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Agenda for the day 1. Transformed by Literacy: the Brockton High Literacy Initiative 2. Strategies to Prepare the Students AND the Teachers for the Common.

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Presentation on theme: "Agenda for the day 1. Transformed by Literacy: the Brockton High Literacy Initiative 2. Strategies to Prepare the Students AND the Teachers for the Common."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agenda for the day 1. Transformed by Literacy: the Brockton High Literacy Initiative 2. Strategies to Prepare the Students AND the Teachers for the Common Core and Next Generation Assessments: PD to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement 3. Strategies to Empower the Faculty: Often the BEST experts are right in our own house 4. Safety Nets: ALL MEANS ALL (SpEd, ELL, 9 th) 5. For What Its Worth: Final Leadership Advice 1

2 Brockton and ICLE philosophy Rigor Relevance Relationships ALL students-and ALL means ALL!!! What you will hear throughout this session:

3 Comprehensive 9 – 12 Enrollment: 4,218 Poverty Level: 75% Minority population: 73% 50 different languages 50% speak another language in the home Approximately 12% in Transitional Bilingual Ed. Approximately 11% receive Special Educ. Services Who are We??? Our Demographics

4 57% Black - includes African American, Cape Verdean, Haitian, Jamaican, and others 26% White 14% Hispanic 2.5% Asian.5% Native American Meet our Students

5 5 And remember… 5 You MUST pass the MCAS to graduate!!! NO EXCEPTIONS!

6 6 To ensure a fair selection, you all get the same test. You must all climb that tree.

7 So, what did we do??? Our turnaround: 4 Steps 1. Empowered a Team 2. Focused on Literacy – Literacy for ALL, no exceptions- all means all 3. Implemented with fidelity and according to a plan 4. Monitored like crazy!

8 We defined LITERACY and detailed the literacy skills ALL students at Brockton High would demonstrate. OUR MOST IMPORTANT SAFETY NET: LITERACY!

9

10 BROCKTON HIGH SCHOOL ACTIVE READING STRATEGIES: 1.Read the question. 2. a. Circle key direction verbs. For Example- write, draw, explain, compare, show, copy b. Underline important information. Often there is information in a question that is irrelevant to finding the answer. 3. In your own words, write what the question is asking you to do. 4. Develop your plan/Answer the question. OUR MOST IMPORTANT SAFETY NET: LITERACY- We all do it THIS way!

11 Success by design, not by chance! Everyone was trained to teach the targeted Literacy Skill. The implementation was according to a specific timeline NO EXCEPTIONS!!! We didnt leave it to chance!

12 Monitoring the work of the students AND Monitoring the implementation by the faculty What gets monitored is what gets done!

13 A decade of Consistent Practice BHS Literacy Workshops Open Response Tovani Reading Question Analysis/ Active Reading Summarizing Previewing and Prereading a text Using Visuals to Preview Teaching the Text Last Vocabulary in Context Graphing Multiple Choice Strategies Speaking Skills Assessment Problem Solving Thinking Routines Openers and Closers Reading Visuals 13

14 We were making great progress but… all that was still not enough for ALL students. We needed to do more!

15 Looking beyond the test scores… Who did not pass? Why arent they passing? What are we missing? What else do we notice?

16 Two pronged approach: 1. Literacy skills for ALL – NO EXCEPTIONS!!! 2.Safety nets and interventions for struggling learners We looked at the aggregate scores AND all the subgroups

17 FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION ELA Failure rate - 78% Math Failure rate - 98% So, do you think what were doing is working???

18 18 Brockton Highs Special Education Case Study: The Situation Everyone was failing Special Education students taught in separate classrooms Teachers often not certified in subject area Lower student expectations

19 At MSC that year we attended the sessions offered by Larry Gloeckler and began to rethink what we were doing. He challenged us by asking hard questions in key areas: We had to do something, AND FAST!

20 1. OWNERSHIP 2. HIGH EXPECTATIONS 3. INTERVENTION SYSTEMS 4. INCLUSION/CO-TEACHING 5. ORGANIZATION Key areas to think about for special education

21 1.Do the general education teachers take ownership of the performance of students receiving special education services? 2.Do building administrators take ownership of the performance of students receiving special education services? 3.Is there a separation between general ed and special ed faculty? 4.Is there a my kids/your kids attitude? Questions on OWNERSHIP

22 What we did: Structured Interdisciplinary Faculty Discussion Groups Facilitated by Restructuring members Guided questions provided We had Empires: Our own Medieval Feudal System

23 1. What do you see as the major obstacle our special education students face in your class? 2. What procedures/ techniques/ strategies have you used that you feel have been most successful for our students with disabilities in your classes? 3. What do you think you need to help your students with disabilities be successful in your class?

24 24 Faculty Meetings became Literacy Workshops to train us all to teach literacy skills Our Literacy Initiative addressed the issue of OWNERSHIP – We ALL do it THIS way

25 25 We reviewed Teach Like A Champion and selected two strategies that would help teachers include ALL students. (Its about instruction!!!) We went back to our Literacy Initiative: We ALL do it THIS way!

26 26 We looked for a couple of strategies that were aimed at success for struggling students. Our first two: Everybody Writes and No Opt Out Remember, its not about the kids… its about the adults!!!

27 BHS Interdisciplinary Workshop Teach Like a Champion

28 Teach Like a Champion Techniques that enhance instruction and student outcomes Objective To actively read and discuss effective instructional techniques that can be used school wide. Agenda -Opener/Activator -Technique #1 No Opt Out -(Actively read and discuss technique) -Technique #26 Everybody Writes -(Actively read and discuss technique) -Closer – Ticket to Leave

29 Teach Like a Champion Techniques that can enhance what we are already doing.

30 The Art of Teaching Actively Read pages 4-5 How to Use This Book As you read, think about: - Techniques you use effectively - An area that you want to continue to develop

31 The Art of Teaching We chose techniques that: - can be incorporated in classrooms school wide - operate in synergy with our literacy strategies - may take what is already being done well to the next level

32 Technique #1 NO OPT OUT What do you do when a student doesnt know the answer or does not want to answer a question? Actively Read pages No Opt Out

33 NO OPT OUT Its not okay not to try No Opt Out - Ensures that all students take responsibility for learning - Establishes a tone of student accountability The sequence that begins with a student unable to answer a question should end with the student answering that question as often as possible.

34 NO OPT OUT Its not okay not to try Discussion questions (Think, Write, Share): 1.What were the most important points you pulled from this section? 2.Of the four formats on pages , which would you most likely use in your classroom? 3.Describe the No Opt Out strategies you already use.

35 Technique #26 EVERYBODY WRITES Writing is Thinking Everybody Writes is a great technique that prevents students from opting out

36 EVERYBODY WRITES Writing is Thinking Actively Read pages Everybody Writes As you read think about - how you use writing in your classes

37 EVERYBODY WRITES Writing is Thinking Discussion questions (Think, Write, Share): 1.What were the most important points you pulled from this section? 2.Share some Everybody Writes techniques that you use in your classes 3.How can Everybody Writes link to No Opt Out?

38 CHALLENGE: Put Into Practice NO OPT OUT AND EVERYBODY WRITES 1. We all use the same language There is No Opt Out 2. Try one of the 4 No Opt Out formats on pages Include Everybody Writes as a way to provide wait time; giving students an opportunity to process your questions before answering

39 TICKET TO LEAVE 1.Scan Teach Like a Champion 2.Choose 2 techniques that you would be willing to lead a discussion about in an interdisciplinary group

40 Nothing is as important as a teacher and what goes on between the teacher and the children, minute to minute, lesson to lesson, day to day. Jon Saphier, Research for Better Teaching THANK YOU

41 1.Do the general education teachers take ownership of the performance of students receiving special education services? 2.Do building administrators take ownership of the performance of students receiving special education services? 3.Is there a separation between general ed and special ed faculty? 4.Is there a my kids/your kids attitude? Rate yourself: OWNERSHIP

42 1. OWNERSHIP 2. HIGH EXPECTATIONS 3. INTERVENTION SYSTEMS 4. INCLUSION/CO-TEACHING 5. OWNERSHIP Key areas to think about

43 1.Have academic and behavioral expectations been clearly defined to ensure consistency for ALL? 2.Does the faculty and administration believe they are collectively responsible for the learning for ALL students? 3.Can the students articulate the high expectations held for them? 4.Is the issue of high expectations part of the supervision and evaluation process? 5.Can you feel it when you walk into the building? Questions on HIGH EXPECTATIONS:

44 Students have a right to fail. Former BHS Principal Clearly defined tracks with separate curriculum – and NOT equal!!! In ELA: Different selections In Math: Different courses We had a flawed belief system:

45 Had everyone review the test – What do you notice What do your students need to succeed? What do you need to help your students succeed? Aligned curriculum to standards Aligned rigor of work – We ALL do this! We attacked this! Some strategies:

46 A roadmap for success at Brockton High AND, more importantly, for life AFTER Brockton High Changing students beliefs: Project Diploma

47

48 Never say kids cant… Remember, if they cant, it is because we havent taught them how. If were not teaching them how, we must ask ourselves is it because we dont have the strategies? Or the desire? Sharon Wolder, Associate Principal

49 1.Have academic and behavioral expectations been clearly defined to ensure consistency for ALL? 2.Does the faculty and administration believe they are collectively responsible for the learning for ALL students? 3.Can the students articulate the high expectations held for them? 4.Is the issue of high expectations part of the supervision and evaluation process? 5.Can you feel it when you walk into the building? Rate yourself: HIGH EXPECTATIONS:

50 1. OWNERSHIP 2. HIGH EXPECTATIONS 3. INTERVENTION SYSTEMS 4. INCLUSION/CO-TEACHING 5. OWNERSHIP Key areas to think about

51 1.Is there an intervention system in place to help struggling learners meet academic/behavioral expectations? 2.Is your intervention system owned by general ed? 3.Do you have an intervention team trained in a problem solving approach? 4.Are there policies and protocol for implementing interventions with fidelity? 5.Does your intervention system monitor school wide data and individual student data to drive instructional decisions? 6.Do you collect data to monitor the effectiveness of the interventions? INTERVENTION SYSTEMS:

52 LEARNED DEPENDENCE We had to get to INDEPENDENCE!!! And in regular ed classes… SINK OR SWIM!! Our reality

53 EPT process through regular ed Academic Support Contracts

54 54 Brockton High School Academic Success Plan Brockton High School seeks to teach our students in a safe, supportive environment the knowledge, skills, values, and behaviors necessary to become responsible and productive members of a diverse society. Instruction focuses on enabling students to demonstrate the literacy skills of reading, writing, speaking, and reasoning and preparing them to participate actively as citizens in a technologically advanced society. In order to provide such a place for our students, we require you, in turn, to agree to the terms of the contract prescribed below. I will agree to the following academic goals: * To attend school daily and on time. I have read and understand the school attendance policy. * To attend all classes regularly and on time. I have read and understand the school disciplinary policy. * To give my best effort in all my classes. To achieve the following specific academic goals: (Check all that apply) * To meet with peer mediators and academic tutors available in the Access Center. * To meet with my guidance and/or adjustment counselor regularly. * To demonstrate consistent acceptable behavior throughout the school day. * To attend Anger Management classes. * To submit a completed weekly progress notice to the Housemaster. ___________________ * To attend meetings each term with my Student Support Team. * Other ______________________________________________________________________________ Additional Academic Supports Peer tutoring - available during the school day in the Access Center, G121. Homework assistance - available daily in R331, 2:30-4:00 PM. Club Boxer - academic support Monday and Wednesday in A324 2:30-3:15 PM. Student Signature _____________________________________________________________ Parent/Guardian Statement of Support I understand that I must support and cooperate with the school staff to reinforce provisions outlined. I will also reinforce and encourage my child to uphold the contract and to strive to succeed academically. ____________________________ Parent's SignatureDate ____________________________ School Official's SignatureDate

55 55 Brockton High School Academic Success Plan Brockton High School seeks to teach our students in a safe, supportive environment the knowledge, skills, values, and behaviors necessary to become responsible and productive members of a diverse society. Instruction focuses on enabling students to demonstrate the literacy skills of reading, writing, speaking, and reasoning and preparing them to participate actively as citizens in a technologically advanced society. In order to provide such a place for our students, we require you, in turn, to agree to the terms of the contract prescribed below. I will agree to the following academic goals: * To attend school daily and on time. I have read and understand the school attendance policy. * To attend all classes regularly and on time. I have read and understand the school disciplinary policy. * To give my best effort in all my classes. To achieve the following specific academic goals: (Check all that apply) * To meet with peer mediators and academic tutors available in the Access Center. * To meet with my guidance and/or adjustment counselor regularly. * To demonstrate consistent acceptable behavior throughout the school day. * To attend Anger Management classes. * To submit a completed weekly progress notice to the Housemaster. __________________________ * To attend meetings each term with my Student Support Team. * Other __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Additional Academic Supports Peer tutoring - available during the school day in the Access Center, G121. Homework assistance - available daily in R331, 2:30-4:00 PM. Club Boxer - academic support Monday and Wednesday in A324 2:30-3:15 PM. Student Signature ____________________________________________________________________ Parent/Guardian Statement of Support I understand that I must support and cooperate with the school staff to reinforce provisions outlined. I will also reinforce and encourage my child to uphold the contract and to strive to succeed academically. ____________________________ Parent's SignatureDate ____________________________ School Official's SignatureDate Brockton High School Academic Success Plan Instruction focuses on enabling students to demonstrate the literacy skills of reading, writing, speaking, and reasoning… In order to provide such a place for our students, we require you, in turn, to agree to the terms of the contract prescribed below.

56 56 Brockton High School Academic Success Plan Brockton High School seeks to teach our students in a safe, supportive environment the knowledge, skills, values, and behaviors necessary to become responsible and productive members of a diverse society. Instruction focuses on enabling students to demonstrate the literacy skills of reading, writing, speaking, and reasoning and preparing them to participate actively as citizens in a technologically advanced society. In order to provide such a place for our students, we require you, in turn, to agree to the terms of the contract prescribed below. I will agree to the following academic goals: * To attend school daily and on time. I have read and understand the school attendance policy. * To attend all classes regularly and on time. I have read and understand the school disciplinary policy. * To give my best effort in all my classes. To achieve the following specific academic goals: (Check all that apply) * To meet with peer mediators and academic tutors available in the Access Center. * To meet with my guidance and/or adjustment counselor regularly. * To demonstrate consistent acceptable behavior throughout the school day. * To attend Anger Management classes. * To submit a completed weekly progress notice to the Housemaster. __________________________ * To attend meetings each term with my Student Support Team. * Other __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Additional Academic Supports Peer tutoring - available during the school day in the Access Center, G121. Homework assistance - available daily in R331, 2:30-4:00 PM. Club Boxer - academic support Monday and Wednesday in A324 2:30-3:15 PM. Student Signature ____________________________________________________________________ Parent/Guardian Statement of Support I understand that I must support and cooperate with the school staff to reinforce provisions outlined. I will also reinforce and encourage my child to uphold the contract and to strive to succeed academically. ____________________________ Parent's SignatureDate ____________________________ School Official's SignatureDate I _____________________________will agree to the following academic supports: (Check all that apply) To meet with peer mediators and academic tutors available in the Access Center. To meet with my guidance and/or adjustment counselor regularly. To demonstrate consistent acceptable behavior throughout the day. To submit a completed weekly progress notice to the Housemaster. To attend the Extended Day Support Program To work with Boxer-2-Boxer To attend meetings each term with my Student Support Team. Other ____________________________________________

57 We realized FAIR DOES NOT MEAN THE SAME Collection and review of student work Portfolios for all students with IEPs and for all ELL students For us: What gets monitored is what gets done!!!

58 LESSON LEARNED THE HARD WAY tip: Be VERY specific about what needs to be included in the portfolio!

59 59 Student Portfolio Requirements

60

61 Term 3: 2 Long Compositions Each piece must be accompanied by all pre-writing steps. Minimum of 1 revision after evaluation of the final draft. Students should read 1 book and learn how to use it with multiple long composition questions. Students should follow mapping strategies for this. As a result, the student will know one book in-depth and will be prepared to write about it regardless of the question posed. 1 Open Response & Multiple Choice test This should target the students weakest area as determined by the Term 2 portfolio.

62 1.Is there an intervention system in place to help struggling learners meet academic/behavioral expectations? 2.Is your intervention system owned by general ed? 3.Do you have an intervention team trained in a problem solving approach? 4.Are there policies and protocol for implementing interventions with fidelity? 5.Does your intervention system monitor school wide data and individual student data to drive instructional decisions? 6.Do you collect data to monitor the effectiveness of the interventions? Rate yourself: INTERVENTION SYSTEMS :

63 1. OWNERSHIP 2. HIGH EXPECTATIONS 3. INTERVENTION SYSTEMS 4. INCLUSION/ CO-TEACHING 5. OWNERSHIP Key areas to think about

64 1.Has a definition of co-teaching and teachers roles and shared responsibilities been established? 2.Were opportunities provided to observe successful co-teaching situations? 3.Was planning and training provided PRIOR to co-teaching? 4.Does administration help to evaluate the effectiveness and help make adjustments when necessary? 5.Is time provided for co-teaching partners to collaborate, assess, and plan instruction? INCLUSION/CO-TEACHING:

65 65 Special education students taught in separate classes Often teachers were not certified in subject area We looked in the mirror – we had problems:

66 66 So we tried co-teaching Right idea, wrong approach Signs of Trouble I feel like a teacher-aide We dont want to step on each others toes Were trying to figure it out as we go Im glad we were given common planning time, but I need to use it to do my I.E.P.s We needed training, training, training, and planning together!!!

67 67 Gately & Gately 4. Both teachers in the cotaught classroom agree on the goals… 13. Planning for classes is the shared responsibility of both teachers. 17. Communication is open and honest. 22. Students accept both teachers as equal partners in the learning process 23. Behavior management is the shared responsibility of both teachers.

68 68 Beginning Stage – teachers are guarded, untrusting, unwilling to share, limit communication Compromising Stage – Communication improves, shared resources, willingness to give up some control and include partner in planning and implementation Collaboration – Open communication and interaction, mutual administration of duties and responsibilities. Improving Student Academic Achievement: coteaching in an Inclusion Setting

69 Students are targeted in classrooms with accommodations We were in many co-taught classes, and we could not tell which teacher was the regular ed and which was the special ed teacher. Visiting educators from Lubbock, TX Co-teaching is working!

70 Supports for Students with IEPs Bridge gaps with additional time Study Lab Academic Support Class Credit Recovery Homework Mentor Program Bridge gaps with technology Achieve 3000 Read 180 PLATO Apangea Odysseyware

71 1.Has a definition of co-teaching and teachers roles and shared responsibilities been established? 2.Were opportunities provided to observe successful co-teaching situations? 3.Was planning and training provided PRIOR to co-teaching? 4.Does administration help to evaluate the effectiveness and help make adjustments when necessary? 5.Is time provided for co-teaching partners to collaborate, assess, and plan instruction? Rate yourself: INCLUSION/CO-TEACHING :

72 1. OWNERSHIP 2. HIGH EXPECTATIONS 3. INTERVENTION SYSTEMS 4. INCLUSION/CO-TEACHING 5. ORGANIZATION Key areas to think about

73 1.Is there a process for ensuring that these best practices are consistent, not isolated in certain classes? 2.Are students with disabilities receiving their core academic instruction primarily in special classes? 3.Is there a process for getting data about student performance to teachers? 4.Is the inclusion of students with disabilities an important part of your professional development program? 5.Is there alignment with your feeder schools? ORGANIZATION:

74 74 What organizational structures could we use differently? What policies and procedures were in place that were holding students back? We asked two key questions:

75 75 We (Restructuring Committee) took each issue on – one by one Supports for ALL students, not just those with disabilities

76 76 New schedule Aligned curriculum All levels College Prep Training faculty Restructuring took on the issues one at a time

77 77 Boxer Buddies We met with groups of students about what would help them, what could we put in place for support. The result: Boxer Buddies AND – We asked the kids!

78 A lasting friendship Boxer Buddies A lasting friendship

79 We have built a lasting relationship which we will forever treasure in our hearts

80 And the MOST unbelievable moment for four of our Brockton Boxer Buddies

81 But not just ANY Pledge of Allegiance These are our hands!

82 1.Is there a process for ensuring that these best practices are consistent, not isolated in certain classes? 2.Are students with disabilities receiving their core academic instruction primarily in special classes? 3.Is there a process for getting data about student performance to teachers? 4.Is the inclusion of students with disabilities an important part of your professional development program? 5.Is there alignment with your feeder schools? Rate yourself: ORGANIZATION:

83 MANY support programs MOST important: LITERACY For our English Language Learners: Two pronged approach: 1. Literacy skills for ALL – NO EXCEPTIONS!!! 2.Safety nets and interventions for struggling learners

84 49% 14% 1.9 % 3% 27% 19% 9% 3% 2007

85 1. LITERACY 2. OWNERSHIP 3. RIGOR Key areas to think about for our ELL program

86 The BEST safety net for ELLs is the Literacy Initiative! Anna Carreiro, Bilingual Dept. Head Literacy strategies benefit ALL students, but particularly those learning English Examples: Quick Writes Before Discussion Vocabulary in Context No Opt Out LITERACY

87 The BEST safety net for ELLs is the Literacy Initiative! Anna Carreiro, Bilingual Dept. Head Listen to what the students think of our Literacy Initiative… meet Fabieny DePina on PBS Need to Know LITERACY

88 My kids, your kids – OUR kids Training for everyone – SIOP, Literacy Workshops Focus on instructional strategies OWNERSHIP

89 At Brockton High, there are no easy routes for rallying resources and motivating students to excel and persist until graduation. However, the academic progress of ELLs attests to the determination and work ethic of the schools leadership and staff. Passion, expertise and commitment to collaboration are visible throughout the leadership and staff. OWNERSHIP

90 Scaffolding – Expectations are the same, but what can we do to get them there? Revamped curriculum to align with mainstream RIGOR

91 Three strands for ELLs: Transitional Bilingual Strand Immersion Strand Literacy Strand (SWIFS) MCAS preparation and review Language Assessment Teams to assess and reclassify Bilingual Parent/Community Liaisons RIGOR: Keys to success

92 MANY support programs MOST important: LITERACY 9 th Grade: Two pronged approach: 1. Literacy skills for ALL – NO EXCEPTIONS!!! 2.Safety nets and interventions for struggling learners

93 STUDY SKILLS LESSONS through the Literacy Objectives for ALL freshmen Reading : Active Reading Strategies; Previewing a text; Reading visuals Writing : Note-taking; Summarizing Speaking : Street talk versus school talk; speaking in complete sentences; Listening Reasoning : Thinking routines; Time management, Organizational strategies; Study strategies

94 Freshman Academy 94 Approx. 100 at-risk Freshmen identified for academic deficiencies. Blocked together for 3 out of 5 periods to include English, Algebra, and return for the last period of the day for a tutorial with the same teachers/senior mentors. Morning begins with fitness and nutrition Flexible scheduling, teacher teams, seniors as tutors/mentors, focus on academic remediation.

95 Eight weeks during and after school classes Two sessions for each subject per week (minimum) Classes are no larger than 12 students Grading – pass or fail Lessons are prepared in advance; focus on instruction Courses include direct instruction and online component Curriculum is developed by departments and follows identified skills and standards 95 CREDIT RECOVERY CREDIT RECOVERY

96 96 9 TH Grade Stacking and Re-grouping Scheduling Plan that places 3 of the same level English or Algebra classes during the same period End of Semester 1 students are regrouped: Those at appropriate skill level Those needing additional support Those who need to restart

97 97 Additional Supports Access Center Libraries Open After School Decisions Workshops Boxer-2-Boxer Guidance Lessons/Workshops: Orientation - Success at BHS Early College Planning Goal Setting/Decision Making 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens Bullying

98 98 Our improvement over the past five years is perhaps even more impressive than the big jumps we had early on. Wicked Awesome!

99 49% 14% 1.9 % 3% 27% 19% 9% 3% 2007

100 MCAS % Comparison English Language Arts

101 MCAS % Comparison Math 51

102 102 But its much more than just the numbers... Wicked Awesome!

103 103 Changing Attitudes: Fair does not mean the same Everyone is responsible for every student Believing that every student CAN and MUST Our responsibility: to figure out how to help ALL means ALL

104 You dont have to change the student population to get results, you have to change the conditions under which they learn. Pedro Noguera What others say…

105 Our students believe, they achieve, in EVERY way Time to feel REAL Boxer Spirit… Meet Samara and Tamara

106 INSERT CHANNEL 5 A+ SEGMENT ON THE TWINS…

107 Fast forward to Friday, June 1, 2012 Feel the spirit…a special moment in time

108 There are NO test scores on earth that are better than that moment – NONE!

109 Making change takes tenacity, not brilliance! Susan Szachowicz, Principal Brockton High What WE say…

110 Almost done!!! Finally… For What Its Worth… Final Words of Advice


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