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Aflatoxin Stakeholder Workshop, TFDA and Abt Associates December 3-4, Dar es Salaam Tanzania Aflasafe in Africa: progress and prospects for biocontrol.

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Presentation on theme: "Aflatoxin Stakeholder Workshop, TFDA and Abt Associates December 3-4, Dar es Salaam Tanzania Aflasafe in Africa: progress and prospects for biocontrol."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aflatoxin Stakeholder Workshop, TFDA and Abt Associates December 3-4, Dar es Salaam Tanzania Aflasafe in Africa: progress and prospects for biocontrol in aflatoxin mitigation R Bandyopadhyay, J Atehnkeng, J Augusto, F Beed, T Dubois, C Mutegi, S Boniface, V Manyong International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) D Cassidy United States Agency for International Development (USAID) P Cotty University of Arizona/USDA-ARS O Hasson, P Warrior Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation K Masha Doreo Partners M McDaniel, J Sandahl United States Department of Agriculture (USDA-FAS) J Mignouna African Agriculture Technology Foundation (AATF)

2 Perfect aflatoxin storm in sub-Saharan Africa susceptible crops susceptible climate suboptimal production systems 35 o N & S

3 Kenya districtsamplestotal aflatoxin levels (ppb) <2021-99100-1,000>1,000 Makueni9135134012 Kitui7338213210 Machakos1024925233 Thika766617134 Total34247%19%27%7% Aflatoxin levels in the market CDC and Kenyan Ministry of Health 2004 B1B1 B2B2 G1G1 G2G2 total mean50.0 ppb7.8 ppb14.6 ppb3.9 ppb76.3 ppb range0–519 ppb0–93 ppb0–137 ppb0–65 ppb Mozambique Ministry of Health 2004 Mozambique

4 Human health effects in Africa acute acute hepatic necrosis, cirrhosis, carcinoma chronic carcinogenic anti-nutritional immune-suppressive BBC 2004, Gong et al 2004, NIEHS 2010 underreported unknown

5 Animal health effects in Africa 40% reduction in live weight (8 weeks) aflatoxin-free diet aflatoxin diet (500 ppb) aflatoxin-free diet aflatoxin diet (500 ppb) aflatoxin level (ppb) samples < 20 (safe)38 % 20 – 10014 % 100 – 50041 % 500 - 1000 7 % aflatoxin levels in broiler feeds in Nigeria IITA unpublished

6 Effect on trade EC 2007 Malawi, Nigeria and Senegal groundnut exports to Europe decimated

7 Species/strainB aflatoxin (B 1, B 2 )G aflatoxin (G 1, G 2 ) A. flavus L-strains+/-- A. flavus S-strains+- A. flavus S BG strains++ A.Xparasiticus++ A.Xnomius++ A.xtamarii-- Biocontrol of aflatoxins: principle competitive exclusion principle: field application of atoxigenic L strain that outcompetes the toxigenic ones shift fungal community from toxigenic to atoxigenic incidence of toxigenic strains (%) 100 75 50 25 0 naturalbiocontrol atox tox

8 From Southern USA… Registered and commercialized since 2004 in the US on maize, cotton, pistachio as AF36 and Aflaguard (Syngenta) AF36 in Arizona: 590 ton in 2012 82,000 ha cotton and 100,000 ha pistachio in 2012 Routine agronomic practice across counties effective and carry-over in multiple crops over multiple years in various cropping systems AF36 manufacturing facility Arizona Cotton Research & Protection Council

9 … to Africa Nigeria 2003 Senegal 2007 Burkina Faso 2009 Kenya 2004 Zambia 2011 Tanzania 2012 Mozambique 2013 Ghana 2013 biocontrol local field local production commercialization strain partners testing capacity distribution awareness biocontrol local field strain partners testing biocontrol local field strain partners testing biocontrol local field strain partners testing biocontrol local strain partners biocontrol local strain partners Mali 2013

10 Strain selection prior to field testing isolation toxin analysis genetic profiling (SSR) sequencing (aflatoxin and CPA) VCG profiling competition bioassays step 1 step 2 step 3

11 Pre-field selection criteria does not produce aflatoxin can genetically not produce aflatoxin can genetically not produce CPA outcompetes toxigenic strains belongs to different clonal lineages (SSR) VCG with wide geographic distribution in country VCG does not contain a single toxigenic member ~12 native strains are tested in the field

12 Selection of 4 strains selection criteria: superior aflatoxin reduction superior capacity to outcompete toxigenic ones www.iita.org 4 native strains formulated into a registered product: 10 kg ha -1

13 villagefieldsaflatoxin conc (ng/g)reduction Aflasafecontrol Diourbel191.929.793% Nioro194.417.675% Mean87% B-aflatoxin reduction in maize at harvest, Senegal (2010) villagefieldsaflatoxin conc (ng/g)reduction Aflasafecontrol Maigana221764699% Pampaida10917195% Lere94927182% Birnin10149685% Mean90% B-aflatoxin reduction in maize at storage, Nigeria (2010) IITA unpublished Performance of Aflasafe in farmers fields

14 Aflasafe plant in Nigeria Develop cheaper, more effective formulations and manufacturing methods compatible with Africa that can be transferred to private sector 5 t h -1

15 strains: regional strains (PACA) manufacturing: regional hubs registration: regional protocols Aflasafe-Nigeria Aflasafe-Senegal Aflasafe-Kenya Aflasafe-Zambia Aflasafe-Mozambique Aflasafe-West Aflasafe-East Aflasafe-South Regionalization

16 animal breeders export-oriented aggregators food processors large commercial farmers smallholder farmers How to get Aflasafe to market? incentives are present aggregation market access ? market demand for Aflasafe no regulation enforcement no supply of aflatoxin-free maize no awareness no demand for aflatoxin- free maize

17 AATF Abt Associates ACDI/VOCA ADA Ag Dev Program, Nigeria African Union Animal Care, Nigeria Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation COMESA Crop Research Institute, Ghana Dalberg Associates Doreo Partners DPV, Senegal ECOWAS Elephant Vert, Marocco FEPASO, Burkina Faso Government of Mozambique GIZ ICRISAT IFA-Tulln, Austria IFAR INERA, Burkina Faso KARI, Kenya KEPHIS, Kenya KNUST, Ghana Livestock Feed PLC, Nigeria Maize Association of Nigeria Manufacturers Association of Nigeria Maslaha Seeds, Nigeria Meridien Institute Mikocheni, Tanzania Millennium Village Program, Nigeria Ministry of Agriculture, Kenya Ministry of Agriculture, Tanzania Ministry of Health, Nigeria NAFDAC, Nigeria NEARLS, Nigeria NEPAD Business Group Nestle Nigerian Economic Summit Group Nigerian Export Promotion Council Asante sana: Nigerian Mycotoxin Society NISIR, Zambia Obasanjo Farms, Nigeria PASO, Burkina Faso PCPB, Kenya PQPS, Zambia Sokoine University, Tanzania Sylvain Bio, France TFDA TPRI UNIDO Université G Berger, Senegal University of Arizona, USA University of Ibadan, Nigeria University of Bonn, Germany USAID USDA-ARS USDA-FAS US Embassy, Kenya ZARI, Zambia … and of course the farmers


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