2CHALLENGEIf you show a good knowledge of the English measurement system, you can skip all test questions related to the metric system.
3FRUIT DRINKSIf these are one quart each, how many gallons are here?
4Dry Quart vs. Liquid Quart Strawberries and other fruits are often sold in one quart containers. Are these quarts the same size as a quart of strawberry juice?Dry Quart vs. Liquid QuartDry Quart = 1.07 Liquid Quarts
6An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. How many ounces of gold does it take to make a pound?12 troy ounces make 1 troy pound=.823 lbs avoirdupoisThis is a cap from a RC cola bottle? How much does the RC cola weigh?These are 16 oz gloves. How many pounds do each weigh?The standard (Avoirdupois) pound of the United States is equivalent to the weight of cubic inches of distilled water at 62o Fahrenheit, the barometer being at 30 inches, and the water weighed in the air with brass weights.
7Apothecary System used in medicine Based on the weight of one grain of wheat.20 grains make a scruple3 scruples make a dram8 drams make a ounce12 ounces make a pound (troy pound)
13The loss of the the Mars Climate Orbiter on September 23, 1999, was a most unfortunate and highly avoidable event.The cause of the mishap has been traced to a mix-up over units. Preliminary findings indicated that one team used English units (e.g., inches, feet and pounds) while the other used metric units for maneuvers required to place the spacecraft in the proper Mars orbit.The 'root cause' of the loss of the spacecraft was the failed translation of English units into metric units.For nearly three centuries, engineers and scientists have been struggling with English units.
14In weightlessness 454 grams is still 454 grams; however, 1 pound will be zero pounds in zero gravity.What is the English unit for mass?In the English system the unit for mass is the slug.One slug sitting in Earth’s gravity has the weight of 32 pounds.
15Newton’s second law of motion f = maf = 1 slug x 32 ft/sec per sec (22 mph per sec)1 lb = ? slugs x 32 ft/sec per sec32 lbs = 1 slug x 32 ft/sec22 bowling balls have the mass of 1 slug.
17Something has mass if it is affected by gravity. These methods won’t work in the weightlessness of space.
18Mass resists change in motion If the girls push with the same strength, one can measure the distance the two cars moved after 5 seconds and calculate mass.Mass resists change in motionOn level ground, gravity has no effect on the difficulty of overcoming the mass of the cars.
19Air conditioner rated at 18,000 BTU per hour. What does BTU stand for and what does it measure?British Thermal Units = Energy to raise or lower 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit
20Seabiscuit’s races like most horse races goes for 10 furlongs Seabiscuit’s races like most horse races goes for 10 furlongs. How far is that?1 furlong = 1/8 mile
21What if gallons were different sizes in different cities?
22What if clothing sizes were different in different cities?
24In his first annual message to Congress (1790 January), President George Washington pressed for uniformity in currency, weights, and measures. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson urged Congress to reduce the existing separate systems of dry and liquid measures to one set of measures.JeffersonWashingtonOver 200 years later, we still have separate systems. For example, our dry quart is larger than our liquid quart, so four cups of flour and 4 cups of milk should be measured with separate measuring devices-which differ in size!Jefferson's second plan put before Congress was to reduce every branch [of measurement] to the same decimal ratio already established for coin, and thus bring the calculations of the principal affairs of life within the arithmetic of every man who can multiply and divide plain numbers.Congress took no action. Washington urged action again in his second annual message to Congress (1790 December 08) and the House referred the matter to the Senate, whose committee in this matter declined (1791 March 01) due to negotiations in progress with the French and British Governments to obtain an international standards of measurements.
26In the same year of 1790 King Louis XVI of France was also weary of the inconsistencies of measurement that was hurting trade.He ordered a new system of measurements be developed.
27Earlier in that century, Fahrenheit and Celsius used water as the basis of their thermometers. Their thermometers were calibrated using water, which everyone had access to. This made their thermometers useful.CelsiusFahrenheit
28Everyone has access to the Earth, so this new system was to be based on the size of the Earth. The idea was to measure a part of Earth’s surface over a few degrees, then calculate distance from Equator to North Pole.
29A survey team was suppose to measure the distance between Barcelona, Spain going through Paris and up to the English Channel.
30By dividing the distance from the equator to the north pole by 10 million, a convenient length was defined.MeterEquator to North Pole10,000,000It was a little longer than a yard, and the name would be from the Greek word, Metron, meaning to measure.
3140,000,000 meters40,000 km1 kilometer=1,000 meters10 million meters 10 million meters 10 million meters 10 million meters
32The motto for the metric system was: “For all people, for all time”
33Based on 10 & using Arabic Numerals Since the number system in use was no longer Roman Numerals, but the decimal number system borrowed from the Arab worlds and from India, the measurement system should also be based on 10 to make conversions easy.
34Since we have 10 fingers, a number system based on 10 was developed.
35Place ValueRoman Numerals did not take advantage of place value. X in Roman Numerals meant ten. XXX meant thirty. It didn’t matter where the X was placed; it always had the value of 10
36Modern number systems use place value Modern number systems use place value. In other words, a numeral has a different value depending where it’s placed.2222.0
39Multiplying & Dividing by 10 Because of place value, we can multiply by ten by moving all digits to the left (or you can look at it as the decimal point moving to the right.)25. x 10 = 250.Dividing by 10 is just the reverse.
40DecimalThe word decimal from from Latin decimalis meaning “of a tithe” A tithe was traditionally one tenth of income, so deci- meant one tenth.The new measuring system should also be based on tens and tenths.