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A measure of how much a gas, liquid, or solid becomes dissolved in a liquid.

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Presentation on theme: "A measure of how much a gas, liquid, or solid becomes dissolved in a liquid."— Presentation transcript:

1 A measure of how much a gas, liquid, or solid becomes dissolved in a liquid.

2 MTBE: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether A liquid that is very soluble in gasoline and used to get more complete combustion of gasoline. Unfortunately, also soluble in water. 42 g per liter. Can be tasted at 0.0001 g / liter Over 20,000 of these storage tanks are estimated to be leaking in Virginia

3 Salt (NaCl) is very soluble in water. 350 g/liter. However, if water evaporates, there will be too much salt for the water to hold in solution. The salt begins to form crystals. A lake near Death Valley is supersaturated with salt causing the salt to crystallize out.

4 Once a year the company who owns the lakes lets visitors into the area to collect salt crystals.

5 These are some of the salt crystals collected.

6 Applications of Solubility Knowledge Cleaning Separation (purifying) Detection & Identification

7 Like dissolves like To dissolve grease, use something that is also greasy or oily.

8 Water: the Universal Solvent One side of water is negatively charged because the oxygen atom keeps the shared electrons longer than the hydrogen atoms. As a result the oxygen side is negatively charged and the hydrogen side of water is positively charged. O

9 Water: the Universal Solvent Like a magnet that pulls on things that are magnetic, water pulls on things that are electrically charged. Magnets have north & south poles, water has positive and negative poles and thus called a polar solvent. Since unlike charges attract, the negative end of water will be attracted to the positive sodium ion. The positive end of water will be attracted to the negative chloride ion. Since water is always in motion, it will pull on the ionic compound and move the ions away from each other. This dissolves the ionic compound. O O Na + Cl - O O O

10 Wax does not repel water Weve heard that wax or oils repel water. But that isnt true. Water is so attracted to other water molecules that anything between them is squeezed out of the way. O O Oil droplet O O O

11 Water is always trying to pull itself into a tight ball as long as there is nothing nearby that has a charge on it. Therefore, this surface is not repelling water; its simply not attracting it and keeping water from doing what it does naturally.

12 We see the same effect on waxy leaves. Water pulls on itself so much that it forms a skin. Its called surface tension.

13 We are lucky that water has this strong attraction force otherwise wed never see raindrops. The water would just breakup into a mist as it fell. Very few liquids would remain as drops if they fell from a large height.

14 Soaps & Detergents Soaps and detergents are chains that have one end that is like oil and has no charge and the other end is charged. O O Oil droplet O O O SO 4 - O

15 Acetone Solvent for fats, oils, waxes, resins, rubber, plastics, varnishes, nail polish remover, solvent for adhesives & printing inks, Antiseptic solutions--to facilitate penetration The evaporation rate of acetone makes it quite useful for cleaning and drying. It dissolves water so you can wash away water allowing items to dry faster. O CH 3 -C-CH 3

16 Concentration of solutions Approximate Quantitative

17 Saturated Unsaturated Supersaturated Approximate Descriptions of Concentration Concentrated Dilute

18 This reference book indicates the solubility of many inorganic and organic compounds.

19 Approximate water Guess what these abbreviations stand for. Click on them for answer. alcohol ether acetone benzene Next Slide Next Slide

20 Chemical Abstracts Service Try to guess what these abbreviations mean and then click on them for answers. soluble in water ether chloroform very soluble in Ethanol slightly soluble in benzene

21 Quantitative Measurement of Concentrations Mass Percent (w/w) solid mixtures/ solids in solvents Mass/Volume Percent (w/v) Medical solutions g/100mL or g/100cc Mass/Volume (w/v) mg/mL, g/Liter Volume Percent (v/v) Liquid in liquid, liquors Molarity (M)(mol/liter) Chemistry reagents Parts per million (ppm) mg/liter (if water) wt or vol Trace amounts in water or air

22 Saturated solutions Mass/Volume (w/v) These can be easily turned into Mass/Volume Percent (w/v) Na 3 P

23 Mass/Volume Percent (w/v) 0.14 grams per 100 cc. Na 2 PO 3 F Apparently F replaces one of the oxygens, and since F has 7 electrons then the phosphate is -2 instead of -3. Na 2 PO 3 F Mol Wt= 144. 1.06% if stated as wt/vol of Na 2 PO 3 F Many products list the concentration of their ingredients. Fluoride is the active ingredient.

24 0.15 grams Fluoride ion per 100 cc. 0.243 grams NaF per 100 cc.

25 Insecticides are often dissolved in solvents. Their concentrations are usually given as sample weight divided by solvent weight converted to percent.

26 For every 100 grams, how much of it is Diazinon? Mass Percent (w/w)

27 Mass/Volume Percent (w/v) Grams 100 mL 5mg 1mL 100.001 milli = g 100 mL 0.5 Two ways of showing concentration are given. Lets turn 5mg per mL into 0.5% to see they are the same.

28 Mass/Volume Percent (w/v) 1% = 1g/100mL 0.2%= 0.2g/100mL 0.2%=0.2g/100mL 0.2g 15mL =.03 grams 100mL To calculate the grams of glycerin in this bottle use dimensional analysis.

29 Mass/Volume Percent (w/v) 50 g 1000 mL 5 g 100mL = 0.1 This lists the ingredients of Dextrose 5%. It says 50 grams in 1,000 mL of water. The dimensional analysis above shows how 50g per 1000mL can be converted to 5% (w/v)

30 Calculate Mass/Volume Percent (w/v) Find grams per mL (divide 39g by 355mL) Multiply by 100 to get grams per 100mL Calculate the percent (w/v) of sugar. 39g =.11 g 355mL 1 mL.11 g 100 = 11g = 11% (w/v) 1 mL 100 100mL

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32 % = ½ of proof

33 4 % = 4 grams/ 100 ml x 25 ml = 1 gram Chlorine 1 g per 10 liters 1 g per 10 kg 1 g per 10,000 g 1g x 100 = 100 g or 100 ppm 10,000g x 100 1,000,000 g Parts per million (ppm)

34 Ionic Breeze® complies with U.S. requirements for low ozone emission (less than 50 parts per billion) O.S.H.A. 24 hour exposure limit, 0.05 PPM, {Parts Per Million} The product lists 50 parts per billion (ppb) concentration of ozone. OSHA, however, lists the level as 0.05 ppm. Lets convert the ppm to ppb to better compare these values. 0.05 1000 = 50 1,000,000 1000 1,000,000,000 After multiplying by 1000 we find the 0.05 ppm is the same as 50 ppb.

35 Quantitative Measurement of Concentrations Mass Percent (w/w) Mass/Volume Percent (w/v) Volume Percent (v/v) Molarity (M)(mol/liter) Parts per million (ppm) mg/liter (if water) wt or vol solid mixtures/ solids in solvents Medical solutions g/100mL or g/100cc Mass/Volume (w/v) mg/mL, g/Liter Liquid in liquid, liquors Chemistry reagents Trace amounts in water or air

36 Chemical reaction Reactants Products WeightWeight Convert grams to moles Convert moles to grams NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) +HOH (l) You want to neutralize 360 grams NaOH How many grams of HCl is needed? 360 g NaOH = moles NaOH mole g 1 40 9

37 Chemical reaction Reactants Products WeightWeight Convert grams to moles Convert moles to grams NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) +HOH (l) You want to neutralize 360 grams NaOH How many grams of HCl is needed? 9 moles HCl = grams HCl g mole 36.5 1 328.5 9 moles

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39 Chemical reaction Reactants Products WeightWeight VolumeVolume ConcentrationConcentration Convert volume & Conc. to moles Convert moles to Volume Molarity = M WeightWeight VolumeVolume ConcentrationConcentration NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) +HOH (l) 1 mole Liter 1 M = For NaOH, 40 grams in one liter makes 1 M. 1 M1 M If you had half a liter of 1M NaOH, how much 1M HCl is needed to neutralized it.

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41 Reactions go faster if the reactants are well mixed. Dissolving them first in water and then mixing them makes the reaction go faster. Ingredients: Aspirin 325 mg, sodium bicarbonate 1700 mg, citric acid 1000 mg.

42 Why are chemicals or drugs dissolved in water?

43 This bottle of Sodium Phosphate lists the concentration as 0.1 M. How many moles of sodium phosphate are there in one liter of this solution? How many moles of sodium phosphate in 3 liters? How many moles in 0.1 liters? Concentration based on Moles per Liter

44 Weve used silver nitrate to test for chloride ion (Cl - ) in a few lab experiments. Ag + + Cl - AgCl (s) Silver nitrate dissolved in water is a convenient way to add a small amount of silver nitrate to something else to see if a reaction occurs with either the silver or the nitrate. If this bottle is 250 mL, how many moles of silver nitrate does it contain? 250mL x 0.001 milli =0.250 L 0.25L x 0.2 moles 1 Liter = 0.05 moles

45 Weve used silver nitrate to test for chloride ion (Cl - ) in a few lab experiments. Ag + + Cl - AgCl (s) A salt solution is 0.2 M NaCl. How much of this salt solution is needed to precipitate all of the Ag+ from this one liter bottle? What if the NaCl solution was 0.4 molar? How much would be needed?

46 Lets say the left bottle is 4 liters. How many moles of sodium arsenate are in a full bottle? How much sodium arsenate would you weigh out to make up 4 liters of this 0.1M solution?

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