Who controls the pace of work is important. It is OK if customers and colleagues do. Not when bosses or machines do.
On autonomy Who controls the pace of work is important. It is OK if customers and colleagues do. Not when bosses or machines do. Some evidence that it pays to give employees small freedoms (like the ability to move their desk slightly).
Leadership is associated with lower levels of stress, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 2012. Gary D. Sherman et al.Gary D. Sherman
Using unique samples of real leaders, including military officers and government officials... leaders had lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol and lower anxiety.
Yet new longitudinal research sheds doubt on the causality.
Extra Status and Extra Stress: Are Promotions Good for Us? by David W. Johnston, Wang-Sheng Lee (June 2012) published in: Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 2013, 66 (1), 32-54
Yes, promotion improves job security, pay perceptions and job satisfaction in the short term...
However, promotions have negligible effects on workers' health and happiness... mental health seems affected with.. a deterioration two years after promotion.
Is work getting more stressful? [Yes] Work by Francis Green, Keith Whitfield, et al.
Proportion of High-Strain Jobs Green (2008) Work Effort and Worker Well-Being in the Age of Affluence Source: Skills Survey series
But should organizations want their workers to have high job satisfaction?
Very probably, yes. Happiness makes people more productive.
Positive effects for organizations from job satisfaction Edmans, A. 2012. The link between job satisfaction and firm value, with implications for corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Perspectives 26, 1-19. Bockerman, P; Ilmakannus, P. 2012. The Job Satisfaction-Productivity Nexus: A Study Using Matched Survey and Register Data. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 26, 1-19.
The Edmans study To address reverse causality, I measure firm value by using future stock returns.......Companies listed in the "100 Best Companies to Work For in America" generated 2.3% to 3.8% higher stock returns per year than their peers from 1984 through 2011.
The Bockerman paper studies data on 1000 establishments in Finland. It finds a strong correlation between job satisfaction and value- added-per-worker 2 years later.
A Warwick University study We studied 500 people in the laboratory doing a white collar task under timed pressure.
Those with recent family bad life events were less happy and less productive. A random sample were made to laugh for 10 minutes first – they were then 12% more productive.