Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Toxic Stress and the Science of Child Development: Implications for Early Childhood Professionals The 2013 Annual Early Childhood Conference of the Bennington.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "1 Toxic Stress and the Science of Child Development: Implications for Early Childhood Professionals The 2013 Annual Early Childhood Conference of the Bennington."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Toxic Stress and the Science of Child Development: Implications for Early Childhood Professionals The 2013 Annual Early Childhood Conference of the Bennington County Child Care Association & Partners November 2 nd, 2013 Todd Grindal, Abt Associates Julius B. Richmond Dissertation Fellow Harvard Center on the Developing Child

2 2 Preschool Teacher ( , 2007) Elementary School Teacher ( )

3 3 Outline of Todays Activities Core concepts of early development Research on the impact of early childhood programs Discuss how this material is relevant to your work

4 4 My objectives for this workshop 1.Help each of you develop a deeper understanding of the science of child development its implications for you work with children & families. 2.Lean about issues related to early childhood policy and practice in Vermont

5 5 What are your objectives for today? (please share with the person sitting next to you) Why might it be useful for early childhood professionals to understand the underlying science of child development?

6 6 Core Concept 1: Experiences Build Brain Architecture

7 7 Looking inside the brain

8 8 birth 6 years 14 years Experience Shapes Brain Architecture by Over-Production Followed by Pruning (700 synapses formed per second in the early years)

9 9 Neural Circuits are Wired in a Bottom-Up Sequence FIRST YEAR Birth(Months)(Years) Sensory Pathways (Vision, Hearing) Language Higher Cognitive Function Source: Nelson (2000)

10 10 The Ability to Change Brains Decreases Over Time Source: Levitt (2009) Birth Physiological Effort Required to Enhance Neural Connections Normal Brain Plasticity Influenced by Experience Age (Years)

11 11 Experiences Build Brain Architecture Reviewing Key Terms Neuron Synapse Pruning Sensitive periods Plasticity

12 12 Experiences Build Brain Architecture Activity Based on the information on brain architecture, why might attending a high quality childcare program be beneficial for young children?

13 Core Concept 2: Interactions Shape Brain Circuitry

14 14 Brains and Skills are Shaped by the Serve and Return Nature of Human Interaction

15 15 Language environment impacts childrens language development 16 mos.24 mos.36 mos. Cumulative Vocabulary (Words) College Educated Parents Working Class Parents Welfare Parents Childs Age (Months) Source: Hart & Risley (1995)

16 16 Early Experiences Alter Gene Expression and Shape Development Neuron

17 17 Genes Carry Instructions that Tell Our Bodies How to Work Nucleus Chromosome DNA Gene

18 18 Early Experiences Leave Lasting Chemical Signatures on Genes External Experience Gene Regulatory Proteins Epigenetic Signature Turns Gene On or Off

19 19 Neuroscience basis for individual differences Example 1: Early Experience Affects Differences in Adult Anxiety in Mice Source: Gross & Hen, 2004 High care Low care Low High

20 20 Gene/Environment Interaction An Example t/epigenetics/rats/ t/epigenetics/rats/

21 21 Interactions Shape Brain Circuitry Reviewing Key Terms Serve and Return Gene-Environment Interaction

22 22 Experiences Build Brain Architecture Activity Imagine you are preparing to share some information on children's brain development at a preschool back-to-school night. What of 3 ways children engage in serve and return behaviors while in the classroom? & What are 3 ways parents could engage in serve and return behaviors with parents outside of school ?

23 Core Concept 3: Early Life Experiences are Built Into Our Brains and Bodies ( for better or for worse)

24 Toxic Prolonged activation of stress response systems in the absence of protective relationships. Toxic Three Levels of Stress Response Tolerable Serious, temporary stress responses, buffered by supportive relationships. Tolerable Positive Brief increases in heart rate, mild elevations in stress hormone levels. Positive

25 Toxic Stress Changes Brain Architecture Normal Toxicstress Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus Typical neuron many connections Damaged neuron fewer connections Sources: Radley et al. (2004); Bock et al (2005)

26 Source: Source: C.A. Nelson (2008); Marshall, Fox & BEIP (2004) Extreme Neglect Positive Relationships Severe Neglect Affects Brain Power

27 Significant Adversity Impairs Development in the First Three Years Number of Risk Factors Source: Barth, et al. (2008) Children with Developmental Delays % 40% 60% 80% 100%

28 Risk Factors for Adult Heart Disease are Embedded in Adverse Childhood Experiences Adverse Experiences Source: Dong, et al. (2004) Odds Ratio ,67,

29 Still Face Experiment XGEbZht0 Caregivers Depression Can Have a Profound Impact on Young Children

30 Example 3: Early Abuse Affects Later Behavior Source: Pollak & Kistler (2002)

31 Profound Neglect Impairs Physical Growth Source: Johnson et al. (2000) 11-Year-Old Girl (height-for-age = 48 month old) 11-Year-Old Girl (height-for-age = 48 month old)

32 32 Positive early experiences yield positive long-term outcomes

33 33 Children randomly assigned to leave the institution and be placed and high quality foster care environment Children placed in foster care before age 2 appear to catch up with typical children on measures of cognitive development These children had lower rates of ADHD, disruptive behaviors, and depression when compared to children who stayed in the institution As a result of this study, The Romanian government passed a law forbidding the institutionalization of non-handicapped children under age 2. Over 27,000 foster homes have been created. Bucharest Early Intervention Project

34 34 Head Start closes one-third of the gap between median and low income family income on a summary of young adult outcomes: High school graduation College attendance Idleness (not in high school, no wages) Crime Teen parenthood Health status Long-term effects of Head Start Source: Deming, 2009

35 35 Chicago Child-Parent Center (2004) Children who did not receive a strong education from PK through 3 rd grade were three times more likely to be held back and more likely to be placed in special education than those who had a strong PK-3 foundation. Preparing to Succeed-Boston (2011) Attending preschool erased the Latino/white test score gap and significant reduced the African American/White test score gap Preschools in the Public Schools Source: Reynolds, et al., 2004

36 36 The impact of attending high quality early childhood education can be observed nearly four decades later

37 37 Source: Heckman, 2006 p.1902 Rates of return to human capital investment

38 38 Cost/Benefit Analyses Show Positive Returns Early Childhood Programs Demonstrate Range of Benefits to Society $2 $6 $8 $4 $10 $3.23 Abecedarian Project (through age 21) $5.70 Nurse Family Partnership (High Risk Group) Perry Preschool (through age 40) Total Return per $1 Invested Sources: Heckman et al. (2009) Karoly et al. (2005) Break-Even Point 0 $9.20

39 39 36 months: Adjusted means for child outcome by quality Source: NICHD ECCRN, 2000 Adjusted means

40 40 The best of what we do is still not good enough

41 41 Program Evaluation Research Helps Identify Effectiveness Factors Not all programs are effective. Effectiveness factors are key to distinguishing those programs that work from those that do not. Our goal: to provide clearer guidance than the usual calls for quality. Source: Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University (2007)

42 42 Effectiveness Factors for Early Care and Education Programs Skilled and well-compensated personnel Small group sizes and high adult-child ratios Language-rich environment Developmentally appropriate curriculum Safe physical setting Warm and responsive adult-child interactions Source: Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University (2007)

43 43 Effectiveness Factors for Parenting Education Programs : Parenting education with modeling and/or opportunities for practice 43 Grindal et. al. (under review)

44 44 Four Targets for Professional Development Source: U.S. Department of Education (2010) Institutional/ Organizational Practices Classroom/Grou p Setting Quality Educator Education, ECE Training, Well-Being Practices Related to Specific Child Outcomes

45 45 Sources of Toxic Stress Supportive Relationships, Stimulating Experiences, and Health-Promoting Environments Healthy Developmental Trajectory Delayed Development Current Conceptual Framework for Early Childhood Policy and Practice

46 46 Protective Interventions Designing an Enhanced Framework that Balances Enrichment and Protection Sources of Toxic Stress Healthy Developmental Trajectory Supportive Relationships, Stimulating Experiences, and Health-Promoting Environments

47 47 An Integrated, Science-Based Logic Model Could Inform More Effective Early Childhood Policies and Programs Source: Center on the Developing Child (2010) Health & Development Across the Lifespan Preconception Prenatal Early Childhood Middle Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Biological Adaptations or Disruptions Foundations of Healthy Development Caregiver & Community Capacities Policy & Program Levers for Innovation

48 Brain Hero! gg4

49 49 Thank you !

50 50

Download ppt "1 Toxic Stress and the Science of Child Development: Implications for Early Childhood Professionals The 2013 Annual Early Childhood Conference of the Bennington."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google