2Roosevelt Rises to the Presidency Graduate of HarvardLoved wildlifeNamed Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President McKinley.Formed Rough Riders in Spanish American War. (Calvary Unit)Elected Governor of N.Y.Progressive beliefsVice President under McKinley and became President when he was assassinated
3Teddy Bear named after him. Square Deal=keep the wealthy from taking advantage of the poor and small business owners.
4Square DealTR believed in the “capitalistic system” but believed that the system must be regulated by US Govt.TR was a Hamiltonian but for the betterment of the “common man” as opposed to benefit the elite.TR believed the U.S. Government was running the country and not the rich and corrupt industrialists….U.S. Government involvement with “regulatory agencies”….Similar to “checks and balances”
5Square DealReforms of the Progressives start with President Roosevelt….Areas which he wanted to reform and use the “bully pulpit” of the Presidency were the following:Bad Trusts vs. Good TrustsTake the side of laborRailroadsLimiting corruption in the workplaceConservation
6TR, the “Trustbuster” Department of Labor Bureau of Corporations Filed more than 40 anti-trust suits using the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.Northern SecuritiesStandard OilSwift Beef
7The TrustbusterTrust- Group of separate companies that are placed under the control of a single managing board in order to form a monopoly.Coal miners strike Threatens to send in federal troops to end strike.Federal government steps in for 1st time and helped workers in a labor dispute.Formed Department of Commerce and Labor
8Railroad Reforms to boost the Interstate Commerce Commission. RailroadsRailroad Reforms to boost the Interstate Commerce Commission.Elkins ActAnti-Rebate Act or Anti- Kick Back ActRegulates common carriers of people and freight, UPS, Greyhound, Amtrak, etc.Hepburn ActRegulates rates for passengers and freightAir travel cost controlsAir freight price controls
9Enforces Sherman Anti-Trust Act Sherman Anti-Trust Act- banned any trust that restrained interstate trade or commerce.Broke up many trusts including Northern Securities Company (r.r. company) and beef trusts.Supported large corporations as long as they did business fairly.
10Regulating Food and Drug Industries Upton Sinclair - The JungleMeat Inspection Act- Required federal agents to inspect meat that went across state lines and to inspect plants.Pure Food and Drug Act- Federal agents to inspect other foods and medicines and banned interstate shipment of impure food and the mislabeling of food and drugs.Today FDA (Food and Drug Adm.) enforces the law.
11All meat sold must inspected Reading The Jungle, TR brought about reform in proposing and signing into law the Meat Inspection Act, 1906All meat sold must inspectedMust be marked by Federal inspectors and graded.Meat industry cleaned up.Fish is regulated.
12Pure Food and Drug Act, 1906Federal inspection to all packaged foods and drugs.Labels with medicine as well as food.Contents of food and drug packages must be listedAll additives/chemicals must be listed on labels.FDA today or Food and Drug Administration
13TR’s Conservation Policy 125,000 acres in reserveNational Reclamation Act 190225 water projectsFounding of the National Park System
14National Forests Conserved and preserved forests. Gifford Pinchot- Led Division of Forestry in U.S. Department of Agriculture.Idea that forest be preserved for public use.John Muir-Created Yosemite National Park inAt this time they would preserve forests for logging, it later changed into public parks.
17Free land to Homesteaders who wanted to farm Lahontan Valley. National Reclamation Act gave birth to the Newlands Irrigation Project.Free land to Homesteaders who wanted to farm Lahontan Valley.Dairy farming, hay, beef and sugar beetsLake Lahontan and dam built in operation by 1914
18Roosevelt Changes Water Policy Water was fought over in Southwest.Private irrigation companies were taking over riverbeds so farmers couldn’t reclaim lost land.National Reclamation Act Fed. Government decides where and how water could be distributed.Build and managed dams.Roosevelt and Hoover Dams on Colorado River.Salt Valley Project in Arizona.
19Taft Taft becomes president in 1908 Progressive but had some different ideas from Roosevelt.Payne-Aldrich Act Lowered tariffs but not as low as Roosevelt had wanted.Mann-Elkins Act Gave gov. control of telegraph and telephone rates.Dropped Roosevelt’s distinctions between good trusts and bad trusts.
20Busted twice as many trusts as Roosevelt including Standard Oil Company. Fired Gifford Pinchot for criticizing Richard Ballinger (Sec. of Interior)Ballinger opposed Roosevelt’s conservation policies, and sold federal land rich with coal deposits to Alaska.Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
22Roosevelt Strikes Back New Nationalism-Program to restore government’s trustbusting power.Declared himself as strong as a bull-moose.Bull-Moose Party- Progressives who were for Roosevelt for a 3rd term. Included Jane Addams.Republicans- Supported Taft.
231912 ELECTION New Freedom New Nationalism Goal: Favored an active role in economic and social affairs.Favored small businesses and the free functioning and unregulated and unmonopolized markets.Tackle the “triple wall of privilege”: the tariff, the banks, and the trusts.Similar to Roosevelt’s New Nationalism.Goal:Continuation of his Square Deal which were reforms to help the common man.Favored a more active govt role in economic and social affairs.Good trusts vs. bad trustsDirect election of senatorsTariff reductionPresidential primariesRegulation of monopoliesEnd child laborInitiative and referendumWomen’s suffrage