3Earth’s BiomesThe Earth has 17 major biomes, each with its own characteristic dominant shapes and forms of life.Most biomes have been heavily altered by human action.People have introduced exotic species (invasive species) to new habitats – sometimes creating benefits, most often creating problems.
5Biome HandoutPlease use the biome handout with your text to help you to understand and memorize the characteristics of each biome. Remember to color/mark where each biome is on the world map.KNOW YOUR GEOGRAPHY FOR YOUR TEST!I will give you some GENERAL information next, but you need to research specific location, climate examples of flora and fauna including endangered species (and why they are endangered). We will spend the period on this.
617 Major Biomes 1. Tundras - two types: artic tundra and alpine tundra - treeless plains that occur in the harsh climates of low rainfall and low average temperature- parts have permafrost: permanently frozen ground2. Taiga or Boreal Forests- includes forests in cold climates, high latitudes & high altitudes- dominant life forms including moose and other large mammals, small flowering plants and coniferous trees3. Temperate Deciduous Forests- occur in warmer climates than the boreal forest- bread leaved trees as opposed to confers4. Temperate Rainforest- moderate temperatures, over 250 cm/year of rain5. Temperate Woodlands- slightly drier climate that the deciduous forests- fire is common and species adapt to it
79. Tropical Seasonal Forest and Savannas 6. Temperate Shrublands- also called chaparral: miniature woodlands- fire is also common here and vegetation is well adapted to it.7. Temperate Grasslands- include many North American prairies- too dry for forests, but too moist for deserts. Fire is common .8. Tropical Rain Forests- high average temperature and rainfall-largest amount of diversity of any biome- highest productivity along with swamps & marshes9. Tropical Seasonal Forest and Savannas- high average temperature, low latitudes, abundant but seasonal rainfall, fire is also seen here.10. Deserts- The driest region that vegetation can survive. Less than 50cm/year rainfall, lowest productivity
811. Wetlands 12. Freshwaters 13. Intertidal Areas 14. Open Ocean Include freshwater swaps, marshes and bogsAll have standing water12. FreshwatersHave phytoplankton and estuaries13. Intertidal AreasAreas exposed to alternately to air during low tide and high tide14. Open OceanAlso called the pelagic region15. BethosBottom portion of the ocean16. UpwellingsUpward flows of ocean water17. Hydrothermal VentsOccur in the deep ocean were plate tectonic processes create vents
9Biological Productivity and Energy Flow Chapter 9Biological Productivity and Energy Flow
10Biological Production Biomass - the total amount of organic matter on Earth or in any ecosystem. Measured in terms of mass per unit of space. Examples: kg/hectare or MT (metric tons)/hectare or g/m2(square meter).Biological Production- the capture of usable energy from the environment to produce organic compounds in which that energy in stored. Two types. Measured by the amount of food produced per area per time period. Examples: gram/m2/day or kg/ hectare/day.
11Two Kinds of Biological Production 1. Primary ProductionPhotosynthetic organisms make their own organic matter from a source of energy and an inorganic compound and convert it to organic compoundsCarried out by autotrophs and chemoautothrophsExamples: photosynthesis & chemosynthesis2. Secondary ProductionCannot make their own organic compounds and therefore must feed on other living thingsCarried out by heterotrophs
12Respiration Respiration: the use of biomass to release energy that can be used to do workIn other words, the use of energy from organic matter by most heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms is accomplished through respiration.An organic compound such as sugar is combined with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.Compare to photosynthesis. Do you remember the formula for photosynthesis and the formula for respiration? How do these two things relate?
13Gross and Net Production The production of biomass and it’s use as a source of energy by autotrophs includes three steps:Gross Production: An organism produces organic matter within it’s bodyIt uses some of this new organic matter as a fuel in respirationIt stores some of the newly produced organic matter for future useThe amount left after use during respiration is Net ProductionNet Production (NPP) = Gross Production (GPP)- Respiration (Ra)
14Controlling Primary Production Primary production is controlled by different factors in terrestrial versus aquatic ecosystems.Water: Influences terrestrial (aquatic systems are not water limited) ecosystems are largely influenced by water – greater precipitation/soil moisture increases primary production.Temperature: terrestrial and aquatic; higher temperatures increase primary production (think about how temperature increases chemical reaction rates).Light: production in aquatic systems is limited by light because light is quickly attenuated at depth; terrestrial systems are not as limited as aquatic systems by light, but since light and temperature are related, light does play an indirect role in terrestrial systems via temperature.Nutrients: terrestrial and aquatic; increased nutrient availability results in greater primary production; productivity in terrestrial systems tends to be limited by nitrogen, whereas productivity in aquatic systems tends to be limited by phosphorus.
15Measures of Primary Production in Terrestrial Ecosystems Primary production is measured differently in terrestrial versus aquatic ecosystems.CO2 Method: this method measures the net consumption of CO2 in the light to determine NPP and the production of CO2 in the dark to determine respiration (R)Harvest Method: This method is based on measuring the standing crop biomass at two different times. The difference between each time is the NPP.Satellite: Satellite sensors quantify the spectral pattern of reflected light off of photosynthetic organisms, which provides an index of NPP. In terrestrial ecosystems measurement of visible and near-infrared wavelengths reflected off vegetation (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) is used to estimate the productivity of terrestrial autotrophs.
16Measures of Primary Production in Aquatic Ecosystems Satellite: Satellite sensors are also used in aquatic ecosystems to quantify the spectral pattern of reflected light off of photosynthetic organisms, which provides an index of NPP. For example, measurement of the spectral signature of chlorophyll a in water bodies is used to estimate the productivity of aquatic primary producers (autotrophs).Light/dark bottle (oxygen) method: This method measures the net production of O2 in the light to determine NPP and the consumption of O2 in the dark to determine respiration (R) in aquatic ecosystems.
17Energy Flow Ecosystem Energy Flow The movement of energy through an ecosystem from the external environment through a series of organisms and back to the external environment
18The Laws of Thermodynamics 1st Law of Thermodynamics- (the law of conservation of energy)Energy is neither created nor destroyed. It is merely changed from one form to another2nd Law of Thermodynamics- Energy always changes from a more useful, higher quality from to a less useful, lower quality formThermodynamic System- Formed by an energy source, ecosystem and energy sink, where the ecosystem is said to be an intermediate system between the energy source and the energy sink (degraded heat energy)
19Energy Efficiency and Transfer Efficiency -the ratio of output to input, or the amount of useful work obtained by some amount of available energy.Trophic-level efficiency- Also known as food chain efficiency.- It is an ecological measure of energy efficiency- the ratio of production of one trophic level to the production of the next lower trophic level
20Energy Pyramid of Trophic- Level Efficiency 10 percent of the energy at one level of a food web is transferred to the next, higher, level. The other 90 percent of the energy is used for the organism's life processes or is lost as heat to the environment. Question: How many kcals would transfer to the 4th order consumer if there was one?QUESTION: Why are there so few organisms at the top of the pyramid? See page 173.1 kcal
21Energy Pyramids Continued The organisms at higher feeding levels of an energy pyramid do not necessarily require less energy to live than organisms at lower levels. Since so much energy is lost at each level, the amount of energy in the producer level limits the number of consumers the ecosystem can support. As a result, there usually are few organisms at the highest level in a food web and increasingly more organisms as you move down the energy pyramid to successively lower feeding levels.
22BellworkThe net primary production for an ecosystem on Mt. Kilimanjaro is 150,000 kcal/m2/yr and the respiration for the ecosystem is 128,000 kcal/m2/yr. What is the gross primary production for this ecosystem? SHOW ALL WORK!If the annual production of herbivorous elephants is 19,500 kJ/m2, and the production of the Acacia trees upon which they fed is 250,000 kJ/m2/yr, then what is the % trophic level efficiency? SHOW ALL WORK!Useful FormulasNet Primary Productivity (NPP) = Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) – Plant Respiration (Rp)Net Ecosystem Productivity NEP = NPP – Consumer Respiration (Rc)Net Ecosystem Productivity NEP = GPP – RNet Ecosystem Respiration (R) = Rp + Rc% Trophic Level Efficiency = (Production(higher level) / Consumption(higher level) ) * 100% Growth Efficiency = ( Production / Consumption ) * 100
23Answer: Problem 1The net primary production for an ecosystem on Mt. Kilimanjaro is 150,000 kcal/m2/yr and the respiration for the ecosystem is 128,000 kcal/m2/yr. What is the gross primary production for this ecosystem?NPP = 150,000 kcal/m2/yrNPP = GPP - RpRp = 128,000 kcal/ m2/yr ,000 kcal/m2/yr = GPP - 128,000 kcal/ m2/yrGPP = 278,000 kcal/m2/yr
24Answer Problem 2If the production of herbivorous elephants is 19,500 kJ/m2/yr, and the production of the Acacia trees upon which they have fed is 250,000 kJ/m2/yr, then what is the % trophic level efficiency?Production(acacia trees) = 250,000 kJ/m2/yr % TLE = ( Prod(elephants) / Cons(elephants) ) * 100Consumption(elephants) = Production(acacia trees) % TLE = ( 19,500 kJ/m2/yr / 250,000 kJ/m2/yr ) * 100Production(elephants) = 19,500 kJ/m2/yr% Trophic Level Efficiency (%TLE) = 7.8%
25BellworkWhat is the growth efficiency of the leopard population in this ecosystem if they consume 14,800 kJ/m2/yr of duiker and grow (produce) 500 kJ/m2/yr? SHOW ALL WORK!
26Answer% GE(leopard) = ? % GE = ( Prod(lepoards) / Cons(leopards) ) * 100Consumption(leopards) = 14,800 kJ/m2/yr of duiker % GE = ( 500 kJ/m2/yr / 14,800 kJ/m2/yr ) * 100Production(leopards) = 500 kJ/m2/yr % GE = 3.38%
28The Balance of NatureAn environmental myth that states that the natural environment, when not influenced by human activity, will reach a constant status, unchanging over time.Biomes have reached some consistency and this is known as a climax community, but this is different from climax state, which according to the Balance of Nature would continue indefinitely.In truth ecosystems do change – think about the biomes that require fire.
29What needs to be restored? As we have been studying, biomes and the ecosystems within have been undergoing degradation and are in great need of restoration. Examples from your text:Wetlands, Rivers and Streams(Ex: Kissimmee River, Everglades National Park)Prairie Restoration(Ex: Allwine Prairie)
30When Nature Restores Itself: The Process of Ecological Succession The process of the development of an ecological community or ecosystem.Two Types:Primary Succession: The initial establishment and development of an ecosystem. No previous life exists. Pioneer species are the first.Secondary Succession: The reestablishment of an ecosystem where there are remnants of a previous biological community
32Patterns in Succession An initial kind of vegetation specially adapted to the unstable conditionsSmall plants and other early-successional species grow and seeds spread rapidly.Larger plants and other late successional species enter and begin to dominate the site.A mature forest develops.Examples of Succession:Dune Succession, Bog Succession, Old-Field Succession
34Reproductive Strategies R-strategistsMany offspring, low parental care, reproduce rapidlyRead reproductive age early, low survival rate, short lifespan, short generation timeSeen in unstable environments – often pioneer species________ successional species, opportunists, type _______Generalists, Also prone to population crashes when competitive species move in.Example: dandelionsK-strategistsFew offspring, reproduce lateMature slowlyHigh survival rateHigh parental careSeen in stable environmentsSpecialists__________ successional speciesMore prone to extinctionExample: gorillaSurvivorship curve
35Survivorship CurveType I survivorship curves are for species that have a high survival rate of the young, live out most of their expected life span and die in old age.Humans are a good example of a species with a Type I survivorship curve.Type II survivorship curves are for species that have a relatively constant death rate throughout their life span. Death could be due to hunting or diseases.Examples of species exhibiting a Type II survivorship curve are coral, squirrels, honey bees and many reptiles.Type III survivorship curves are found in species that have many young, most of which die very early in their life.Plants, oysters and sea urchins are examples of species that have Type III survivorship curves.
36Species Change in Succession Earlier and later species in succession may interact in three ways:If they do not interact, the result is termed chronic patchiness – where the species that enters first remains until the next time the ecosystem is disturbed.
371. FacilitationDuring succession, one species prepares the way for the next (and may even be necessary for the occurrence of the next)Example: The pine tree provides the shade to allow the oak to grow.
382. InterferenceDuring succession, one species prevents the entrance of a later species into an ecosystem.Ex) Some grasses produce dense and thick mats so the seeds of trees cannot reach the soil to germinate