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It’s all about building blocks

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1 It’s all about building blocks
CHEMISTRY It’s all about building blocks

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5 All built from a few building materials: Metal, glass, cement, plastic, & wood.

6 Let’s make a cake from scratch (totally from scratch)
Personal familiarity with proton is acidic tastes. Neutron, twice as heavy Electron- all that you see. Proton Neutron Electron

7 Drops of Light A long time ago light turned into drops of matter. It only happens under extreme conditions. But you have probably seen the reverse- matter turning to light. It’s seen during a nuclear explosion.

8 E = mc2 E = 1 kg x (300,000,000 m/s)2 E = 9x1016 joules
1 joule = 1 watt for 1 second E = 9x1016 watts x sec x kilo x 1 hr sec E = 25,000,000,000 (25 billion) kilowatt-hrs Arizona produced & used 58 billion KW-hrs in 1999 About half a year to produce enough energy to create the mass used in a cake (1kg). Cost = about 3 billion dollars

9 High energy light (photons) are needed to create matter.
What is light made of? 1. Electric field 2. Magnetic field

10 High energy light (photons) are needed to create matter.
2 or 3 volts can produce visible light, but that’s not high enough energy. We need higher frequency light, which has higher energy photons.

11 The picture tube (also called CRT) that’s in your television or computer monitor creates light by accelerating electrons with 30,000 volts of electricity to slam into phosphors in the front of the monitor. This light has more energy but not enough.

12 Xray Machine Xray machines use 100,000 to 200,000 volts of electricity to accelerate electrons to strike a metal plate. When the electrons come to a halt, they give up their energy as high energy light called xrays. This light can pass through matter, but still doesn’t have the energy to create matter.

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16 The voltage needed to create an electron is about one million volts
The voltage needed to create an electron is about one million volts. This is the voltage that creates a bolt of lightning. This voltage pushes electrons from the sky to the ground, but the electrons are slowed down by the air. If they weren’t, it would be possible that two electrons accelerated by a million volts striking the ground would give off light of enough energy to create a new electron.

17 Positron (anti-electron)
Electron and anti-electron (positron) created when high energy gamma rays with energy of 1 million volts collide.

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19 Proton Anti-Proton Proton (+) and anti-proton (-) created when high energy gamma rays with energy of 938 million volts collide.

20 Proton Quarks Anti-quarks U D U D Neutron D U +2/3 -1/3
Quarks of six “flavor” or “colors” and their anti-quarks are created when high energy gamma rays with energy of about 300 million volts collide.

21 The neutron Proton Electron

22 Proton Neutron Electron

23 Proton Neutron Electron

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26 Helium-2 Carbon-6

27 Proton Neutron Electron

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31 F F C F F

32 F F C F F

33 F F C F F

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36 What makes good building blocks?
The ever popular “Tinkertoys” gives us some clues. Blocks must allow for a way to connect to one part to another. Tinkertoys had circular blocks with holes in them, Sticks acted as connectors. With sticks of different lengths and a few kinds of blocks with holes in them, a wide variety of things could be assembled.

37 Building elements Hydrogen-1 Helium-2 Lithium-3 Beryllium-4 Boron-5
Carbon-6

38 Proton Neutron Electron

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41 Using the building blocks of neutrons, protons, and electrons we build the elements
HYDROGEN IRON OXYGEN GOLD SILVER

42 Building elements Hydrogen-1 Helium-2 Lithium-3 Beryllium-4 Boron-5
Carbon-6

43 Elements are the new building blocks
Hydrogen Nitrogen-7 Carbon-6 Oxygen-8

44 Elements are the new building blocks
Hydrogen Nitrogen-7 Carbon-6 Oxygen-8

45 Elements are the new building blocks
Hydrogen Nitrogen-7 Carbon-6 Oxygen-8 Carbon-6

46 Extreme Diversity Even though the building of elements is simply adding one proton, one electron and usually one neutron for each new element, the properties of elements can change dramatically.

47 Extreme Diversity Nitrogen-7 Fluorine-9 Carbon-6 Neon-10 Oxygen-8

48 "GENEROUS" NON-METALS METALS "GREEDY" MORE DIVERSITY

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50 y z x U Pu f p d s 18 1 H 2 13 14 15 16 17 He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg
9 10 11 12 Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Zr Ag I Xe Cs Ba W Pt Au Hg Pb Rn Fr U Pu

51 Diversity within Same Element

52 Diversity within Same Element
Carbon as Graphite

53 Diversity within Same Element
Amorphous Carbon. Lampblack Used in black inks in paints, copiers, ink-jet printers.

54 Carbon connected as spheres

55 CARBON NANOTUBES

56 TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS COMBINED
COMPOUNDS TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS COMBINED UNBELIEVABLE DIVERSITY

57 COMPOUNDS Hydrogen Compounds are two or more elements that share electrons or have taken or given electrons away. Carbon-6 Hydrogen Hydrogen Hydrogen

58 COMPOUNDS Compounds are two or more elements that share electrons.
Hydrogen Compounds are two or more elements that share electrons. Carbon-6 Hydrogen Hydrogen Hydrogen

59 IONIC BONDING Oxygen 8 protons Magnesium 12 protons
8 (+) 10 (-) -2 Charge 12 (+) 10 (-) +2 Charge Magnesium 12 protons

60 COMPOUNDS Oxygen-8 p Magnesium-12 p
Compounds are two or more elements that are held together by opposite charge attraction. COMPOUNDS Oxygen-8 p 8 (+) 10 (-) -2 Charge 12 (+) 10 (-) +2 Charge Magnesium-12 p

61 Ionic bonding cont’d Nitrogen Oxygen Lithium

62 Elements are the new building blocks

63 Compounds are classified as Organic or Inorganic

64 3 kinds of elements build a brick
Brick becomes building block for a layer of bricks Layer of bricks becomes building block for wall of bricks

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66 INORGANIC

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68 Si O

69 Main building blocks of minerals
Oxygen 50% & Silicon 30% Main building blocks of minerals Si O The other common elements in order of abundance are the metals aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, and potassium.

70 A metal gives electron(s) to a non-metal
A metal gives electron(s) to a non-metal. The metal becomes positive and the non-metal becomes negative. They now attract each other. NON-METALS +1 1 18 +2 Metals +3 -4 -3 -2 -1 H 2 13 14 15 16 17 He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Zr Ag I Xe Cs Ba W Pt Au Hg Pb Rn Fr U Pu

71 Organic compounds are compounds that usually come from organisms
Organic compounds are compounds that usually come from organisms. They always have carbon plus a few other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Examples: Alcohol, Sugar, Fat, Protein

72 Hydrocarbons C C Methane C Propane Ethane Butane C C C C C C H H H H H

73 Hydrocarbons C Plastic Motor Oil Diesel Gasoline C C H H H C C C C C C

74 O O H Methane C H H H

75 O O H Methane C H H H

76 H Methane C H H H

77 Methanol H C O H H H

78 Methanol (methyl alcohol) Ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
Isopropyl alcohol Propanol (propyl alcohol) H H H H H H C C C C O H C H C H H H H O H H H H

79 Formic acid (ant bite venom)
Acetic acid (vinegar) O O H C C C H O H O H H H Butyric acid O H H H C C C C H O H H H H

80 Propanol (propyl alcohol) Acetic acid (vinegar)
Water is released Propyl acetate > pear flavor O H H H H C C C C O C H H H H H H

81 Ethanol (Ethyl alcohol)
Butyric acid O H H H H H C C O C C C C H H O H H H H H H H Water is released Ethyl butyrate > pineapple flavor O H H H H H C C C C C C O H H H H H H H

82 O O Fatty acids are organic acids with a long carbon chain O C C O C C

83 Lipids: oils & fats (butter)
Fatty acids are organic acids with a long carbon chain O H C Glycerin O H C C H O H H H H H H H O C C C H C C C C C H H H H H H H H C H O H O C C H C H H H H

84 O H C Lipids: oils & fats H O O H C C H C O H C O H O H C H

85 Lipids: oils & fats (butter)
C O H Hydrocarbons Lipids: oils & fats (butter) Gasoline Diesel-12 O Oil-20 Plastic s C H H C O H H O C H H C O H H O C H H C O H H

86 O C O Carbohydrate O Glucose O Ribose C O C C O Glycerin O C C O C O C

87 O C O Carbohydrate O Glucose Ribose Glycerin O O C C C O C O C O O C C
H-C=O | H-C-OH | HO-C-H | H-C-OH | H-C-OH | CH2OH C H H C O H H C O H H C O H H H O C H H C O H H C O H H H H C O H H C O H H H

88 Glucose Two ring shape versions
Glucose space-filling model. Straight chain glucose Glucose Structural formula. Straight chain glucose Glucose glucose bending O C H-C=O | H-C-OH | HO-C-H | H-C-OH | H-C-OH | CH2OH H C O H H O C H H alpha-glucose C O H H C O H H C O H H H beta-glucose

89 Glucose bends itself into 4 different shapes millions of times a second

90 O O H2O H2O H2O STARCH O

91 O O O H2O H2O H2O STARCH

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93 CELLULOSE H2O H2O O O O H2O CH2OH

94 CELLULOSE H2O H2O O O H2O CH2OH

95 DEXTRAN H2O H2O O O Used by bacteria to form dental plaque. Used by doctors to increase blood volume and to prevent clotting.

96 O C O H H O

97 How do we make protein? Hydrogen-1 Nitrogen-7 Carbon-6 Oxygen-8

98 Number of available connections (bonds)
Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Hydrogen Number of available connections (bonds)

99 H C O O || HO O O || H C H H H Motor Oil

100 How do we make protein? Hydrogen-1 Nitrogen-7 Carbon-6 Oxygen-8

101 Amino acids are building blocks for protein
H O H N C C O H H H H H H H Ammonia Acetic acid Vinegar

102 Amino acids are building blocks for protein
H O H N C C O H H H H H H Ammonia Acetic acid (Vinegar)

103 Amino acids are building blocks for proteins
H O Glycine Alanine H N C C O H H Amino H acid H H

104 Amino acids are building blocks for proteins
H O Glycine H N C C O H H H acid Amino

105 Amino acids are building blocks for proteins
H O H 20 amino acids N C C O H H By attaching various combinations of the 5 above atoms at this location, living things make a total of 20 amino acids that then build all the proteins they need.

106 Amino acids are building blocks for proteins
20 amino acids H N C C O H H S H O C N

107 Amino acids are building blocks for proteins
H H O C N H C N O O H H H Glycine Glycine

108 Amino acids are building blocks for proteins
H O H C N O H N C C O O H H H H C H H H Glycine Alanine Water released H

109 Amino acids are building blocks for proteins
H H C N O O H N C C O H H H C H H H

110 Amino acids are building blocks for proteins
Aspartame Nutrasweet (Equal) S C C N O H O H O C N H N C C O H H H H C H H O C H O Aspartic acid Phenylalanine

111 Amino acids build two types of proteins
Structural: This type is used in building structures in an organism. Chemical: This type gets involved in chemical reactions. Antibodies and enzymes perform chemical chores.

112 Structural Proteins Hair (keratin) Fingernails (keratin)
Skin (collagen) Muscles (myosin, etc.) Cartilage (glycoprotein: proteins attached to carbohydrates) Ligaments (collagen plus glycoproteins) Eye cornea (collagen/keratin)

113 Chemical Proteins In red blood cells (RBC), the protein, hemoglobin, carries the oxygen. The white blood cells (WBC) create specialized proteins called antibodies that can neutralize toxic substances in the blood. White blood cells also create hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria.

114 Hydrogen Peroxide O O H H
A few hours later. Here's a picture after we had bleached our hair. As it is not possible to dye dark hair to get a bright color, we had to get blondes first. This hurt like HELL, because the hydrogen peroxide is extremely aggressive on the freshly shaved scalp! Our first posing! What happened after this picture was very important, but it is not documented: We went home!! Each of us ALONE, facing the social consequences of our decision. Although I told my parents almost half a year ago that I would do this weird hairdo, they never believed me, and I remember my mother being quite shocked when she saw me the first time. But she was okay after a few seconds. I admire the way my parents handled this unusual and difficult situation. During the next half year, they supported me, and they NEVER said anything negative about this eccentricity of mine! Wow! I hope I'll be as tolerant as they were!

115 Enzymes: proteins that control chemical reactions.
Enzymes are proteins that speed up reactions or make reactions happen that normally could not. For example, when the body “burns” fat, a toxic byproduct is hydrogen peroxide. You know hydrogen peroxide is used to kill germs and for bleaching hair. Hydrogen peroxide is dangerous to living things because it decomposes into water and oxygen. But the single oxygen is very reactive and can attack critical parts of a cell such as DNA or enzymes. There is one enzyme that can decompose the hydrogen peroxide safely.

116 Enzymes: Special proteins
Below are two representations of the enzyme, “catalase.” The left picture shows all of the atoms that form the chain of amino acids that make up this protein. The right image, shows more of the shape caused by the string of amino acids. It is the specific shape of proteins that give it the ability to attach to other chemicals and cause a reaction. For example, catalase can grab onto 200,000 hydrogen peroxide molecules per second and cause them to safely decompose into water and oxygen. Catalase is located in a cell organelle called the peroxisome. Peroxisomes in animal cells are involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, and the synthesis of cholesterol and bile acids. Hydrogen peroxide is a byproduct of fatty acid oxidation. White blood cells produce hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria. In both cases catalase prevents the hydrogen peroxide from harming the cell itself. Peroxisomes in plant cells are involved in photorespiration (the use of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide) and symbiotic nitrogen fixation (the breaking apart of the nitrogen molecule N2 to reactive nitrogen atoms). Hydrogen peroxide is produced as an intermediate during these chemical processes and must be removed to prevent damage to cellular machinery. As hydrogen peroxide enters the active site it is forced to interact with the amino acids His74 and Asn174. This causes a proton (hydrogen ion) to transfer from the first oxygen to the second, polarizing and stretching the O-O bond, which breaks heterolytically. The free oxygen atom coordinates with the iron centre of the active site, displacing the newly formed water molecule and forming Fe(IV)=O. In the second stage, the Fe(IV)=O reacts with another hydrogen peroxide to reform Fe(III)-E plus water and oxygen molecules. O H O H O H O H O

117 Organic Building Blocks
P N H Hydrocarbons Carbohydrates & Lipids Amino acids & proteins More amino acids & proteins Nucleic acids, RNA, & DNA Single atoms of iron, copper, magnesium for some proteins

118 Making a cake totally from scratch
Proton Neutron Electron Personal familiarity with proton is acidic tastes. Neutron, twice as heavy Electron- all that you see.

119 3 billion dollar electric bill and a billion volts
Proton Neutron Electron 3 billion dollar electric bill and a billion volts

120 Proton Neutron Electron
S C O N H Carbohydrates=sugars & starch Lipids=oils, fats, butter, margarine Amino acids & proteins Eggs, milk Personal familiarity with proton is acidic tastes. Neutron, twice as heavy Electron- all that you see.

121 After all that, we bake our cake

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126 It’s all about building blocks
CHEMISTRY It’s all about building blocks


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