5 Models of Cognition Describe how students acquire knowledge and develop competence in a particular area Reflect recent and credible scientific evidence of typical learning processes and informed experiences of expert teachers Describe typical learning progression toward competence, including milestones (benchmarks)
6 Observation Models A set of specifications for assessment tasks that will elicit illuminating responses from students The tasks or situations are linked to the cognitive model of learning and should prompt students to say, do, or create something that provides evidence to support inferences about students knowledge, skills, and cognitive processes
7 Interpretation Interpretations use the evidence from observations to make claims about what students understand and can do Claims – Frame a manageable number of learning goals around which instruction can be organized – Guide the specification of appropriate evidence – Provides a basis for meaningful reporting to different interested audiences
8 Content Specifications … Create a bridge between standards and assessment and, ultimately, instruction Organize the standards around major constructs & big ideas Express what students should learn and be able to do
9 Rationale for each claim Why is this learning goal important for College & Career Readiness (CCR)? What does the research say about learning in this area? What does sufficient evidence look like? What types of items/tasks? What content/texts will be emphasized? What are some suggested reporting categories?
10 Indicate proposed prioritized content for the summative assessment- link CCSS to the kinds of items/tasks students will respond to Show how one or more (or parts) CCSS addresses the target – bundles CCSS (examples on next slide) Standards or parts of standards that relate to same type of understanding & comparable rigor/DOK demands Several similar CCSS from different strands
11 Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. Reading Students can produce effective and well- grounded writing for a range of purposes and audiences. Writing Students can employ effective speaking and listening skills for a range of purposes and audiences. Speaking/Listening Students can engage in research and inquiry to investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate, and present information. Research/Inquiry (a/o Round 2 – released 9/20/11)
12 OVERALL 3-8 OVERALL 9-12 (a/o Round 2 – released 9/20/11) Students can demonstrate progress toward college and career readiness in English language arts and literacy. Students can demonstrate college and career readiness in English language arts and literacy.
16 Provide evidence of critical thinking while reading, including: ability to infer, analyze, compare-contrast, synthesize, evaluate or critique information presented or the authors reasoning.
17 Provide evidence of understanding of written language use. Majority of these items will be text-dependent items; A small number may be stand- alone items when texts used do not provide adequate opportunities to assess skills described in specific CCS standards.
18 Organization and Expression of Ideas Use of Evidence Conventions
19 Listen to/view a variety of non-print texts, such as following directions or procedures in a simulation or hands-on task, or view demonstrations, lectures, media messages, speeches, etc. and respond to comprehension- and integration/analysis–type questions (similar to the selected response and open response questions described for reading Claim #1)
20 Two types of summative speaking assessment tasks: 1) Shorter (approximately 2-5 minutes), 1) externally scored audio- or video-recorded presentations in response to a prompt, and 2) common summative speaking performance tasks (oral presentations) conducted in the classroom at selected grade levels.
21 Two types of summative speaking assessment tasks: Students will have time to prepare and then offer a short summary, explanation, or analysis. Student responses will be audio or video taped and scored externally. The common oral presentation assessments will be scored locally by teachers using the same rubrics
22 The summative (and interim) common speaking assessments (oral presentation) will be developed in conjunction with performance tasks like those for Claim #4, investigating/ researching a topic Scores on speaking assessment tasks will be certified at the district level and reported to the state
23 Students demonstrate their ability to think critically, analyze and synthesize information, and communicate effectively Students explore a topic, issue or complex problem May involve working with peers or investigating on the internet Interpret information from multiple sources
24 Individual students then select, analyze, and synthesize information in order to craft a coherent response to the problem or prompt using supporting evidence Presentation format (written, oral, visual/graphics, etc.) Common rubrics (effective investigation, identification and evaluation of sources, synthesis of ideas/information, and accurate and appropriate documentation)
25 Students read about static electricity Conduct an experiment with classmate-collect data about how static electricity behaves under certain conditions Individual students prepare and present their findings, drawing conclusions that integrate or compare what the read with their findings
26 Students read print and digital resources related to a specific topic – Genetically modified food Prepare and present their analysis Demonstrating an ability to compare, contrast, integrate information to draw conclusion Defending their conclusion with evidence that supports their synthesis and analysis of the claims
33 Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and carry out mathematical procedures with precision and fluency. Concepts and Procedures Students can frame and solve a range of complex problems in pure and applied mathematics. Problem Solving Students can clearly and precisely construct viable arguments to support their own reasoning and to critique the reasoning of others. Communicating Reasoning Students can analyze complex, real-world scenarios and can use mathematical models to interpret and solve problems. Data Analysis and Modeling (a/o Round 1 – released 8/29/11)
34 Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. 7 × 8 equals the well-remembered 7 × 5 + 7 × 3 They can see complicated things, 5 – 3(x – y)2 Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcuts Mathematically proficient students... state the meaning of the symbols they choose
35 Use appropriate tools strategically Use technology tools to deepen their understanding Can explain their work and justify why a mathematical statement is true Fluency in computation Content emphasis
36 Major –domain/clusters at each grade level Supporting - support and strengthen the areas of major emphasis Additional - not connect tightly or explicitly to the major work of the grade
40 Essential properties of tasks that assess Claim #1, conceptual understanding and procedural fluency Assessment types: short items, including multiple-choice, other selected-response, and short constructed-response items, that focus on a particular skill or concept. They will also include items that require students to translate between representations of concepts (words, diagrams, symbols) and items that require the identification of structure.
41 Essential properties of tasks that assess Claim #2, problem solving Evidence for Claim #2 depends on tasks that present non-routine problems where a substantial part of the challenge is in deciding what to do, and which mathematical tools to use; involve chains of autonomous reasoning, taking a successful student at least 5 to 10 minutes (depending on the age of the student and complexity of the task), including explanation of assumptions and conclusions as well as the use of representational and procedural skills.
42 Essential properties of tasks that assess Claim #3, communicating reasoning Evidence for Claim #3 depends on tasks that present a situation in which either propositions are given or students are encouraged to make their own conjectures; ask students to test propositions or conjectures with specific examples; ask students to construct, autonomously, chains of reasoning that will justify or refute the propositions or conjectures; these chains should typically take a successful student 10 minutes or more. (Times will be somewhat shorter for younger students, but still giving them time to think and explain.)
43 Claim #4: Mathematical Modeling Modeling is the process of choosing and using appropriate mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to improve decision-making. (p.72, CCSSM)
44 Essential properties of tasks that assess Claim #4, mathematical modeling Evidence for Claim #4 depends on tasks that present non-routine problems from the real world where the solution involves some or all of the phases of the modeling cycle; for some tasks, a substantial part of the challenge is in formulating an approach: deciding what to do, and which mathematical tools to use; involve substantial chains of autonomous reasoning, taking a successful student at least 10 minutes (less for younger students), and call for explanation of assumptions, interpretations, evaluations, and conclusions as well as reliable representational and procedural skills.
45 There is not necessarily a simple correspondence between standards, claims, and tasks. Some items will assess student understanding of particular content-related standards. For example, the task If x and y are positive integers, and 3x + 2y = 13, what could be the value of y? Write all possible answers addresses Content Standard EE-8.1 and Claim #1. But, consider the following problem, Hurdles Race.
47 Interpreting distance-time graphs in a real- world context Realizing to the left is faster Understanding points of intersection in that context (theyre tied at the moment) Interpreting the horizontal line segment Putting all this together in an explanation
48 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Construct viable arguments… Model with mathematics. Use appropriate tools strategically. Attend to Precision. Look for and make use of structure. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
52 Performance Task drawn from the Ohio Performance Assessment Project.
53 Performance Task drawn from the Ohio Performance Assessment Project.
54 Performance Task drawn from the Ohio Performance Assessment Project.
55 Integrate knowledge and skills across multiple standards or strands – Tasks should encompass and/or cut across multiple standards and multiple strands, although in ELA items may focus predominantly on reading, writing, or speaking and listening. In mathematics incorporate the mathematical practices 55
56 Measure capacities such as depth of understanding, research skills and/or complex analysis with relevant evidence Require student-initiated planning, management of information and ideas, interaction with other materials Require production of more extended responses (e.g., oral presentations, exhibitions, product development, in addition to more extended written responses which might be revised and edited 56
57 Reflect a real-world task and/or scenario- based problem - Performance tasks should incorporate real- world, college- and career- related skills that require students to accomplish complex goals over a period of time. Tasks should be multi-stepped and allow for reflection and revision. Allow for multiple approaches 57
58 Represent content that is relevant & meaningful to students Allow for demonstration of important knowledge & skills, including those that address 21st century skills such as critically analyzing, synthesizing media texts Allow for multiple points of view & interpretations 58
59 Require scoring that focuses on the essence of the task Seem feasible for the school/classroom environment – Some considerations that require attention are: student-teacher interactions, materials/technology necessary for completion of task, and allotted time for assessment. 59
60 What are the implications for performance assessments in your classrooms? How often?
61 Indentify intended rigor/Depth of Knowledge /DOK level for assessment targets and test items/tasks (Appendix B) Illustrate how assessment targets relate to a hypothesized* learning progression across grade levels (See excerpts from the example reading Learning Progressions Frameworks (LPFs) in Appendix C. * Hypothesized learning progressions use our best application of current research to describe typical learning pathways. Student work analysis is used to validate our assumptions about learning.
63 PARCC and SMARTER developing technology assessment tool to identify infrastructure gaps Paper/pencil option locally available during a 3-year transition 12-week administration window reduces pressure on computer labs Technology Compatibility Developing a business plan for post-2014 Seeking additional funding for ongoing support Member states will be actively involved in determining the future of the Consortium Long-term Governance Common protocols for item development: accessibility, language/cultural sensitivity, construct irrelevant variance Common accommodation and translation protocols Adoption of best practices On average, SMARTER states pay $31 per student for current assessments Third-party cost estimate for SMARTER Balanced: Summative assessment $19.81/ student; Optional interim assessments $7.50/ student Cost Common, interoperable, open-source software accommodates state-level assessment options Test-builder tool available to use interim item pool for end-of-course tests
64...the SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium can be found online at www.smarterbalanced.org
Application Model 1. Knowledge in one discipline 2. Application within one discipline 3. Application across disciplines 4. Application to real-world predictable situations 5. Application to real-world unpredictable situations 69
Awareness 1 Comprehension 2 Application 3 1 Knowledge in one discipline 2 Apply knowledge in one discipline A Acquisition Students gather and store bits of knowledge/information and are expected to remember or understand this acquired knowledge. Low-level Knowledge 71
Awareness 1 Comprehension 2 Application 3 B Application 3 Apply knowledge across disciplines 4 Apply to real-world predictable situation 5 Apply to real-world unpredictable situation Students use acquired knowledge to solve problems, design solutions, and complete work. Low-level Application 72
Application 3 Analysis 4 Synthesis 5 Evaluation 6 1 Knowledge in one discipline 2 Apply knowledge in one discipline C Assimilation Students extend and refine their knowledge so that they can use it automatically and routinely to analyze and solve problems and create solutions. High-level Knowledge 73
3 Apply knowledge across disciplines 4 Apply to real-world predictable situation 5 Apply to real-world unpredictable situation Application 3 Analysis 4 Synthesis 5 Evaluation 6 D Adaptation Students think in complex ways and apply acquired knowledge and skills, even when confronted with perplexing unknowns, to find creative solutions and take action that further develops their skills and knowledge. High-level Application 74
Solid Implementation Focus Fidelity of Implementation Leading and Lagging Indicators
Proportions of students scoring in each decile of the MCAS 8 th grade ELA distribution
Proportions of students scoring in each decile of the MCAS 8 th grade Math distribution
MCAS Math gains 8 th to 10 th grade, compared to others from the same 8 th grade decile (School Rank Percentile)
MCAS ELA gains 8 th to 10 th grade, compared to others from the same 8 th grade decile (School rank percentile/100)
The main lesson was that student achievement rose when leadership teams focused thoughtfully and relentlessly on improving the quality of instruction. - Prof. Ron Ferguson, AGI Conference Report The Achievement Gap Initiative At Harvard University Toward Excellence with Equity Conference Report by Ronald F. Ferguson, Faculty Director
The Leadership It Takes Streamlined and Coherent Curriculum: The district purposefully selects curriculum materials and places some restrictions on school and teacher autonomy in curriculum decisions. The district also provides tools (including technology) and professional development to support classroom-level delivery of specific curricula and high yield strategies. Ron Ferguson, Closing the Achievement Gap
OPEN RESPONSE STEPS TO FOLLOW 1. READ QUESTION CAREFULLY. 2. CIRCLE OR UNDERLINE KEY WORDS. 3. RESTATE QUESTION AS THESIS (LEAVING BLANKS). 4. READ PASSAGE CAREFULLY. 5. TAKE NOTES THAT RESPOND TO THE QUESTION. BRAINSTORM & MAP OUT YOUR ANSWER. 6. COMPLETE YOUR THESIS. 7. WRITE YOUR RESPONSE CAREFULLY, USING YOUR MAP AS A GUIDE. 8. STATEGICALLY REPEAT KEY WORDS FROM THESIS IN YOUR BODY AND IN YOUR END SENTENCE. 9. PARAGRAPH YOUR RESPONSE. 10. REREAD AND EDIT YOUR RESPONSE.
Close Reading Engaging with a text of sufficient complexity Examining its meaning thoroughly and methodically Focus student reading on the particular words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs of the author Research links the close reading of complex text regardless if the student is a struggling reader or advancedto significant gains in reading proficiency
91 Overview of Text Complexity Reading Standards include over exemplar texts (stories and literature, poetry, and informational texts) that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by grade Text complexity is defined by: Qualitative 1.Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands Quantitative 2.Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity Reader and Task 3.Reader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned
Analytical Writing about Texts Studies show that learning to present important information in an organized piece of writing helps students generate deep understanding of a text Implications for assessment: –Writing routinely in response to complex text –An emphasis on analytic writing that increases through the grades –Writing under a range of conditions and within set parameters –Use of technology to produce, edit, and distribute writing –Writing expectations
Narrative Writing In addition to analytic and explanatory writing Close attention to detail support other types of writing: –Organization –Word choice –Shaping the narrative real or imagined reinforces what they are learning elsewhere
Reading and Writing Critical skills to develop (Assessment focus) –Cite Evidence and Analyze Content Regularly citing the text to support claims Analyzing texts through close reading –Understand and Apply Grammar Building, expanding, and reinforcing knowledge of grammar Applying understanding when reading complex academic texts
Reading and Writing Critical skills to develop (Assessment focus) –Understand and Apply Vocabulary Academic vocabulary Building a rich vocabulary Focusing on context –Speak and Listen Effectively Speaking and listening with established norms Use of evidence to support claims Use of standard English conventions when the context requires it
Grade 3 Reading Complex Texts: –Five to nine short texts from across the curriculum –Literature includes adventure stories, folktales, legends, fables, fantasy, realistic fiction and drama, with a special emphasis on myth, –Informational texts –One extended text
Grade 3 Proficiently read grade-appropriate complex literature and informational text (RL/RI.3.10) ask and answer questions by referring explicitly to a text (RL/RI.3.1) Compare and contrast two or more works with the same topic, author or character, describing the traits, motivations and feelings of characters or how ideas relate to one another
Grade 3 use these emerging skills to negotiate multisyllabic words ask questions of a speaker or classmate to deepen understanding of the material read aloud fluently and offer appropriate elaboration on the ideas of classmate Two new Writing Standards (W.3.4 and W.3.10) are introduced in grade 3
Grade 3 Instructional Priorities Build their word analysis skills so that they are reliably able to make sense of multisyllabic words in books (RF.3.3). Grade-level fluency
Grade 3 Writing Routine writing: Routine writing, such as short constructed-responses to text-dependent questions, builds content knowledge and provides opportunities for reflection on a specific aspect of a text or texts. At least two analyses per module: using evidence (RL/RI.3.1), as well as on crafting works that display some logical integration and coherence (W.3.4, W.3.5 and L.3.1–3). Research Project: one extended Narrative Writing: one or two narratives per module
For Reading and Writing in Each Grade 3 Module Cite evidence Analyze content Study and apply grammar Study and apply vocabulary Conduct discussions Report findings
Reading Foundation Skills in Each Grade 3 Module Decode words Read fluently
Exploring the Model Content Frameworks: Review your grade level Discuss the instructional priorities
Mathematics/Standards for Mathematical Practice 1.Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them 2.Reason abstractly and quantitatively 3.Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others 4.Model with mathematics 5.Use appropriate tools strategically 6.Attend to precision 7.Look for and make use of structure 8.Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning
FROMTO Planning begins with identification of instructional activities Planning begins with identifications of what students are to know and do as a result of the unit Planning for instruction is the same for all students and meets the needs of some students Intentional planning meets each individual leaners needs Teacher-directed instructionStudent-centered instruction (investigation and inquiry Textbook is used as a main source of information Variety of instructional resources are used Interdisciplinary connections are forcedInterdisciplinary connections are appropriate Assessment is infrequent and at the end of the unit Assessment is ongoing, informs instruction and allows for extending understanding through application of knowledge (formative & Summative) Students work toward standards is often unclear Students work to meet clearly defined and known standards 123
Rigorous and Relevant Instruction Sharing the standard with Students Defining the Focus
125 Defining the focus A statement or question that communicates the content standards in a way that engages students by connecting learning to prior knowledge skills, experiences, belies and/or customs. Provides relevance: the why for learning Inquiry-based Motivates
Rigorous and Relevant Instruction Analyze the verbs Defining the Focus
Rigorous and Relevant Instruction Reword – the standard Defining the Focus
Rigorous and Relevant Instruction I can statements Defining the Focus
Student Understanding What does this standard want you to be able to do or know? to What skills or knowledge do you have to demonstrate to be successful?
StrongWeak You are what you eatNutrition How can I use measurement to learn about my world? Measurement Old stuff to new stuff: How can a better understanding of matter help us make the world a better place? Matter A License to Create – Picasso the Innovative Artist Picasso Arkansass Government – Whats in it for me? Arkansas Government 130
Focus of Learning Worksheet Focus of Unit Standards Use pg 64 to brainstorm: –Concepts (Big Ideas) –Declarative Knowledge –Skills –Behaviors 131
Strategy KWL chart (Know, Want to Know, Learned) Strategy: –Student create a chart (KWL) –Teachers poses questions –Determine what the focus needs to be
Teacher Talk We are learning….. So what do you need to remember to do? (achieve the standard) Classroom discussion changes – we are learning….
Exemplars Show the students high expectation for the standard
Rigorous and Relevant Instruction 1.Skills, knowledge, behaviors and concepts 2.Student work (Level of Rigor and Relevance) 3.Cross-reference to state standards Student Performance
Rigorous and Relevant Instruction Assessment matched student performance Type of assessment consistent with strategies Level matches the level of rigor and relevance Multiple measures Assessment
Low High LowHigh Traditional Tests Performance Rigor/Relevance Framework
RIGORRIGOR RELEVANCE A B D C Rigor/Relevance Framework RightAnswer Did Students Get it Right? RationalAnswerRightQuestions RightProcedure High Low
RIGORRIGOR RELEVANCE A B D C Rigor/Relevance Framework Recall, facts, observations, demonstrate Next Generation Summarize, analyze, organize, evaluate Predict, design, create, innovate Apply, relate, demonstrate High Low
A - Ask questions to recall facts, make observations, or demonstrate understanding: What is/are ___? How many ___? What did you observe ___? What can you recall ___? In what ways ___? What did you notice about ___? What do/did you feel/see/hear/smell ___? What do/did you remember ___? What did you find out about ___?
B – Ask questions to apply or relate: How would you do that? Where will you use that knowledge? How does that relate to your experience? How can you demonstrate that? Calculate that for ___? How would you illustrate that? How do you know it works? Can you apply what you know to this real- world problem?
C – Ask questions to summarize, analyze, organize, or evaluate: How are these similar/different? How is this like? Whats another way we could express that? How can you distinguish between ___? How would you defend your position? What evidence can you offer? How do you know?
D – Ask questions to predict, design, or create: How would you design a __ to __? How would you compose a song? Can you see a possible solution? Can you develop a proposal that would__? How would you do it differently? How would you devise your own way to deal with ___?
KNOWLEDGEKNOWLEDGE A P P L I C A T I O N Extended Response Extended Response Product Performance Product Performance Primary Assessments Rigor/Relevance Framework Portfolio Portfolio Product Performance Product Performance Interview Interview Self Reflection Self Reflection Process Process Performance Performance Product Performance Product Performance Multiple Choice Multiple Choice Constructed Response Constructed Response
Performance Assessments Set criteria Student knows what is expected Teacher must analyze what is essential in the task
Resources National Council of Supervisors of Math: www.mathleadership.org/ccss www.mathleadership.org/ccss Mathematics Assessment Project (MAP): http://map.mathshell.org.uk/materials/tas ks.orghttp://map.mathshell.org.uk/materials/tas ks.org Gizmos NCTM Illuminations
Sample Items PISA http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/educato rs.asp http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/educato rs.asp http://pisa-sq.acer.edu.au/ MARS http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ttzedwe b/MARS/tasks/ SBAC http://www.k12.wa.us/SMARTER/ Resources.aspx http://www.k12.wa.us/SMARTER/ Resources.aspx International Center for Leadership in Education