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What are mycotoxins? Mycotoxins are toxic chemicals (secondary metabolites) produced by molds.

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Presentation on theme: "What are mycotoxins? Mycotoxins are toxic chemicals (secondary metabolites) produced by molds."— Presentation transcript:

1 What are mycotoxins? Mycotoxins are toxic chemicals (secondary metabolites) produced by molds

2 What are molds?

3 Microorganisms Viruses Fungi Bacteria Protists µm um µm2- 10 µm*

4 Microorganisms Viruses Fungi Bacteria Protists µm um µm2- 10 µm

5 Growth –Low moisture –Wide Range of pH –Mesophilic (25~40°C; 77~104°F) and Psychrotrophic (can grow 0 ~7°C) –Most aerobic Significance –Spoilage –Sanitation Index –Health Issues –Produce Foods Molds

6 Major Mycotoxins of Concern

7 Aflatoxins Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus parasiticus Ochratoxin A Aspergillus ochraceous Penicillium spp. Trichothecenes [Vomitoxin (DON)] Fusarium graminearum Zearalenone (F-2 Toxin) Fusarium graminearum Fumonisins Fusarium verticillioides Major Mycotoxins

8 Toxicity of Major Mycotoxins MycotoxinCommoditiesToxicity OchratoxinsCereals, coffee beans, grapes Nephrotoxin, immunosuppressant, teratogen, suspected carcinogen TrichothecenesMaize (corn), cereals, wheat, barley, oats, rye, rice, others Cytotoxicity, protein synthesis inhibition, emetic toxicity FumonisinsMaize (corn), wheat and other cereals Hepatotoxin AflatoxinsMaize (corn), nuts, copra, cottonseed, milk Hepatotoxin, synergistic toxicant, potent carcinogen, growth inhibitor

9

10 Why be Concerned About Mycotoxins as a Global Food Safety Issue?

11 Why are mycotoxins important? Usually ingested in contaminated foods and feeds.

12 Why are mycotoxins important? Usually ingested in contaminated foods and feeds. Most are not destroyed in normal cooking procedures.

13 Why are mycotoxins important? Usually ingested in contaminated foods and feeds. Most are not destroyed in normal cooking procedures. They can cause cancer, birth defects, liver damage, and nervous tissue damage, etc.

14 Why are mycotoxins important? Usually ingested in contaminated foods and feeds. Most are not destroyed in normal cooking procedures. They can cause cancer, birth defects, liver damage, and nervous tissue damage, etc. Usually no treatment for mycotoxin poisoning

15 Why are mycotoxins important? Usually ingested in contaminated foods and feeds. Most are not destroyed in normal cooking procedures. They can cause cancer, birth defects, liver damage, and nervous tissue damage, etc. Usually no treatment for mycotoxin poisoning Significant economic and trade issue.

16 Why are mycotoxins important? Usually ingested in contaminated foods and feeds. Most are not destroyed in normal cooking procedures. They can cause cancer, birth defects, liver damage, and nervous tissue damage, etc. Usually no treatment for mycotoxin poisoning Significant economic and trade issue. o ~25% of food crops affected by mycotoxigenic molds* o Global losses of foodstuffs due to mycotoxins are in the range of 1 billion tons per year* *FAO

17 Why are mycotoxins important? Usually ingested in contaminated foods and feeds. Most are not destroyed in normal cooking procedures. They can cause cancer, birth defects, liver damage, and nervous tissue damage, etc. Usually no treatment for mycotoxin poisoning Significant economic and trade issue. Global public health and economic problem

18 Acknowledgements UW Food Research Institute Staff Jae-Hyuk Yu Chuck Czuprynski

19 Thank you!


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