5All built from a few building materials: Metal, glass, cement, plastic, & wood.
6Let’s make a cake from scratch (totally from scratch) Personal familiarity with proton is acidic tastes.Neutron, twice as heavyElectron- all that you see.Proton Neutron Electron
7Drops of LightA long time ago light turned into drops of matter. It only happens under extreme conditions. But you have probably seen the reverse- matter turning to light. It’s seen during a nuclear explosion.
8E = mc2 E = 1 kg x (300,000,000 m/s)2 E = 9x1016 joules 1 joule = 1 watt for 1 secondE = 9x1016 watts x sec x kilo x 1 hr sec E = 25,000,000,000 (25 billion) kilowatt-hrsArizona produced & used 58 billion KW-hrs in 1999About half a year to produce enough energy to create the mass used in a cake (1kg).Cost = about 3 billion dollars
9High energy light (photons) are needed to create matter. What is light made of?1. Electric field2. Magnetic field
10High energy light (photons) are needed to create matter. 2 or 3 volts can produce visible light, but that’s not high enough energy. We need higher frequency light, which has higher energy photons.
11The picture tube (also called CRT) that’s in your television or computer monitor creates light by accelerating electrons with 30,000 volts of electricity to slam into phosphors in the front of the monitor. This light has more energy but not enough.
12Xray MachineXray machines use 100,000 to 200,000 volts of electricity to accelerate electrons to strike a metal plate. When the electrons come to a halt, they give up their energy as high energy light called xrays. This light can pass through matter, but still doesn’t have the energy to create matter.
16The voltage needed to create an electron is about one million volts The voltage needed to create an electron is about one million volts. This is the voltage that creates a bolt of lightning. This voltage pushes electrons from the sky to the ground, but the electrons are slowed down by the air. If they weren’t, it would be possible that two electrons accelerated by a million volts striking the ground would give off light of enough energy to create a new electron.
17Positron (anti-electron) Electron and anti-electron (positron) created when high energy gamma rays with energy of 1 million volts collide.
19ProtonAnti-ProtonProton (+) and anti-proton (-) created when high energy gamma rays with energy of 938 million volts collide.
20Proton Quarks Anti-quarks U D U D Neutron D U +2/3 -1/3 Quarks of six “flavor” or “colors” and their anti-quarks are created when high energy gamma rays with energy of about 300 million volts collide.
36What makes good building blocks? The ever popular “Tinkertoys” gives us some clues.Blocks must allow for a way to connect to one part to another.Tinkertoys had circular blocks with holes in them, Sticks acted as connectors.With sticks of different lengths and a few kinds of blocks with holes in them, a wide variety of things could be assembled.
37Building elements Hydrogen-1 Helium-2 Lithium-3 Beryllium-4 Boron-5 Carbon-6
60COMPOUNDS Oxygen-8 p Magnesium-12 p Compounds are two or more elements that are held together by opposite charge attraction.COMPOUNDSOxygen-8 p8 (+) 10 (-) -2 Charge12 (+) 10 (-) +2 ChargeMagnesium-12 p
69Main building blocks of minerals Oxygen 50% & Silicon 30%Main building blocks of mineralsSiOThe other common elements in order of abundance are the metals aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, and potassium.
70A metal gives electron(s) to a non-metal A metal gives electron(s) to a non-metal. The metal becomes positive and the non-metal becomes negative. They now attract each other.NON-METALS+1118+2Metals+3-4-3-2-1H21314151617HeLiBeBCNOFNeNaMg3456789101112AlSiPSClArKCaTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKrRbZrAgIXeCsBaWPtAuHgPbRnFrUPu
71Organic compounds are compounds that usually come from organisms Organic compounds are compounds that usually come from organisms. They always have carbon plus a few other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.Examples: Alcohol, Sugar, Fat, Protein
72Hydrocarbons C C Methane C Propane Ethane Butane C C C C C C H H H H H
73Hydrocarbons C Plastic Motor Oil Diesel Gasoline C C H H H C C C C C C
100How do we make protein?Hydrogen-1Nitrogen-7Carbon-6Oxygen-8
101Amino acids are building blocks for protein HOHNCCOHHHHHHHAmmoniaAcetic acidVinegar
102Amino acids are building blocks for protein HOHNCCOHHHHHHAmmoniaAcetic acid(Vinegar)
103Amino acids are building blocks for proteins HOGlycineAlanineHNCCOHHAminoHacidHH
104Amino acids are building blocks for proteins HOGlycineHNCCOHHHacidAmino
105Amino acids are building blocks for proteins HOH20 amino acidsNCCOHHBy attaching various combinations of the 5 above atoms at this location, living things make a total of 20 amino acids that then build all the proteins they need.
106Amino acids are building blocks for proteins 20aminoacidsHNCCOHHSHOCN
107Amino acids are building blocks for proteins HHOCNHCNOOHHHGlycineGlycine
108Amino acids are building blocks for proteins HOHCNOHNCCOOHHHHCHHHGlycineAlanineWater releasedH
109Amino acids are building blocks for proteins HHCNOOHNCCOHHHCHHH
110Amino acids are building blocks for proteins Aspartame Nutrasweet (Equal)SCCNOHOHOCNHNCCOHHHHCHHOCHOAspartic acidPhenylalanine
111Amino acids build two types of proteins Structural: This type is used in building structures in an organism.Chemical: This type gets involved in chemical reactions. Antibodies and enzymes perform chemical chores.
112Structural Proteins Hair (keratin) Fingernails (keratin) Skin (collagen)Muscles (myosin, etc.)Cartilage (glycoprotein: proteins attached to carbohydrates)Ligaments (collagen plus glycoproteins)Eye cornea (collagen/keratin)
113Chemical ProteinsIn red blood cells (RBC), the protein, hemoglobin, carries the oxygen.The white blood cells (WBC) create specialized proteins called antibodies that can neutralize toxic substances in the blood. White blood cells also create hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria.
114Hydrogen Peroxide O O H H A few hours later. Here's a picture after we had bleached our hair. As it is not possible to dye dark hair to get a bright color, we had to get blondes first. This hurt like HELL, because the hydrogen peroxide is extremely aggressive on the freshly shaved scalp!Our first posing! What happened after this picture was very important, but it is not documented: We went home!! Each of us ALONE, facing the social consequences of our decision. Although I told my parents almost half a year ago that I would do this weird hairdo, they never believed me, and I remember my mother being quite shocked when she saw me the first time. But she was okay after a few seconds. I admire the way my parents handled this unusual and difficult situation. During the next half year, they supported me, and they NEVER said anything negative about this eccentricity of mine! Wow! I hope I'll be as tolerant as they were!
115Enzymes: proteins that control chemical reactions. Enzymes are proteins that speed up reactions or make reactions happen that normally could not.For example, when the body “burns” fat, a toxic byproduct is hydrogen peroxide. You know hydrogen peroxide is used to kill germs and for bleaching hair. Hydrogen peroxide is dangerous to living things because it decomposes into water and oxygen. But the single oxygen is very reactive and can attack critical parts of a cell such as DNA or enzymes. There is one enzyme that can decompose the hydrogen peroxide safely.
116Enzymes: Special proteins Below are two representations of the enzyme, “catalase.” The left picture shows all of the atoms that form the chain of amino acids that make up this protein. The right image, shows more of the shape caused by the string of amino acids. It is the specific shape of proteins that give it the ability to attach to other chemicals and cause a reaction. For example, catalase can grab onto 200,000 hydrogen peroxide molecules per second and cause them to safely decompose into water and oxygen.Catalase is located in a cell organelle called the peroxisome. Peroxisomes in animal cells are involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, and the synthesis of cholesterol and bile acids. Hydrogen peroxide is a byproduct of fatty acid oxidation. White blood cells produce hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria. In both cases catalase prevents the hydrogen peroxide from harming the cell itself. Peroxisomes in plant cells are involved in photorespiration (the use of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide) and symbiotic nitrogen fixation (the breaking apart of the nitrogen molecule N2 to reactive nitrogen atoms). Hydrogen peroxide is produced as an intermediate during these chemical processes and must be removed to prevent damage to cellular machinery.As hydrogen peroxide enters the active site it is forced to interact with the amino acids His74 and Asn174. This causes a proton (hydrogen ion) to transfer from the first oxygen to the second, polarizing and stretching the O-O bond, which breaks heterolytically. The free oxygen atom coordinates with the iron centre of the active site, displacing the newly formed water molecule and forming Fe(IV)=O. In the second stage, the Fe(IV)=O reacts with another hydrogen peroxide to reform Fe(III)-E plus water and oxygen molecules.OHOHOHOHO
117Organic Building Blocks PNHHydrocarbonsCarbohydrates & LipidsAmino acids & proteinsMore amino acids & proteinsNucleic acids, RNA, & DNASingle atoms of iron, copper, magnesium for some proteins
118Making a cake totally from scratch Proton Neutron ElectronPersonal familiarity with proton is acidic tastes.Neutron, twice as heavyElectron- all that you see.
1193 billion dollar electric bill and a billion volts Proton Neutron Electron3 billion dollar electric bill and a billion volts
120Proton Neutron Electron SCONHCarbohydrates=sugars & starch Lipids=oils, fats, butter, margarineAmino acids & proteins Eggs, milkPersonal familiarity with proton is acidic tastes.Neutron, twice as heavyElectron- all that you see.