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TopicsVisuals CHM130 study guide for final exam. Instructor: Ken Costello 1. Stone tool technology depended on finding rocks with glass-like properties.

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Presentation on theme: "TopicsVisuals CHM130 study guide for final exam. Instructor: Ken Costello 1. Stone tool technology depended on finding rocks with glass-like properties."— Presentation transcript:

1 TopicsVisuals CHM130 study guide for final exam. Instructor: Ken Costello 1. Stone tool technology depended on finding rocks with glass-like properties. Obsidian was one of them. 2. When a clay pot is fired, a chemical change occurs which makes it waterproof and harder. 3. Food stored will spoil unless something inhibits the growth of bacteria and mold. Building BlocksForces & EnergyMathematics What are the two primary elements that make up glass? Silicon and oxygen What kind of bond is there between these elements? Covalent Obsidian density is 2.4 g/cm 3. The mass of an obsidian arrow head is 7.2 grams. What is its volume? A. 7.2 cm 3 B. 3 cm 3 C. 3 grams D. 3 times When clay is fired, what compound is driven off? Water Firing requires high temperatures. Name three fuels that ancient people used. (3pts) Animal fat Wood Animal Dung (anything flammable) Ceramic instructions says fire at 1000°C. Your kiln temp gauge is in Fahrenheit, what do you set it to? (F=C*9/5+32) A °F B. 243°F C. 587 °F D °F Bacteria absorb dissolved nutrients to survive. What compound do you eliminate to stop this process? Water How does salt pull water out of food? Salt has + & - charges that pull on water Or water has + & - charges that pull on the salt. Wine is preserved with 120mg per liter sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). Your doctor says you can have 90 mg. How much can you drink? A. 750 mL B mL C cc D L B D A

2 Building BlocksForces & EnergyMathematicsTopicVisuals 6. The Periodic Table of the Elements organizes elements in rows and columns. 7. These seven non- metals combine to make poisonous gases. Knowing which gases are lighter or heavier than air could save your life. 5. The Periodic Table of the Elements organizes elements in rows and columns. Which two columns have elements that combine with each other the most aggressively? 1A and 7A Or 1 and 17 What kind of bond is there between these elements? Ionic Electronegativity measures attraction to electrons: F=4.0, Na=0.93, K=0.82, Cl=3.16. Which has stronger bond, NaF or KCl? NaF Name this compound P 3 O 4 (2pts) Triphosphorus tetraoxide Or triphosphorus tetroxide. Air inside a hot air balloon is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and carbon monoxide. What force is causing the hot air balloon to rise? Gravity. To compare densities of gases, compare molecular weight. Which is more dense, nitrogen monoxide or carbon monoxide? Nitrogen monoxide. If sodium had been the building block, find an alternative with similar properties. One of these: Potassium (K), Lithium (Li), Rubidium (Rb), or any from Group 1A. [Letters are good. Name not needed] Which column in the Periodic Table has elements that pull the hardest on electrons? 7A Or 17 How many times heavier is sulfur compared with oxygen? Twice Looking at the atomic weights, what element needs to fuse with oxygen to make silicon? Carbon. Millions of degrees are needed for elements to fuse together. Why? To overcome electron to electron & proton to proton repulsions The remains of a supernova are neutrons at density of 454 billion g/cm 3. A teaspoon (5 cc) of this weighs how many lbs.? A. 17 battleships (5 billion lbs) B. 9 locomotives (1 million lbs) C. 454 billion lbs. D. 1 million grams. 4. Supernovas are responsible for creating the 100+ elements we know of. A

3 TopicVisuals 8. Groups 1A, & 2A are called alkali metals & alkali Earth metals. The name alkali is Arabic for the saltwort plant. 9. Water absorbs heat well, which is why its used in car radiators. 10. One food calorie is actually 1000 calories. So a 1000 calorie milkshake is actually 1 million calories (1,000 kcal). Building BlocksForces & EnergyMathematics The ashes of the Al Kali plant contain hydroxides (OH - ) of groups 1A & 1B. These neutralize acids (H + ) to make what? Water Lab students are warned about adding acids (H + ) to bases (OH - ). These neutralize each other, so whats the problem? A lot of heat is produced. (optional) It may boil and splash. One mole of Ca(OH) 2 is mixed with 2 moles of H 2 SO4. How many moles of water is produced? 2 moles Draw a water molecule. Label atoms and show where partial charges are.. What causes water to have a higher than expected boiling point? The + & - ends of water pull on each other. How many calories is needed to raise 53 gallons (200 Liters) of water in a water heater from 20°C (room temp) to 70°C? A. 10,000 calories B. 100,000 calories C. 10,000,000 calories When sugar is burnt for energy, it makes the same two building blocks that built it, which are…? Carbon dioxide and water. Cellulose is made of chains of glucose. Why dont we get calories (energy) from eating cellulose? We dont have the enzymes to break up the cellulose into glucose. A (1000 kcal) milkshake can run a 40 watt bulb for how many hours? (note: 1 calorie produces 4 watts for 1 sec.) A. 28 hours B hours C. 40 hours D. 69 hours What are those 6 elements? 6pts Hydrogen Carbon Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur Phosphorus In living things, energy from sugar makes ATP which provides energy for reactions. How many phosphate groups are in ATP? 3 Energy from ribose comes from this reaction. Balance it. __C 5 H 10 O 5 + _5O 2 _5CO 2 + _5H 2 O 11.Living things are built from 6 elements with a few metals needed for certain proteins. C A O H H +

4 TopicVisuals 12. Supernova explosions spread elements all over the universe. Gravity collects elements to form new stars and solar systems. 14. In chemical reactions elements rearrange themselves. 13. Atoms are too small to count, so chemistry resorts to indirect ways of counting. I call it the art of counting without counting. Building BlocksForces & EnergyMathematics Helium is 2 nd most abundant element in universe, yet very little is on Earth. Why? (2pts) Being light it is lost to space. Being inert, it doesnt bond. What would a helium balloon do if released on surface of the moon? Why? (2 pts) It would fall. Gravity is the reason (optional: there is no air to lift it) Abundance is given in %, ppm, or ppb. Write these as fractions. (3pts) 1/100, 1/1,000,000 1/1,000,000,000 A solution of sodium sulfide [Na 2 S] and cadmium nitrate [Cd(NO 3 ) 2 ] are mixed to make yellow precipitate of cadmium sulfide [CdS] and aqueous sodium nitrate. What kind of reaction is this? Double replacement Water pulls on compounds that have a charge. Sometimes this dissolves them. When one of the compounds to the left is not soluble in water? CdS (or cadmium sulfide) If grams of cadmium sulfide precipitate was produced. How many atoms of cadmium is in the precipitate? A. 1 mole B C. 6x10 23 D moles Making trillions of molecules of CO 2 is easy: burn coal. Why is making one molecule hard? They are too small to see or handle. Gas pressure depends on the speed of the gas molecules. How does temperature affect the speed? Speed is proportional to temperature (or temperature goes up, speed goes up.) The ideal gas law is PV=nRT. The symbols stand for what? 5pts P=pressure V=volume n=moles R= T=Temperature What are the formulas for ethanol, hydrochloric acid, and chloroform? (3 pts) CH 3 CH 2 OH or C 2 H 6 O HCl CHCl 3 Chloroform is mostly non-polar and will not mix with the polar ethanol/hydrochloric acid mixture. What does polar mean? One end of molecule is +, other end -. Spot test recipe calls for 1 mole acetaldehyde. How many grams of acetaldehyde is that? A. 44 grams B. 16 grams C. 32 grams D. 29 grams 15. Crime labs use color tests (spot tests) to screen for drugs. One common one is the Duquenois-Levine Test for testing marijuana. Chemicals needed are acetaldehyde, ethanol, vanillin, hydrochloric acid and chloroform. O

5 Below is the structure of the fungicide he died from. If someone burned this fungicide, could hydrogen cyanide [HCN] and hydrochloric acid [HCl] be products of this burning (assume hydrogen could come from moisture in the air)? Yes. TopicVisuals 17. String theory tries to unify all forces and all matter. Even though it requires 11 dimensions, the math does explain all forces and all known particles. 18. The Internet is full of hoaxes and myths. Many relate to chemistry. Claim: A golfer who had a habit of chewing on his golf tee died after playing 4 rounds of golf. He died from ingesting fungicide sprayed on the grass by chewing on the golf tee. Status: TRUE Hoax & Myth Busters. 19. List 3 myth-urban legend-hoax buster Websites:3pts Building BlocksForces & EnergyMathematics What does the string theory say is the smallest building block that makes everything in the universe? Extremely small strings of energy What are the 4 forces of the universe? 5pts Gravity Electromagnetic Force Strong Nuclear Force Weak Nuclear Force And which one holds the nucleus of atoms together? Electromagnetic force. Electromagnetic force is said to be times stronger than gravitational force. How many times would you have to say billion to equal this? 4 times Carbon & nitrogen are bonded in the molecule by sharing 3 electrons each. Nitrogen has one pair of electrons not involved. Which would be attracted to this pair of electrons, acid [H+} or base [OH-]? A liter of diet soda has 500 mg of aspartame. 1/10 of the aspartame will decompose into methanol. EPA set daily dose of 0.5 mg per kg body weight for methanol. I weigh 100 kg. What is my limit for methanol? 50 mg. If I drink 2 liters of diet soda, do I go over that limit? Yes. The mineral in teeth is apatite with formula: Ca ? (PO 4 ) 3 OH How many Calciums are needed to make this compound neutral? Five Acids attack the OH in apatite turning the OH to H 2 O. The apatite is left with +1 charge. How will water respond? Negative end of water will be attracted and pull apatite apart Prescription fluoride toothpaste is 0.4% wt/vol fluoride. How many grams of fluoride in 1 liter (about 10 tubes)? 4 grams. Will it kill you if lethal dose is 5 grams? No. 16. Fluoride (F - ) in high doses is lethal, in low doses it is used to fight tooth decay. C N …….. unpaired H+H+


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