Presentation on theme: "REGULATIONS ON AFLATOXIN IN LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND CURRENT STATUS OF ANIMAL FEED REGULATION IN NIGERIA JOSEPH NYAGER (DVM, MSC) DIRECTOR/CVO FEDERAL DEPARTMENT."— Presentation transcript:
REGULATIONS ON AFLATOXIN IN LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND CURRENT STATUS OF ANIMAL FEED REGULATION IN NIGERIA JOSEPH NYAGER (DVM, MSC) DIRECTOR/CVO FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF LIVESTOCK FEDERAL MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE & RURAL DEVELOPMENT ABUJA -NIGERIA 1
Outline Introduction Major Aflatoxin contaminated feed ingredients Major risk factors for Nigeria Aflatoxins in fish, pig and poultry Previous efforts made on regulation of Aflatoxin in livestock feeds Status of animal feed regulation in Nigeria Conclusion
Introduction Nigeria in West Africa. About 160 million people. 36 states and 773 LGAs. Nigeria Africa
Animal Resources of Nigeria Nigeria has the largest animal resources in the West African region. Cattle 17 million Sheep 33 million Goats 52 million Poultry 166 million Pigs 6.6 million Camels and Donkey0.7 million Source: FAOSTAT, 2009 Agriculture contributes 44% to National GDP - Livestock contributes 25% of the Agricultural GDP
Aflatoxins Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by different species of Aspergillus, a fungus, the most notable ones being Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasitium Aflatoxin B1 is known to be the most significant form that causes serious risk to animals and human health
Common Aflatoxin contaminated feed sources Protein sources : Groundnut cake Palm kernel meal Cotton seed cake Energy sources: Rice-bran Wheat Maize and by-products Aflatoxin B1 is the most common form of the toxin- found in groundnut, maize and sorghum.
Major Risk factors Tropical and subtropical environmental conditions Poor feed storage and shipment conditions lack of regulation in amount of aflatoxin in food and feed Less attention given to feed quality control Cultural practices of feed preservation Low awareness on effects of aflatoxins
Aflatoxins in fish Fish farming is becoming increasingly lucrative and proficient in Nigeria 45% of the fish consumed in Nigeria are smoked - dried Studies have confirmed that aflatoxin B concentrations in the sample of smooked fish were between 1.5 – 8.1 μg/kg, Adebayo-Tayo et al., Smoked-dried fish stored for sale in some parts of the country may be heavily contaminated with aflatoxins An indication that prolonged intake of smoked fish with these metabolites may constitute potential public health hazard
Aflatoxin in Pigs It has been demonstrated that for each mg/kg increase of aflatoxin in the diet of pigs, the growth rate would be depressed by 16 %. Feeding diets contaminated with aflatoxin increases the risk of vitamin s A and E deficiency in pigs and also depresses the immune system Dietary aflatoxin B1 concentrations from 70 to 140 mg/kg decreased the rate of weight gain by 5 to 11 %, (Yueming Dersjant-Li.,et al; 2003) Immune-suppressive effects of aflatoxin in pigs renders them more susceptible to any concurrent diseases - viral influenza and mycoplasma pneumonia and secondary infections. Cumulatively, a big lose to pig fatteners who are after faster turnovers
Aflatoxin in poultry Poultry -the most affected, as over 60% of poultry feeds sources are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination Poultry absorb aflatoxin faster but excrete the metabolites slower than other animals Feeding of aflatoxin contaminated feed to poultry leads to: Reduced feed intake Reduced growth rate Poor feed conversion efficiency These are key indices in a successful poultry production
Aflatoxin in man Residues of aflatoxin and metabolites in food may lead to: Liver damage, carcinogenic effect s in man, severe tissue and organ damage and can eventually result in death Food stuff containing aflatoxin levels in excess of 20 ppb is not wholesome for human consumption and animal feeds.
Toxin factors Heat stable – not destroyed by processing. Invisible, odourless and tasteless. Reduces feed intake, nutrients in feed and nutrient absorption, altered nutrient metabolism, immuno- suppression and cell death. Toxin passes through the food chain to humans - residues in muscles, kidneys, liver, eggs etc Abdu, 2012
Regulations on Aflatoxin No specific regulation on Aflatoxin in livestock feeds yet NLDC in 2012 set up a committee to come up with a comprehensive and all encompassing proposal on regulation and standards of livestock feeds Committees report to be considered and sent to the NCAs meeting in 2013 ATA supports the institutionalization and review of regulations that will enhance food safety and international trade.
Status of animal feed regulation Existing legislation is being reviewed to address current challenges in the livestock feed industry Collaborating organizations and institutions include : FMA&RD and agencies SON Feed industries Livestock famers
Challenges of Aflatoxin in Nigeria Un-quantified economic consequences: Trade inhibition Direct and indirect production losses Post harvest losses to farmers Disease burden in both human and animals Mortality in both human and animals
Conclusion Feeding aflatoxin contaminated materials to animals and aquaculture impairs: I. Feed intake II. Efficiency of feed utilization and/or animal health III. Moreover, residues of aflatoxins, consumed by animals, can appear in animal products consumed by human Realistic regulations on control of aflatoxins in animal feeds is crucial and important aspect of food safety.