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UCSD - FEA Course - Fall FEA Course Lecture I – Outline 10/02/03 - UCSD A)Formal Definition of FEA: An approximate mathematical analysis tool to study the behavior of a continua (or a system) to an external influence such as stress, heat, pressure, magnetic filed etc. This involves generating a mathematical formulation of the physical process followed by a numerical solution of the mathematics model. History of FEA 1.Greek Mathematicians were the first to use the basic principles of FE to solve a physical problem (i.e., finding the area of a circle, or find the value of Pi) A = * R C = 2 R (More on this later).

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UCSD - FEA Course - Fall History of FEA (continued) 2.Archimedes had used a concept of splitting a domain and re- assembling it to calculate the volume of a wedge by breaking it into a series of triangles. 3.Modern FEA – as we know it – Hrenikoff – Framework method for Plane elastic medium represented as collection of bars and beams; 1943 – Courant solved a St. Venants Torsion Problem through an assemblage of triangular elements; 1956 – Turner, Cough, Martin and Topp [UC Berkeley/Aerospace]; 1960 – Clough was the first to use the formal name of Finite Elements.

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UCSD - FEA Course - Fall Basic Concept: Division of a given domain into a set of simple sub-domains called finite elements accompanied with polynomial approximations of solution over each element in terms of nodal values. Assembly of element equation with inter-element continuity of solution and balance of force considered. What are Finite Elements? Any geometric shape that allows computation of solutions (with approximation) or provides necessary relations among the values of solution at selected points (called nodes) of the sub-domain.

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UCSD - FEA Course - Fall B) Basic Illustration: Approximation of Circumference of a Circle Se R

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UCSD - FEA Course - Fall FE Descitization: Each line segment is an element. Collection of these line segments is called a mesh. Elements are connected at nodes. 2.Element Equations H e = 2R sin ( /2) 3.Assembly of Equations and Solution P n = Sigma He (n=1, N) For = 2 /n, He = 2R sin ( /n), Pn = n2Rsin( /n) 4.Convergence As n approaches infinity, P = 2 R if x = 1/n Pn = 2Rsin( x)/x As n approaches infinity, x->0, Limit (2Rsin( x)/x) as x->0 = limit (2 Rcos( x)/1) = 2 5.Error Estimation Error, Ee = |Se – He| = R[2 /n – 2Sin( /n)] Total Error = nEe = 2 R-Pn

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UCSD - FEA Course - Fall C) Some Examples of the Second Order Equations in 1- Dimension, -d/dx(adu/dx) = q for 0 < x < L Field Primary Variable u Constant aSource term qSecondary Variable Qo Transverse Deflection of a Cable Transverse Deflection Tension in CableDistributed Transverse Load Axial Force Axial Deformation of a bar Longitudinal Displacement EA (E= Young's Modulus, A = Cross Sectional Area) Friction or contact force on surface of bar Axial Force Heat TransferTemperature Thermal Conductivity Heat SourceHeat Flow Through PipesHydrostatic Pressure D 4 /128 (D- Diameter, - viscosity) Flow Source (Generally Zero) Flow Rate Laminar Incompressible Flow through a Channel under Constant Pressure Gradient VelocityViscosityPressure Gradient Pressure Flow Through Porous Media Fluid HeadCoefficient of Permeability Fluid FluxFlow (seepage) ElectrostaticsElectrostatic Potential Dielectric ConstantCharge DensityElectric Flux

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UCSD - FEA Course - Fall D) Some Examples of the Poisson Equation –. (k u) = f Field of Application Primary Variable uMaterial Constant K Source Variable f Secondary Variables d, du/dx, du/dy Heat Transfer Temperature TConductivity kHeat Source QHeat Flow q [comes from conduction k T/ n and convection h(T-T ) Irrotational Flow of an Ideal Fluid Stream Function Velocity Potential Density Mass Production (normally zero) Velocities: / x = -v; / y = u / x = -v; / y = u Groundwater Flow Piezometric Head Permeability KRecharge Q Seepage: q = k /dn Velocities: u = -k /dx, v = -k /dy Torsion of Members with Constant Cross-Section Stress Function k = 1 G = Shear Modulus f = 2 q = angle of twist per unit length G d /dx = - yz G d /dx = - xz Electrostatics Scalar Potential Dielectric Constant Charge Density Displacement Flux density Dn Magnetostatics Magnetic Potential Permeability Charge density Magnetic Flux density Bn Transverse Deflection of Elastic Membranes Transverse deflection u Tension T in membrane Transversely distributed Load Normal force q [Both tables taken from J. N. Reddy's Book "Introduction to the Finite Element Method", J.N. Reddy, McGraw Hill Publishers, 2nd Edition, Page 71]

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UCSD - FEA Course - Fall E) Some Examples of Coupled Systems 1.Plane Elasticity x/dx + xy/dy + fx = u/dt2 xy/dx + y/dy + fy = 2 v/dt2 2.Flow of Viscous Incompressible Fluids [Navier Stokes Equations] [Conservation of Linear Momentum] u/ t - x(2 u/ x) - / y[m( u/ y + v/ x ) ] + P/ x – fx = 0 v/ t - x[ ( v/ y + u/ x ) ] - / y( u/ y) + P/ y – fy = 0 [Conservation of Mass] ( u/ x + v/ y) = 0

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UCSD - FEA Course - Fall System Level Modeling – Reduced-order macro models are converted into simulation templates where the physically correct result can be further optimized with system level trade-offs. System Level Modeling Sample elector-mechanical library elements [Courtesy Coventor ]

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UCSD - FEA Course - Fall SOFTWARE-Specific Session: 1.Intro to ANSYS. Basic file operations. Simple plate problem. 2.Intro to FEMLAB. Fluid mechanics problem. Critical look at results. 3.Intro to software-specific issues. h-elements, p-Elements Homework 1 and Reading Assignments.

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