Presentation on theme: "REGULATIONS ON AFLATOXIN IN LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND Current STATUS OF ANIMAL FEED REGULATION IN Nigeria Joseph Nyager (DVM, MSc) DIRECTOR/CVO FEDERAL."— Presentation transcript:
1 REGULATIONS ON AFLATOXIN IN LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND Current STATUS OF ANIMAL FEED REGULATION IN Nigeria Joseph Nyager (DVM, MSc) DIRECTOR/CVO FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF LIVESTOCK FEDERAL MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE & RURAL DEVELOPMENT ABUJA -NIGERIAs
2 Outline Introduction Major Aflatoxin contaminated feed ingredients Major risk factors for NigeriaAflatoxins in fish, pig and poultryPrevious efforts made on regulation of Aflatoxin in livestock feedsStatus of animal feed regulation in NigeriaConclusion
3 Introduction Nigeria in West Africa. About 160 million people. 36 states and 773 LGAs.AfricaNigeria
4 Animal Resources of Nigeria Nigeria has the largest animal resources in the West African region.Cattle millionSheep millionGoats millionPoultry millionPigs millionCamels and Donkey 0.7 millionSource: FAOSTAT, 2009Agriculture contributes 44% to National GDP - Livestock contributes 25% of the Agricultural GDP
5 AflatoxinsAflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by different species of Aspergillus, a fungus, the most notable ones being Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasitiumAflatoxin B1 is known to be the most significant form that causes serious risk to animals and human health
6 Common Aflatoxin contaminated feed sources Protein sources :Groundnut cakePalm kernel mealCotton seed cakeEnergy sources:Rice-branWheatMaize and by-productsAflatoxin B1 is the most common form of the toxin- found in groundnut, maize and sorghum.
7 Major Risk factors Tropical and subtropical environmental conditions Poor feed storage and shipment conditionslack of regulation in amount of aflatoxin in food and feedLess attention given to feed quality controlCultural practices of feed preservationLow awareness on effects of aflatoxins
8 Aflatoxins in fishFish farming is becoming increasingly lucrative and proficient in Nigeria 45% of the fish consumed in Nigeria are smoked - driedStudies have confirmed that aflatoxin B concentrations in the sample of smooked fish were between 1.5 – 8.1 μg/kg, Adebayo-Tayo et al., Smoked-dried fish stored for sale in some parts of the country may be heavily contaminated with aflatoxinsAn indication that prolonged intake of smoked fish with these metabolites may constitute potential public health hazard
9 Aflatoxin in PigsIt has been demonstrated that for each mg/kg increase of aflatoxin in the diet of pigs, the growth rate would be depressed by 16 % .Feeding diets contaminated with aflatoxin increases the risk of vitamin s A and E deficiency in pigs and also depresses the immune systemDietary aflatoxin B1 concentrations from 70 to 140 mg/kg decreased the rate of weight gain by 5 to 11 %, (Yueming Dersjant-Li.,et al; 2003)Immune-suppressive effects of aflatoxin in pigs renders them more susceptible to any concurrent diseases - viral influenza and mycoplasma pneumonia and secondary infections .Cumulatively , a big lose to pig fatteners who are after faster turnovers
10 Aflatoxin in poultryPoultry -the most affected, as over 60% of poultry feeds sources are susceptible to aflatoxin contaminationPoultry absorb aflatoxin faster but excrete the metabolites slower than other animalsFeeding of aflatoxin contaminated feed to poultry leads to:Reduced feed intakeReduced growth ratePoor feed conversion efficiencyThese are key indices in a successful poultry production
11 Aflatoxin in manResidues of aflatoxin and metabolites in food may lead to:Liver damage, carcinogenic effect s in man, severe tissue and organ damage and can eventually result in deathFood stuff containing aflatoxin levels in excess of 20 ppb is not wholesome for human consumption and animal feeds.
12 Toxin factors Heat stable – not destroyed by processing . Invisible, odourless and tasteless .Reduces feed intake, nutrients in feed and nutrient absorption, altered nutrient metabolism, immuno-suppression and cell death.Toxin passes through the food chain to humans - residues in muscles, kidneys, liver, eggs etcAbdu, 2012
13 Regulations on Aflatoxin No specific regulation on Aflatoxin in livestock feeds yetNLDC in 2012 set up a committee to come up with a comprehensive and all encompassing proposal on regulation and standards of livestock feedsCommittee’s report to be considered and sent to the NCA’s meeting in 2013ATA supports the institutionalization and review of regulations that will enhance food safety and international trade.
14 Status of animal feed regulation Existing legislation is being reviewed to address current challenges in the livestock feed industryCollaborating organizations and institutions include:FMA&RD and agenciesSONFeed industriesLivestock famers
15 Challenges of Aflatoxin in Nigeria Un-quantified economic consequences:Trade inhibitionDirect and indirect production lossesPost harvest losses to farmersDisease burden in both human and animalsMortality in both human and animals
16 ConclusionFeeding aflatoxin contaminated materials to animals and aquaculture impairs:Feed intakeEfficiency of feed utilization and/or animal healthMoreover, residues of aflatoxins, consumed by animals, can appear in animal products consumed by humanRealistic regulations on control of aflatoxins in animal feeds is crucial and important aspect of food safety.