5 Models of CognitionDescribe how students acquire knowledge and develop competence in a particular areaReflect recent and credible scientific evidence of typical learning processes and informed experiences of expert teachersDescribe typical learning progression toward competence, including milestones (benchmarks)
6 Observation ModelsA set of specifications for assessment tasks that will elicit illuminating responses from studentsThe tasks or situations are linked to the cognitive model of learning and should prompt students to say, do, or create something that provides evidence to support inferences about students’ knowledge, skills, and cognitive processes
7 InterpretationInterpretations use the evidence from observations to make claims about what students understand and can doClaimsFrame a manageable number of learning goals around which instruction can be organizedGuide the specification of appropriate evidenceProvides a basis for meaningful reporting to different interested audiences
8 An Overview of SBAC’s Approach Content Specifications …Create a bridge between standards and assessment and, ultimately, instructionOrganize the standards around major constructs & big ideasExpress what students should learn and be able to do
9 Each claim is described for assessment Rationale for each claimWhy is this learning goal important for College & Career Readiness (CCR)?What does the research say about learning in this area?What does ‘sufficient’ evidence look like?What types of items/tasks?What content/texts will be emphasized?What are some suggested reporting categories?
10 Summative Assessment Targets Indicate proposed prioritized content for the summative assessment- link CCSS to the kinds of items/tasks students will respond toShow how one or more (or parts) CCSS addresses the target – ‘bundles’ CCSS (examples on next slide)Standards or parts of standards that relate to same type of understanding & comparable rigor/DOK demandsSeveral similar CCSS from different strands
11 Draft Assessment Claims for English Language Arts/Literacy (a/o Round 2 – released 9/20/11)ReadingStudents can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts.WritingStudents can produce effective and well-grounded writing for a range of purposes and audiences.Speaking/ListeningStudents can employ effective speaking and listening skills for a range of purposes and audiences.Research/InquiryStudents can engage in research and inquiry to investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate, and present information.
12 Draft Overall Assessment Claims for English Language Arts/Literacy (a/o Round 2 – released 9/20/11)Students can demonstrate progress toward college andcareer readiness in English language arts and literacy.OVERALL 3-8OVERALL 9-12Students can demonstrate college and career readiness in English language arts and literacy.
15 Reading Framework for NAEP 2009 GradeLiteraryInformational450%845%55%1230%70%Standards demand a greater focus on informational text literary non fictionMajor focus in 6-12
16 Assessment targets #1, #2, #4-#6, #8, #9, and #11-#13 Provide evidence of critical thinking while reading, including:ability to infer,analyze,compare-contrast,synthesize,evaluate or critique information presented or the author’s reasoning.
17 Assessment targets #3, #7, #10, and #14 Provide evidence of understanding of written language use.Majority of these items will be text-dependent items;A small number may be stand- alone items when texts used do not provide adequate opportunities to assess skills described in specific CCS standards.
18 Proposed Reporting Categories for ELA/Literacy Claim #2 Organization and Expression of IdeasUse of EvidenceConventionsOrganization and Expression of Ideas: Organizing and clearly communicating ideas (Evidence from Assessment Targets #1, #2, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, and #10)Use of Evidence: Providing supporting evidence, details, and elaboration consistent with focus/thesis/claim, source text or texts, purpose and audience(Evidence from Assessment Targets #2, #4, and #7)Conventions: Applying the conventions of standard written English; editing for grammar, usage, and mechanics to clarify the message.(Evidence from Assessment Target #9)
19 What sufficient evidence looks like for ELA/Literacy Claim #3 Listen to/view a variety of non-print texts, such as following directions or procedures in a simulation or hands-on task, or view demonstrations, lectures, media messages, speeches, etc. and respond to comprehension- and integration/analysis–type questions (similar to the selected response and open response questions described for reading Claim #1)
20 What sufficient evidence looks like for ELA/Literacy Claim #3 Two types of summative speaking assessment tasks:1) Shorter (approximately 2-5 minutes),1) externally scored audio- or video-recorded presentations in response to a prompt, and2) “common” summative speaking performance tasks (oral presentations) conducted in the classroom at selected grade levels.
21 What sufficient evidence looks like for ELA/Literacy Claim #3 Two types of summative speaking assessment tasks:Students will have time to prepare and then offer a short summary, explanation, or analysis.Student responses will be audio or video taped and scored externally.The common oral presentation assessments will be scored locally by teachers using the same rubrics
22 What sufficient evidence looks like for ELA/Literacy Claim #3 The summative (and interim) common speaking assessments (oral presentation) will be developed in conjunction with performance tasks like those for Claim #4, investigating/ researching a topicScores on speaking assessment tasks will be “certified” at the district level and reported to the state
23 What sufficient evidence looks like for ELA/Literacy Claim #4 Students demonstrate their ability to think critically, analyze and synthesize information, and communicate effectivelyStudents explore a topic, issue or complex problemMay involve working with peers or investigating on the internetInterpret information from multiple sources
24 What sufficient evidence looks like for ELA/Literacy Claim #4 Individual students then select, analyze, and synthesize information in order to craft a coherent response to the problem or prompt using supporting evidencePresentation format (written, oral, visual/graphics, etc.)Common rubrics (effective investigation, identification and evaluation of sources, synthesis of ideas/information, and accurate and appropriate documentation)
25 Elementary exampleStudents read about static electricityConduct an experiment with classmate-collect data about how static electricity behaves under certain conditionsIndividual students prepare and present their findings, drawing conclusions that integrate or compare what the read with their findings
26 Middle School exampleStudents read print and digital resources related to a specific topic – Genetically modified foodPrepare and present their analysisDemonstrating an ability to compare, contrast, integrate information to draw conclusionDefending their conclusion with evidence that supports their synthesis and analysis of the claims
33 Draft Assessment Claims for Mathematics (a/o Round 1 – released 8/29/11)Concepts and Procedures“Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and carry out mathematical procedures with precision and fluency.”Problem Solving“Students can frame and solve a range of complex problems in pure and applied mathematics.”Communicating Reasoning“Students can clearly and precisely construct viable arguments to support their own reasoning and to critique the reasoning of others.”Data Analysis and Modeling“Students can analyze complex, real-world scenarios and can use mathematical models to interpret and solve problems.”
34 Claim 1 - Procedural skills and the conceptual understanding Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure.7 × 8 equals the well-remembered 7 × × 3They can see complicated things,5 – 3(x – y)2Mathematically proficient students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcutsMathematically proficient students ... state the meaning of the symbols they chooseas 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y. (Practice 7, CCSSM)
35 Claim 1 - Procedural skills and the conceptual understanding Use appropriate tools strategicallyUse technology tools to deepen their understandingCan explain their work and justify why a mathematical statement is trueFluency in computationContent emphasisas 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y. (Practice 7, CCSSM)
36 Cluster emphasisMajor –domain/clusters at each grade levelSupporting - support and strengthen the areas of major emphasisAdditional - not connect tightly or explicitly to the major work of the grade
39 Understanding Assessment Targets in an Adaptive Framework doesn’t make much sense to repeatedly offer formulaic multiplication and division items to a highly fluent Grade 3 student, making the Grade 3 Target OA.C [m] less relevant for this student than it may be for another. The higher-achieving student could be challenged further, while a student who is struggling could be given less complex items to ascertain how much each understands within the domain. The table below illustrates several items for the Grade 3 Operations and Algebraic
40 Essential properties of tasks that assess Claim #1, conceptual understanding and procedural fluency Assessment types: short items, including multiple-choice, other selected-response, and short constructed-response items, that focus on a particular skill or concept.They will also include items that require students to translate between representations of concepts (words, diagrams, symbols) and items that require the identification of structure.
41 Essential properties of tasks that assess Claim #2, problem solving Evidence for Claim #2 depends on tasks thatpresent non-routine problems where a substantial part of the challenge is in deciding what to do, and which mathematical tools to use;involve chains of autonomous reasoning, taking a successful student at least 5 to 10 minutes (depending on the age of the student and complexity of the task), including explanation of assumptions and conclusions as well as the use of representational and procedural skills.
42 Essential properties of tasks that assess Claim #3, communicating reasoning Evidence for Claim #3 depends on tasks thatpresent a situation in which either propositions are given or students are encouraged to make their own conjectures;ask students to test propositions or conjectures with specific examples;ask students to construct, autonomously, chains of reasoning that will justify or refute the propositions or conjectures; these chains should typically take a successful student 10 minutes or more. (Times will be somewhat shorter for younger students, but still giving them time to think and explain.)
43 Claim #4: Mathematical Modeling Modeling is the process of choosing and using appropriate mathematics and statistics to analyze empirical situations, to understand them better, and to improve decision-making. (p.72, CCSSM)
44 Essential properties of tasks that assess Claim #4, mathematical modeling Evidence for Claim #4 depends on tasks that• present non-routine problems from the real world where the solution involves some or all of the phases of the modeling cycle;• for some tasks, a substantial part of the challenge is in formulating an approach: deciding what to do, and which mathematical tools to use;involve substantial chains of autonomous reasoning, taking a successful student at least 10 minutes (less for younger students), and call for explanation of assumptions, interpretations, evaluations, and conclusions as well as reliable representational and procedural skills.
45 There is not necessarily a simple correspondence between standards, claims, and tasks. Some items will assess student understanding of particular content-related standards. For example,the task“If x and y are positive integers, and 3x + 2y = 13, what could be the value of y? Write all possible answers”addresses Content Standard EE-8.1 and Claim #1.But, consider the following problem, “Hurdles Race.”
47 Think of the Content involved Interpreting distance-time graphs in a real- world contextRealizing “to the left” is fasterUnderstanding points of intersection in that context (they’re tied at the moment)Interpreting the horizontal line segmentPutting all this together in an explanation
48 Think of the Practices involved Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.Reason abstractly and quantitatively.Construct viable arguments…Model with mathematics.Use appropriate tools strategically.Attend to Precision.Look for and make use of structure.Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
49 Item Exemplars: Technology Enhanced and Constructed Response
50 Item Exemplars: Technology Enhanced and Constructed Response
51 Item Exemplars: Technology Enhanced and Constructed Response
52 Item Exemplars: Performance Task Performance Task drawn from the Ohio Performance Assessment Project.
53 Item Exemplars: Performance Task (cont’d) Performance Task drawn from the Ohio Performance Assessment Project.
54 Item Exemplars: Performance Task (cont’d) Performance Task drawn from the Ohio Performance Assessment Project.
55 Performance Task Recommendations Integrate knowledge and skills across multiple standards or strands – Tasks should encompass and/or cut across multiple standards and multiple strands, although in ELA items may focus predominantly on reading, writing, or speaking and listening. In mathematics incorporate the mathematical practices
56 Performance Task Recommendations Measure capacities such as depth of understanding, research skills and/or complex analysis with relevant evidenceRequire student-initiated planning, management of information and ideas, interaction with other materialsRequire production of more extended responses (e.g., oral presentations, exhibitions, product development, in addition to more extended written responses which might be revised and edited
57 Performance Task Recommendations Reflect a real-world task and/or scenario- based problem - Performance tasks should incorporate real- world, college- and career- related skills that require students to accomplish complex goals over a period of time. Tasks should be multi-stepped and allow for reflection and revision.Allow for multiple approaches
58 Performance Task Recommendations Represent content that is relevant & meaningful to studentsAllow for demonstration of important knowledge & skills, including those that address 21st century skills such as critically analyzing, synthesizing media textsAllow for multiple points of view & interpretations
59 Performance Task Recommendations Require scoring that focuses on the essence of the taskSeem feasible for the school/classroom environment – Some considerations that require attention are: student-teacher interactions, materials/technology necessary for completion of task, and allotted time for assessment.
60 Table DiscussionWhat are the implications for performance assessments in your classrooms?How often?
61 Summative Assessment Targets Indentify intended rigor/Depth of Knowledge /DOK level for assessment targets and test items/tasks (Appendix B)Illustrate how assessment targets relate to a hypothesized* learning progression across grade levels (See excerpts from the example reading Learning Progressions Frameworks (LPFs) in Appendix C.*Hypothesized learning progressions use our best application of current research to describe typical learning pathways. Student work analysis is used to validate our assumptions about learning.
63 Addressing State Concerns TechnologyPARCC and SMARTER developing technology assessment tool to identify infrastructure gapsPaper/pencil option locally available during a 3-year transition12-week administration window reduces pressure on computer labsCompatibilityCommon, interoperable, open-source software accommodates state-level assessment optionsTest-builder tool available to use interim item pool for end-of-course testsCostOn average, SMARTER states pay $31 per student for current assessmentsThird-party cost estimate for SMARTER Balanced: Summative assessment $19.81/ student; Optional interim assessments $7.50/ studentAdoption of best practicesCommon protocols for item development: accessibility, language/cultural sensitivity, construct irrelevant varianceCommon accommodation and translation protocolsLong-term GovernanceDeveloping a business plan for post-2014Seeking additional funding for ongoing supportMember states will be actively involved in determining the future of the Consortium
64 To find out more......the SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium can be found online at
69 Application Model1. Knowledge in one discipline 2. Application within one discipline 3. Application across disciplines 4. Application to real-world predictable situations 5. Application to real-world unpredictable situations
71 Knowledge in one discipline Apply knowledge in one discipline Students gather and store bits of knowledge/information and are expected to remember or understand this acquired knowledge.ApplicationAAcquisitionComprehension 2Low-level KnowledgeAwareness1Knowledge in one discipline2Apply knowledge in one discipline
72 Students use acquired knowledge to solve problems, design solutions, and complete work. ApplicationBApplicationComprehension 2AwarenessLow-level Application3Apply knowledge across disciplines5Apply to real-world unpredictable situation4Apply to real-world predictable situation
73 Knowledge in one discipline Apply knowledge in one discipline Students extend and refine their knowledge so that they can use it automatically and routinely to analyze and solve problems and create solutions.EvaluationCAssimilationSynthesisAnalysisHigh-level KnowledgeApplication1Knowledge in one discipline2Apply knowledge in one discipline
74 Students think in complex ways and apply acquired knowledge and skills, even when confronted with perplexing unknowns, to find creative solutions and take action that further develops their skills and knowledge.EvaluationDAdaptationSynthesisAnalysisHigh-level ApplicationApplication3Apply knowledge across disciplines4Apply to real-world predictable situation5Apply to real-world unpredictable situation
77 Solid Implementation Focus Fidelity of Implementation Leading and Lagging Indicators
78 Proportions of students scoring in each decile of the MCAS 8th grade ELA distribution
79 Proportions of students scoring in each decile of the MCAS 8th grade Math distribution
80 MCAS Math gains 8th to 10th grade, compared to others from the same 8th grade decile(School Rank Percentile)
81 MCAS ELA gains 8th to 10th grade, compared to others from the same 8th grade decile(School rank percentile/100)
82 The Achievement Gap Initiative At Harvard University The Achievement Gap Initiative At Harvard University Toward Excellence with Equity Conference Report by Ronald F. Ferguson, Faculty Director“The main lesson was that student achievement rose when leadership teams focused thoughtfully and relentlessly on improving the quality of instruction.”- Prof. Ron Ferguson, AGI Conference Report82
83 The Leadership It Takes Streamlined and Coherent Curriculum:The district purposefully selects curriculum materials and places some restrictions on school and teacher autonomy in curriculum decisions. The district also provides tools (including technology) and professional development to support classroom-level delivery of specific curricula and high yield strategies.Ron Ferguson, “Closing the Achievement Gap”
84 OPEN RESPONSE STEPS TO FOLLOW 1. READ QUESTION CAREFULLY.2. CIRCLE OR UNDERLINE KEY WORDS.3. RESTATE QUESTION AS THESIS (LEAVING BLANKS).4. READ PASSAGE CAREFULLY.5. TAKE NOTES THAT RESPOND TO THE QUESTION.BRAINSTORM & MAP OUT YOUR ANSWER.6. COMPLETE YOUR THESIS.7. WRITE YOUR RESPONSE CAREFULLY, USING YOUR MAP AS A GUIDE.8. STATEGICALLY REPEAT KEY WORDS FROM THESIS IN YOUR BODY AND IN YOUR END SENTENCE.9. PARAGRAPH YOUR RESPONSE.10. REREAD AND EDIT YOUR RESPONSE.
89 Reading Framework for NAEP 2009 GradeLiteraryInformational450%845%55%1230%70%Standards demand a greater focus on informational text literary non fictionMajor focus in 6-12
90 Close Reading Engaging with a text of sufficient complexity Examining its meaning thoroughly and methodicallyFocus student reading on the particular words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs of the authorResearch links the close reading of complex text—regardless if the student is a struggling reader or advanced—to significant gains in reading proficiency
91 Text complexity is defined by: Overview of Text ComplexityReading Standards include over exemplar texts (stories and literature, poetry, and informational texts) that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by gradeText complexity is defined by:QualitativeQualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demandsQuantitativeQuantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexityBest measured by an attentive readerAbility to make an informed decision about the difficulty of a textKnowledge of four factors in developing effective tools:Levels of Meaning or PurposeReader and Task: Determining whether a given text is appropriate for the student:Cognitive abilitiesMotivationTopic knowledgeLinguistic and discourse knowledgeComprehension strategiesExperiences“Reading for Understanding, 2002, The RAND Reading Study group”Quantitative:Word length or frequency (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level text, Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Lexile)Sentence lengthText cohesion (University of Memphis, Coh-Metrix)Measurement tools ( Lexile exampleStructureLanguage Conventionality & ClarityKnowledge DemandsReader and TaskReader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned
93 Analytical Writing about Texts Studies show that learning to present important information in an organized piece of writing helps students generate deep understanding of a textImplications for assessment:Writing routinely in response to complex textAn emphasis on analytic writing that increases through the gradesWriting under a range of conditions and within set parametersUse of technology to produce, edit, and distribute writingWriting expectations
99 Narrative Writing In addition to analytic and explanatory writing Close attention to detail support other types of writing:OrganizationWord choiceShaping the narrative real or imagined reinforces what they are learning elsewhere
101 Reading and Writing Critical skills to develop (Assessment focus) Cite Evidence and Analyze ContentRegularly citing the text to support claimsAnalyzing texts through close readingUnderstand and Apply GrammarBuilding, expanding, and reinforcing knowledge of grammarApplying understanding when reading complex academic texts
102 Reading and Writing Critical skills to develop (Assessment focus) Understand and Apply VocabularyAcademic vocabularyBuilding a rich vocabularyFocusing on contextSpeak and Listen EffectivelySpeaking and listening with established normsUse of evidence to support claimsUse of standard English conventions when the context requires it
103 Grade 3 Reading Complex Texts: Five to nine short texts from across the curriculumLiterature includes adventure stories, folktales, legends, fables, fantasy, realistic fiction and drama, with a special emphasis on myth,Informational textsOne extended text
104 Grade 3Proficiently read grade-appropriate complex literature and informational text (RL/RI.3.10)ask and answer questions by referring explicitly to a text (RL/RI.3.1)Compare and contrast two or more works with the same topic, author or character, describing the traits, motivations and feelings of characters or how ideas relate to one another
105 Grade 3 use these emerging skills to negotiate multisyllabic words ask questions of a speaker or classmate to deepen understanding of the materialread aloud fluently and offer appropriate elaboration on the ideas of classmateTwo new Writing Standards (W.3.4 and W.3.10) are introduced in grade 3
106 Grade 3 Instructional Priorities Build their word analysis skills so that they are reliably able to make sense of multisyllabic words in books (RF.3.3).Grade-level fluency
107 Grade 3 WritingRoutine writing: Routine writing, such as short constructed-responses to text-dependent questions, builds content knowledge and provides opportunities for reflection on a specific aspect of a text or texts.At least two analyses per module: using evidence (RL/RI.3.1), as well as on crafting works that display some logical integration and coherence (W.3.4, W.3.5 and L.3.1–3).Research Project: one extendedNarrative Writing: one or two narratives per module
108 For Reading and Writing in Each Grade 3 Module Cite evidenceAnalyze contentStudy and apply grammarStudy and apply vocabularyConduct discussionsReport findings
109 Reading Foundation Skills in Each Grade 3 Module Decode wordsRead fluently
110 Exploring the Model Content Frameworks: Review your grade levelDiscuss the instructional priorities
111 Mathematics/Standards for Mathematical Practice Make sense of problems and persevere in solving themReason abstractly and quantitativelyConstruct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of othersModel with mathematicsUse appropriate tools strategicallyAttend to precisionLook for and make use of structureLook for and express regularity in repeated reasoning1.Analyze givens, constraints, relationships and goals
123 FROMTOPlanning begins with identification of instructional activitiesPlanning begins with identifications of what students are to know and do as a result of the unitPlanning for instruction is the same for all students and meets the needs of some studentsIntentional planning meets each individual leaner’s needsTeacher-directed instructionStudent-centered instruction (investigation and inquiryTextbook is used as a main source of informationVariety of instructional resources are usedInterdisciplinary connections are forcedInterdisciplinary connections are appropriateAssessment is infrequent and at the end of the unitAssessment is ongoing, informs instruction and allows for extending understanding through application of knowledge (formative & Summative)Students work toward standards is often unclearStudents work to meet clearly defined and known standards
124 Rigorous and Relevant Instruction Defining the FocusSharing the standard with Students
125 Defining the focusA statement or question that communicates the content standards in a way that engages students by connecting learning to prior knowledge skills, experiences, belies and/or customs.Provides relevance: the why for learningInquiry-basedMotivates
126 Rigorous and Relevant Instruction Defining the FocusAnalyze the verbsUnderstand what students are expected to know
127 Rigorous and Relevant Instruction Defining the FocusReword – the standardStudent friendly language,Have the students rewrite the standard into their own language
128 Rigorous and Relevant Instruction Defining the Focus“I can” statements
129 Student Understanding “ What does this standard want you to be able to do or know?” to “What skills or knowledge do you have to demonstrate to be successful?”
130 StrongWeakYou are what you eatNutritionHow can I use measurement to learn about my world?MeasurementOld “stuff” to new “stuff”: How can a better understanding of matter help us make the world a better place?MatterA License to Create – Picasso the Innovative ArtistPicassoArkansas’s Government – What’s in it for me?Arkansas Government
131 Focus of Learning Worksheet Focus of UnitStandardsUse pg 64 to brainstorm:Concepts (Big Ideas)Declarative KnowledgeSkillsBehaviors
132 Strategy KWL chart (Know, Want to Know, Learned) Strategy: Student create a chart (KWL)Teachers poses questionsDetermine what the focus needs to be
133 Teacher Talk “We are learning…..” “So what do you need to remember to do?” (achieve the standard)Classroom discussion changes – we are learning….
134 ExemplarsShow the students high expectation for the standard
135 Rigorous and Relevant Instruction Student PerformanceSkills, knowledge, behaviors and conceptsStudent work(Level of Rigor and Relevance)Cross-reference to state standards
136 Rigorous and Relevant Instruction AssessmentAssessment matched student performanceType of assessment consistent with strategiesLevel matches the level of rigor and relevanceMultiple measures
137 Rigorous and Relevant Instruction Types of AssessmentMultiple ChoiceConstructed ResponseExtended ResponseTechnology EnhancedPerformance Task/EventPortfolioInterviewSelf Reflection
139 Did Students Get it Right? Rigor/Relevance FrameworkDid Students Get it Right?DCRationalAnswerRightQuestionsRIGORHighABRightAnswerRightProcedureLowLowHighRELEVANCE
140 D C B A Rigor/Relevance Framework Next Generation RIGOR High Low Low Summarize, analyze, organize, evaluatePredict, design, create, innovateRIGORHighABRecall, facts, observations, demonstrateApply, relate, demonstrateLowLowHighRELEVANCE
141 A - Ask questions to recall facts, make observations, or demonstrate understanding: What is/are ___?How many ___?What did you observe ___?What can you recall ___?In what ways ___?What did you notice about ___?What do/did you feel/see/hear/smell ___?What do/did you remember ___?What did you find out about ___?
142 B – Ask questions to apply or relate: How would you do that?Where will you use that knowledge?How does that relate to your experience?How can you demonstrate that?Calculate that for ___?How would you illustrate that?How do you know it works?Can you apply what you know to this real-world problem?
143 C – Ask questions to summarize, analyze, organize, or evaluate: How are these similar/different?How is this like?What’s another way we could express that?How can you distinguish between ___?How would you defend your position?What evidence can you offer?How do you know?
144 D – Ask questions to predict, design, or create: How would you design a __ to __?How would you compose a song?Can you see a possible solution?Can you develop a proposal that would__?How would you do it differently?How would you devise your own way to deal with ___?
145 Rigor/Relevance Framework Primary AssessmentsRigor/Relevance FrameworkKNOWLEDGE• Portfolio• Product Performance• Interview• Self Reflection• Extended Response• Product Performance• Process• Performance• Product Performance• Multiple Choice• Constructed ResponseA P P L I C A T I O N
146 Performance Assessments Set criteriaStudent knows what is expectedTeacher must analyze what is essential in the taskAnalyze the task as performed by real world expert