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Its all about building blocks. All built from a few building materials: Metal, glass, cement, plastic, & wood.

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Presentation on theme: "Its all about building blocks. All built from a few building materials: Metal, glass, cement, plastic, & wood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Its all about building blocks

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5 All built from a few building materials: Metal, glass, cement, plastic, & wood.

6 Lets make a cake from scratch (totally from scratch) Proton Neutron Electron

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8 E = mc 2 E = 1 kg x (300,000,000 m/s) 2 E = 9x10 16 joules 1 joule = 1 watt for 1 second E = 9x1016 watts x sec x kilo x 1 hr sec E = 25,000,000,000 (25 billion) kilowatt-hrs Arizona produced & used 58 billion KW-hrs in 1999 About half a year to produce enough energy to create the mass used in a cake (1kg). Cost = about 3 billion dollars

9 High energy light (photons) are needed to create matter. What is light made of? 1. Electric field 2. Magnetic field

10 High energy light (photons) are needed to create matter. 2 or 3 volts can produce visible light, but thats not high enough energy. We need higher frequency light, which has higher energy photons.

11 The picture tube (also called CRT) thats in your television or computer monitor creates light by accelerating electrons with 30,000 volts of electricity to slam into phosphors in the front of the monitor. This light has more energy but not enough.

12 Xray machines use 100,000 to 200,000 volts of electricity to accelerate electrons to strike a metal plate. When the electrons come to a halt, they give up their energy as high energy light called xrays. This light can pass through matter, but still doesnt have the energy to create matter.

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16 The voltage needed to create an electron is about one million volts. This is the voltage that creates a bolt of lightning. This voltage pushes electrons from the sky to the ground, but the electrons are slowed down by the air. If they werent, it would be possible that two electrons accelerated by a million volts striking the ground would give off light of enough energy to create a new electron.

17 Electron and anti-electron (positron) created when high energy gamma rays with energy of 1 million volts collide. Electron Positron (anti-electron)

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19 Proton (+) and anti-proton (-) created when high energy gamma rays with energy of 938 million volts collide. Proton Anti-Proton

20 Quarks of six flavor or colors and their anti-quarks are created when high energy gamma rays with energy of about 300 million volts collide. Quarks Anti-quarks U D U U D Proton U D D Neutron +2/3 -1/3

21 The neutron Proton Electron

22 Proton Neutron Electron

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26 Helium-2 Carbon-6

27 Proton Neutron Electron

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36 What makes good building blocks? The ever popular Tinkertoys gives us some clues. Blocks must allow for a way to connect to one part to another. Tinkertoys had circular blocks with holes in them, Sticks acted as connectors. With sticks of different lengths and a few kinds of blocks with holes in them, a wide variety of things could be assembled.

37 Building elements Hydrogen-1 Helium-2 Lithium-3 Carbon-6 Boron-5 Beryllium-4

38 Proton Neutron Electron

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41 Using the building blocks of neutrons, protons, and electrons we build the elements

42 Building elements Hydrogen-1 Helium-2 Lithium-3 Carbon-6 Boron-5 Beryllium-4

43 Elements are the new building blocks Hydrogen Carbon-6 Oxygen-8 Nitrogen-7

44 Elements are the new building blocks Hydrogen Carbon-6 Oxygen-8 Nitrogen-7

45 Elements are the new building blocks Hydrogen Nitrogen-7 Carbon-6 Oxygen-8 Carbon-6

46 Extreme Diversity Even though the building of elements is simply adding one proton, one electron and usually one neutron for each new element, the properties of elements can change dramatically.

47 Extreme Diversity Nitrogen-7 Carbon-6 Oxygen-8 Fluorine-9 Neon-10

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50 H He LiBeBCNOFNe NaMg AlSiPSClAr KCaTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr RbZrAgIXe CsBaWPtAuHgPbRn Fr UPu 1 18 x y d p s z f

51 Diversity within Same Element

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53 Amorphous Carbon. Lampblack Used in black inks in paints, copiers, ink-jet printers.

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57 Hydrogen Carbon-6 Hydrogen Compounds are two or more elements that share electrons or have taken or given electrons away.

58 Hydrogen Carbon-6 Hydrogen Compounds are two or more elements that share electrons.

59 Oxygen 8 protons Magnesium 12 protons 8 (+) 10 (-) -2 Charge 12 (+) 10 (-) +2 Charge

60 Compounds are two or more elements that are held together by opposite charge attraction. Oxygen-8 p Magnesium-12 p 8 (+) 10 (-) -2 Charge 12 (+) 10 (-) +2 Charge

61 Ionic bonding contd Nitrogen Lithium Oxygen

62 H H H N C O Elements are the new building blocks O H H C H C H

63 Compounds are classified as Organic or Inorganic

64 3 kinds of elements build a brick Brick becomes building block for a layer of bricks Layer of bricks becomes building block for wall of bricks

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68 Si O O O O O O O O O O

69 O O O O O O O O O O The other common elements in order of abundance are the metals aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, and potassium.

70 H He LiBeBCNOFNe NaMg AlSiPSClAr KCaTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr RbZrAgIXe CsBaWPtAuHgPbRn Fr UPu 1 18 A metal gives electron(s) to a non-metal. The metal becomes positive and the non-metal becomes negative. They now attract each other

71 Organic compounds are compounds that usually come from organisms. They always have carbon plus a few other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Examples: Alcohol, Sugar, Fat, Protein

72 H H H H H H C C H H H H H H C C C C H H H H H H H H C C H H Hydrocarbons H H C C H H H H H H Methane C C H H H H H H C C H H H H C C C C H H H H H H Butane Propane H H C C H H H H C C H H H H H H Ethane

73 Gasoline H H H H H H C C H H C C H H H H C C H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H C C H H H H H H H H H H H H C C H H C C H H H H C C H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H C C H H H H H H H H C C H H C C H H H H C C H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H C C H H H H H H H H H H H H C C H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H C C H H H H H H H H C C H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H C C H H H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H C C H H H H H H H H C C H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H C C H H H H H H H H H HH CC H H CC H H H CC H H H H CC H H H CC H H H H CC H H CC H H H H H H CC H H CC H H H CC H H H H CC H H H CC H H H H CC H H CC H H H H H CC H H H CC H H H H CC H H H CC H H H H CC H H CC H H H H H H H CC H H CC H H H H CC H H H H CC H H H H CC H H H H CC H H CC H H H H H H H H CC H H C H H H H CC H H H H C H H H H CC H H H H C HH CC H H H H H H H H CC H H C HH H H CC H H HH C H H H H CC H H H H C HH CC H H H H H H C HH H H CC HH HH C H H H H CC HH H H C HH CC HH H H HH H H C H H C HH H H C HH HH C H H C HH H C HH C HH H H Diesel Motor Oil Plastic C C H H Hydrocarbons

74 H H C C H H H H H H Methane O

75 H H C C H H H H H H O

76 H H H H C C H H H H

77 H H C C H H Methanol H H O O H H

78 H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H C C H H Methanol (methyl alcohol) O O H H H H C C H H C C H H O O H H Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) C C H H C C H H O O H H Propanol (propyl alcohol) H H C C H H C C H H H H C C H H O O H H H H C C H H Isopropyl alcohol

79 O O O O O O H H H H H H C C H H Formic acid (ant bite venom) H H H H C C H H C C O O H H Acetic acid (vinegar) C C H H C C H H H H Butyric acid H H C C O O H H C C H H O O

80 H H H H H H C C H H C C H H O O H H H H C C H H O O H H H H C C H H C C O O H H H H H H H H C C H H C C H H O O H H C C H H O O H H H H C C H H C C Acetic acid (vinegar)Propanol (propyl alcohol) Water is released Propyl acetate > pear flavor

81 H H H H C C H H O O H H H H C C H H O O H H H H C C H H C C O O H H H H H H C C H H O O H H C C H H O O H H H H C C H H C C Butyric acidEthanol (Ethyl alcohol) Water is released Ethyl butyrate > pineapple flavor H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H

82 O O O H H C H C H H C H H C H C H H H O H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C H C H H C H H C H O H H C H H C H H C H C H C H H H C H H C H H H C H C H C H O H C H H C H H C H H C H C H C H H H H C H C H Fatty acids are organic acids with a long carbon chain

83 Lipids: oils & fats (butter) O O O H H C H C H H C H H C H C H H H O H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H C H C H H C H H C H O H H C H H C H H C H C H C H H H C H H C H H H C H C H C H O H C H H C H H C H H C H C H C H H H H C H C H O H H H H H H O C O C C H H Fatty acids are organic acids with a long carbon chain Glycerin

84 Lipids: oils & fats O H C H C H H C H H C H C H H H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H O H C H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H C H C H H H C H H C H O H C H C H C H C H H C H H C H H C H C H C H H H H C H C H O H H H O C O C C H H

85 O C H Hydrocarbons Gasoline H H H C H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H C H H H Diesel-12 Oil-20 Plastic 1000s H H H C H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H C H H H H H H C H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H C H H H O O C O O C C O O Lipids: oils & fats (butter)

86 O C Glycerin H H H H H H O C O C C O H H H H O H H O C O C C H H O H H O C C H H Ribose H H Carbohydrate O H H O C O C C H H O H H H O C C H H Glucose H O C H H O O

87 O C Glycerin H H H H H H O C O C C O H H H H O H H O C O C C H H O H H O C C H H Ribose H H Carbohydrate O H H O C O C C H H O H H H O C C H H Glucose H O C H H-C=O | H-C-OH | HO-C-H | H-C-OH | H-C-OH | CH 2 OH H O O

88 O H H O C O C C H H O H H H O C C H H Glucose Structural formula. Straight chain glucose H O C H H-C=O | H-C-OH | HO-C-H | H-C-OH | H-C-OH | CH 2 OH H Glucose space-filling model. Straight chain glucose Glucose glucose bending Glucose Two ring shape versions alpha-glucose beta-glucose

89 Glucose bends itself into 4 different shapes millions of times a second

90 H2OH2O OO H2OH2O O H2OH2O

91 H2OH2O OO H2OH2O O H2OH2O

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93 H2OH2O O O CH 2 OH H2OH2O O H2OH2O

94 H2OH2O O H2OH2O O H2OH2O

95 O H2OH2O H2OH2O O Used by bacteria to form dental plaque. Used by doctors to increase blood volume and to prevent clotting.

96 C O H H O O

97 How do we make protein? Nitrogen-7 Carbon-6 Oxygen-8 Hydrogen-1

98 Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Hydrogen Number of available connections (bonds)

99 O O || HO O O || H H H H H H C C H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H C C H H H H H H H H C C H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H C C H H H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H C C H H H H H H H H C C H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H H H C C H H C C H H H H H H Motor Oil H H C C H H H H H H

100 How do we make protein? Nitrogen-7 Carbon-6 Oxygen-8 Hydrogen-1

101 H H H N C O Amino acids are building blocks for protein O C C N O H HH Ammonia Acetic acid Vinegar C H H H

102 H H H N C O Amino acids are building blocks for protein O C C N O HH Ammonia Acetic acid (Vinegar) C H H H

103 H H H N C O Amino acids are building blocks for proteins O C C N O H C H Amino acid Glycine C H H Alanine S

104 H H H N C O Amino acids are building blocks for proteins O C C N O H C H Amino acid Glycine C

105 S H N Amino acids are building blocks for proteins O C H O C N O H C H By attaching various combinations of the 5 above atoms at this location, living things make a total of 20 amino acids that then build all the proteins they need.

106 Amino acids are building blocks for proteins H O C N O H C H S H O C N

107 H N C O C Glycine S H O H C N O H C H H H H H O C N O C H H

108 H N C Amino acids are building blocks for proteins O C Glycine S H O H C N O H C H H H H H O C N O C H H Alanine C H H Water released

109 H N C Amino acids are building blocks for proteins O C S H H C N O H C H H H O C N O C H H C H H

110 Aspartic acid H N C O C S O H Phenylalanine H C N O H C H O C O H C H H H H H O C N O C H H H H C C C C C C C H H H H Aspartame Nutrasweet (Equal)

111 Amino acids build two types of proteins Structural: This type is used in building structures in an organism. Chemical: This type gets involved in chemical reactions. Antibodies and enzymes perform chemical chores.

112 Structural Proteins Hair (keratin) Fingernails (keratin) Skin (collagen) Muscles (myosin, etc.) Cartilage (glycoprotein: proteins attached to carbohydrates) Ligaments (collagen plus glycoproteins) Eye cornea (collagen/keratin)

113 Chemical Proteins In red blood cells (RBC), the protein, hemoglobin, carries the oxygen. The white blood cells (WBC) create specialized proteins called antibodies that can neutralize toxic substances in the blood. White blood cells also create hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria.

114 Hydrogen Peroxide H OO H

115 Enzymes: proteins that control chemical reactions. Enzymes are proteins that speed up reactions or make reactions happen that normally could not. For example, when the body burns fat, a toxic byproduct is hydrogen peroxide. You know hydrogen peroxide is used to kill germs and for bleaching hair. Hydrogen peroxide is dangerous to living things because it decomposes into water and oxygen. But the single oxygen is very reactive and can attack critical parts of a cell such as DNA or enzymes. There is one enzyme that can decompose the hydrogen peroxide safely.

116 Enzymes: Special proteins Below are two representations of the enzyme, catalase. The left picture shows all of the atoms that form the chain of amino acids that make up this protein. The right image, shows more of the shape caused by the string of amino acids. It is the specific shape of proteins that give it the ability to attach to other chemicals and cause a reaction. For example, catalase can grab onto 200,000 hydrogen peroxide molecules per second and cause them to safely decompose into water and oxygen. H O H O H O H O H O H O O H O H

117 Organic Building Blocks H N C O S Hydrocarbons Carbohydrates & Lipids Amino acids & proteins More amino acids & proteins P Nucleic acids, RNA, & DNA Single atoms of iron, copper, magnesium for some proteins

118 Making a cake totally from scratch Proton Neutron Electron

119 3 billion dollar electric bill and a billion volts

120 Proton Neutron Electron H N C O S Carbohydrates=sugars & starch Lipids=oils, fats, butter, margarine Amino acids & proteins Eggs, milk

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126 Its all about building blocks


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