34On autonomyWho controls the pace of work is important. It is OK if customers and colleagues do. Not when bosses or machines do.
35On autonomyWho controls the pace of work is important. It is OK if customers and colleagues do. Not when bosses or machines do.Some evidence that it pays to give employees small freedoms (like the ability to move their desk slightly).
46“Leadership is associated with lower levels of stress”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 2012.Gary D. Sherman et al.
47“Using unique samples of real leaders, including military officers and government officials ... leaders had lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol and lower anxiety.”
48Yet new longitudinal research sheds doubt on the causality.
49Extra Status and Extra Stress: Are Promotions Good for Us. by David W Extra Status and Extra Stress: Are Promotions Good for Us? by David W. Johnston, Wang-Sheng Lee (June 2012) published in: Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 2013, 66 (1), 32-54
50Yes, promotion improves job security, pay perceptions and job satisfaction in the short term...
51“However, promotions have negligible effects on workers' health and happiness... mental health seems affected with .. a deterioration two years after promotion.”
52Work by Francis Green, Keith Whitfield, et al. Is work getting more stressful?[Yes]Work by Francis Green, Keith Whitfield, et al.
53Proportion of High-Strain Jobs A high-strain job is defined as having high required effort and low task discretion. It is important for well-being and health, according to the Karasek demand-control model.The definition of low discretion is “at or below median”. High required effort is defined to be those who “strongly agree” that their job requires them to work very hard.With this definition, the proportion of high strain jobs rose in this period from a small beginning, roughly 1 in 11 jobs in 1992, to approximately 1 in 6 jobs (men) and 1 in 5 jobs (women) by After 2001 the proportion of ‘high-strain jobs’ remained stable for men but for women it rose still further to encompass a quarter of jobs.A remarkably similar growth pattern is found in Sweden, with the rise of high-strain jobs being more persistent for women than for men (Wikman, 2005). It is also interesting to note the findings of Gorman and Kmec (2007), that both in the US and in the UK women’s work effort is greater than men’s, which, they argue, reflects stricter performance standards for women.Green (2008) Work Effort and Worker Well-Being in the Age of AffluenceSource: Skills Survey series53
54But should organizations want their workers to have high job satisfaction?
55Very probably, yes. Happiness makes people more productive.
56Positive effects for organizations from job satisfaction Edmans, A The link between job satisfaction and firm value, with implications for corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Perspectives 26, 1-19.Bockerman, P; Ilmakannus, P The Job Satisfaction-Productivity Nexus: A Study Using Matched Survey and Register Data. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 26, 1-19.
57The Edmans study“To address reverse causality, I measure firm value by using future stock returns .......Companies listed in the "100 Best Companies to Work For in America" generated 2.3% to 3.8% higher stock returns per year than their peers from 1984 through 2011.”
58The Bockerman paper studies data on 1000 establishments in Finland. It finds a strong correlation between job satisfaction and value-added-per-worker 2 years later.
59A Warwick University study We studied 500 people in the laboratory doing a ‘white collar task’ under timed pressure.
60Those with recent family bad life events were less happy and less productive. A random sample were made to laugh for 10 minutes first – they were then 12% more productive.