13This project brings these analytic moments together, combining attention to structural features
14This project brings these analytic moments together, combining attention to structural featuresandattention to cultural practices.AB
15Network analysts have tended to assume that cognitive distance mirrors social distance. We relax that assumption.
16What matters in explaining creative success? The diversity of the cognitive/cultural elementsorthe structural folding of group membership?
17Russian semiotician Yuri Lotman Semiosphere not as a codeBut as multiplicity of codes
18Russian semiotician Yuri Lotman Semiosphere not as a codeBut as multiplicity of codesAB
19Russian semiotician Yuri Lotman Semiosphere not as a codeBut as multiplicity of codesABThe more difficult the translation of the non-intersecting, the more valuable this paradoxical communication becomes.The tension of two tendencies.
2216,507 video games 139,727 individuals Global video game production,
23We operationalize cognitive distance and group structure by studying team formation. How does the history of a team’s makeupshape its creative success?
24How to do historical network analysis when the units of analysis are fleeting episodic projects?
25It is not the history of the team per se that is of interest It is not the history of the team per se that is of interest. Instead, we gather very detailed data on the histories of the team members.With these we can reconstruct the cognitive distance and thecommunity memberships for every project team.
33Cognitive diversity Videos games differ in their stylistic elements. Each game has been coded for the presence or absence of 105 different stylistic (cognitive) elements.
34As they move through the project space, individuals are exposed to various cognitive elements…
35… allowing us to construct a cognitive profile for every individual and from these to computefor every team andfor all communities within a teama measure of cognitive distance.
36Group structureVideos games differ in their group structure depending on the cohesive ties that are formed as members worked with each other in the past.Through these cohesive structures members acquire informal codes of work and tacit knowledge of each other.
37As they move through the project space, individuals have opportunities to work together with others…
38As they move through the project space, individuals have opportunities to work together with others…
39… allowing us to reconstruct for every team the distinctivecohesive groups;to identify the cognitive distance across these groups;and to identify, in particular, whether these groups areisolated, brokered, or structurally folded.
41We then test whether cognitive distance and structural folding contribute to creative success. We expect to find significant positive effectsfor cognitive folding, i.e., when cognitively distant groups are structurally folded.
42Dependent variablesOur dependent variables recognize that cultural products can be innovative without being successful (and vice versa).Therefore...
43Three dependent variables: 1) A project can be innovative; it can be stylistically distinctive.2) A project can be critically successful.3) But a project will be a game changer only when it is innovative and critically successful.
51The effects of structural folding are compounded when cohesive groups are not only overlapping but also cognitively distant.Such cognitive folding mobilizes a productive tension of rules, roles, and categories that promotes successful innovation.