making digital and/or electronic notes available for students to download to their personal computer or MP3 players. Webinars allow individuals to be interactive in a discussion forum. The term itself translates to seminars conducted over the world wide web. This type of technology allows institutions of higher education to discuss current trends and hot topics that affect campuses. The main benefit is not requiring several universities to make travel arrangements to a central location for the discussion.

23 Issues with Embracing Distance Education on Our Campus Issue 1: Distrust of Online Degrees by Potential Employers Issue 2: Technological and Computer Literacy Although distance education is becoming recognized throughout the country, many managers are skeptical of hiring someone that obtains an online degree. According to a 2006 survey conducted by Vault Inc., fifty-five percent of managers preferred to hire a candidate that received his or her degree the old fashioned way. Students and professors that use distance education courses must have a certain level of competency in how to use the software, operate computers and other necessary electronic equipment.

24 Benefits of Embracing Distance Education on Our Campus Benefit 1: Accessibility and Location Benefit 2: Diverse student population Benefit 3: Cost Effective Distance education makes it possible for a student to study at an educational institution that may not otherwise be accessible due to regional, physical, and/or time constraints. Distance education programs most often use the Internet, email, and online discussion technologies to deliver course content and promote student-teacher interaction. Distance education students may come from various backgrounds where they must maintain a fulltime job; however, having online courses will allow these students the flexibility of choosing a schedule to fit their lifestyle. In addition, distance education courses are not restricted by the limited number of desks in a classroom. The potential to enroll more students in a web course is a way of making distance education cost effective.

25 Future Implications of Distance Education In the early 1990s, Congress created legislation such as the 50-Percent Rule and the12-Hour Rule to regulate federal aid dispersion and diploma mill issues in distance education. In recent years, Congress has expressed a desire to remove controversial regulations that limit funding for students of distance education programs. Due to fact that technology has been modified and increased in the household of Americans, we believe lawmakers will want to amend the restrictive laws created a decade ago. If these laws are reconfigured, we expect a rapid increase in the amount of students enrolled in distance education courses.

26 Whats Hot About Online Safety/Training? Online Training is a hot topic because Higher Education administrators, educators, and staff are often called upon to make informed choices about technology. Online Safety is a hot topic because current empirical research strongly suggests that young adults are increasingly becoming both victims and perpetrators of internet crime and abuse. Offenses Typical of College Campuses Include: Piracy of music Academic dishonesty Cyberstalking Creation of computer viruses Higher Education must prepare graduates who can keep America's computing society safe and secure. We must reach out to our schools and employers to assist them in putting instructional programs in place.

27 Online Training: How do we do it? Many colleges and universities are well positioned to add internet safety, information security, and cyberethics training to continuing-education courses as well as to degree-program requirements. Higher Education institutions could also offer leadership training to executives of public, private, and nonprofit organizations who have vested interests in having employees who can secure, maintain responsible use information systems. Example: The CyberSmart Professional Development Program includes: Geared towards educators K-12 Topics covered are customized by what each person specifically desires to learn Includes both online training and on-site learning

28 Issues with Embracing Online Training on Our Campus Issue 1: Cost of implementing programs Issue 2: Placement of the responsibility of technology education Issue 3: Effective Programming requires participation and full support Example: Most IT departments on campuses see themselves as a service provider, not an educator of students and faculty. (Personal Opinion of an Information Technology professional on Online Training) Example: The University of Central Arkansas IT Department holds a rarely attended seminar on spyware, which is the cause of 90% of their problems with WebCT. (Personal Opinion of an Information Technology professional on Online Training) The cost of the Cybersmart Program ranges between 350-500 dollars per person, dependent on how many people enroll in the program.

29 Benefits of Online Training on Our Campus Benefit 1: Serving Student Populations Benefit 2: Career Preparedness Benefit 3: Concern For Community Benefit 4: Developing a Proactive Stance There is vast potential in how new technologies can better serve the learning needs of specific student populations. It must be considered that this generation of students will soon be employees. Using/abusing the internet will only increase without proper training. Online training would demonstrate institutions concern for community and national integrity through promotion of responsible computing and could serve as another source of revenue for institutions. Implementing online training could make higher education proactive versus reactive in developing, learning, and teaching online usage.

30 Future Implications of Online Training The federal government has stressed technological, legislative, and law-enforcement solutions to problems being faced in todays technological world. This committee anticipates the focus of legislation to shift from online predators and pornography to self-education, awareness, and responsibility. The main intent of federal legislation in the future should be on a systematic approach. Legislators should set guidelines on how to implement educational tools to students on internet usage.

31 Final Thoughts on Hot Topics… Whether students or faculty are encountering spam, utilizing LGBTQ online resources, blogging, taking courses online, or using the internet for entertainment; the millennial generation is plugged in. It is important to address technological hot topics as they arise in order to still be in touch with our student population. We must use technology rather than fear its potential in Higher Education. - The University of Central Arkansas Committee for the Deans Council

32 References Anderson, Michael, Borrelli, Jaycee, and Patterson, & Joseph P. (2003). Spam, Spam, and Spam: A Battle on Many Fronts [Electronic version]. Morris Computer Science Seminar conduced at University of Minnesota. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Barracuda Networks (n.d.). Spam Firewall Overview Retrieved February 10, 2007 from the Barracuda Networks webpage: Carnevale, Dan. (2006). Rule May Spark Online Boom for Colleges [Electronic version]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 52 Issue 6. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Case J. Carl and King, Darwin L. (2006, November, 2). Is Undergraduate Spam Under Control? [Electronic version]. Issues in Information Systems, 7. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Chickering, A. & Reisser, L. (1993). Education and Identity. In Komives, S., Woodard, D., & Associates. Student Services A Handbook for the Profession 4th edition. (pp. 181) San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Print Crucial Marketing. (2007). Blogs. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from the Marketing Terms website: Dawson, K. (2007). Blog Overload: An associate professor and devoted reader of blogs finds that requiring students to create one produced the wrong kind of buzz [Electronic version]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53, Issue 22. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Education Technology Collaborative: University of Tennessee. (2005). Academic Blogging: Strategies for Using Weblogs to Promote Active Learning and Professional Development. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Evans, N.J., Forney, D. S. & Guido-DiBrito, F. (1998). Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. (pp. 94-99).

33 References Everett-Church, Ray (May/June 1999) Why Spam is a Problem. E-OTI: OnTheInternet An international Electronic Publication of the Internet Society. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from (2006, October, 26). Three charged with hate crime in N.Y. gay slaying. Advocate News. Retrieved February 17, 2007 from Gordon, D. (2007). About Technorati. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from the Technorati website: GwavaOverview (n.d.) Retrieved February 10, 2007 from the Gwava World Headquarters website: Herring, B. Personal Communication February 13, 2007 Hoover, Eric. (2006). Gay and Christian [Electronic version]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 52, Issue 34. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Housley, S. (n.d.). NotePage Incorpaorated: The Dangers in Blogging. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from the Feed For All website: Ironport Products (n.d.). Retrieved February 10, 2007 from the Ironport Systems website: Krause, S. (2005). Blog as a Tool for Teaching [Electronic version]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 51, Issue 42. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Laws and Regulations that Affect Distance Learners (n.d.). Retrieved February 10, 2007, from

34 References Lipka, S. (2006). 'Advocate' Guide Profiles 100 Best Colleges for Gay Students [Electronic version]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53, Issue 6. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Lutus, P. (2006). An updated article on the topic of spam. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from The Anti-Spam Home Webpage: Martin, J. and Samels, J. (2007). 10 Trends to Watch in Campus Technology Plus 8 Myths and 7 Key Skills for CIO's [Electronic version]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53, Issue 18. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from McQuade, S. C. (2007). We Must Educate Young People About Cybercrime Before They Start College [Electronic version]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53, Issue 14. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Michigan.Gov the Official Portal for the State of Michigan (n.d.). Defining Spam. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from,1607,7-164-17334_17364_18380-44602--,00.html Moore, S. (2006). Smart Communities: Most Engaging Blogs-Higher Education and Civic Engagement. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Mueller, H. Scott (n.d). What is spam? Retrieved February 10,2007 from the GFi Corporation website: National Center for Education Statistics. (2007). Distance Education in Higher Education Institutions. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Phishing. (n.d). Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Quarterman, John S. (1997, Aptril). Original Spam Considered Harmful [Electronic version]. Matrix News, 7(4). Retrieved February 10, 2007 from

35 References Read, B. (2007). How to Podcast Campus Lectures [Electronic Version]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53, Issue 21. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Reynolds, G. (2006). Can Blogging Derail Your Career: The Politics of Academic Appointments [Electronic version]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 52, Issue 47. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Schackner, B. (2005, December, 25). Freedom of Speech Redefined by Blogs: Words Travel Faster, Stay Around Longer in the Blogosphere [Electronic version]. The Post-Gazette. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from The CyberSmart Education Company (2007). Retriteved February 17, 2007 from The World of Blogs. (n.d.). Retrieved February 10, 2007 from wt1/www/A_Cho/introduction.htm Web Developers Virtual Library (n.d.). Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Woo, Stu. (2006). Professors and Students Ask Colleges Not to Hang up on Skype [Electronic Version]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53, Issue 16. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Woodland, R. (1999). I plan to be a 10: Online Literacy and Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students Computers and Composition 16, 73-87

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