Presentation on theme: "Polyatomic ions Poly = Many Atomic = having to do with atoms ions = having a charge + or – How do more than one atom come together?"— Presentation transcript:
Polyatomic ions Poly = Many Atomic = having to do with atoms ions = having a charge + or – How do more than one atom come together?
(Sulfur dioxide SO 2 ) Used as a preservative in wine for its antibacterial properties, and as a bleaching agent in flour. Sulfur dioxide may be used to fumigate fruit and vegetables to extend their shelf life sulfite Occurs naturally in the atmosphere and as a pollutant gas from combustion of fuels with sulfur. Sulfur dioxide is one cause of acid rain.
sulfite -2 (Sulfite) Used to sterilize fermentation equipment and food containers, as well as for its antimicrobial properties. Generally meat, cereals and dairy products may not be treated with it as it destroys thiamine (vitamin B1) content. Over exposure to sulfites in food may cause an asthmatic attack. 1 out 100 people are sensitive to sulfite causing allergic reactions. Some people have died. SO SO 2 SO 3 SO 3 -2
sulfite -2 Sulfuric Acid 2H + + SO 4 -2 Calcium sulfate (casts, gypsum-drywall) (White Sands, NM) Magnesium Sulfate (Epson salts) Barium Sulfate (contrast medium for xrays) Copper sulfate is an algaecide. sulfate
Sulfuric Acid 2H + + SO 4 -2 Calcium sulfate (casts, gypsum-drywall) (White Sands, NM) Magnesium Sulfate (Epson salts) Barium Sulfate (contrast medium for xrays)
hypochlorite chlorite chlorate perchlorate Chlorate & perchlorate strong oxidizers Metallic chlorates & perchlorates turn into salt plus oxygen. KClO 3 KCl + O 2 Fireworks, explosives, O 2 for rocket fuel Cl 2 ClO - ClO 2 - ClO 3 - ClO 4 - Sodium
4-5 million pounds per day Chlorine dioxide for disinfecting drinking water, bleaching paper pulp, treating foods such as shrimp, fruits, vegetables, flour. Sanitizing food processing equipment. Chlorine dioxide used to sterilize water in water treatment plants. Chlorine dioxide was used to fumigate Fed buildings for anthrax. It was created at the site.
Ammonia is created in the body from digestion of proteins and amino acids. If theres an excess of nitrogen, the body converts it to urea, which is less toxic. Urea is expelled in the urine. Some babies are born without the enzymes to convert ammonia to urea, so they develop hyperammonemia, which is fatal or will cause brain damage. Ammonia is formed when animal waste is decomposed by bacteria H H C N H C H H O O Amino part Acid part
Ammonia added to water will form ammonium hydroxide (cleaning ammonia) Ammonium nitrate: Fertilizer, explosives Ammonium chloride: conducts electricity inside dry-cell batteries. Also used in cough medicines to hide the taste of bitter tasting medicines. Also used as expectorant. +1
High nitrate levels in drinking water can harm infants. Nitrate is converted into nitrite by bacteria that survives in infants stomachs causing blue baby syndrome
The nitrite in the blood converts the hemoglobin in red blood cells to methemoglobin (meta + hemoglobin) Metamorphosis (meta + morpho) change+shape This reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen, causing a condition known as methemoglobinemia, or "blue baby syndrome." High nitrate levels in drinking water can harm infants. Nitrate is converted into nitrite by bacteria that survives in infants stomachs. by bacteria that survives in infants stomachs causing blue baby syndrome
Nitrite Nitrate NO 2 - NO 3 -
Acetate When hydrogen proton comes off or reacts with something, its electron is left behind. This makes the remaining molecule negatively charged. It then becomes the acetate ion. The negatively charged acetate ion is then attracted to anything positive, such as metals that have lost an electron. Acetic Acid (vinegar) C2H3O2-C2H3O2-
Sodium acetate Na C 2 H 3 O 2 is used for instant heating pads.acetate. Calcium acetate Ca(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 is used as a thickener in batters, butter, puddings, pie fillers. Ammonium acetate NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 is used in permanent waves products. Cellulose acetate made from acetic acid and cellulose (wood fiber) used to make clear plastic, fabrics, and movie film (celluloid)
CaCO 3 is a common mineral. One form is calcite and another is chalk. It is often created by marine life. Coral is mostly CaCO 3 (calcium carbonate) and is used as a calcium supplement. TUMS is also calcium carbonate and is promoted as acid neutralizer and calcium supplement
Gas chambers used a pesticide called Zyklon B, which decomposed to HCN. First used in camps to delouse and for Typhus. Cyanide CN - is found in solution. Hydrogen cyanide HCN is the gas cyanide CN - hydrogen cyanide HCN
The seeds and pits of apricots, cherries, almonds, peaches, and apples contain amygdalin. Inside the intestine bacteria can convert this to cyanide. Under the name of Laetrile, amygdalin has been proposed as a treatment for cancer, but the medical community has rejected this claim. Cyanide CN -
Cassava is an important food source for 500 million people, but the roots contain a substance that, when eaten, can trigger the production of cyanide. Only proper cooking can neutralize the substance. Cyanide CN -
Acetate Sodium acetate is used for instant heating pads By breaking a capsule a seed crystal of sodium acetate allows the crystallization of the supercooled liquid sodium acetate. Zinc acetate in lozenges to fight colds. Calcium acetate is used as a thickener in batters, butter, puddings, pie fillers. It also is used to adjust acidity (pH) of foods and to preserve foods. Ammonium acetate is used in permanent waves and haircare products.
Acetate Cellulose acetate made from acetic acid and cellulose (wood fiber) used to make clear plastic, fabrics, and movie film (celluloid)
CO 2 + H 2 O -> H 2 CO 3 -> H + + HCO > 2H + + CO 3 -2 Important in the body to maintain correct pH in blood. Not enough breathing and CO 2 levels rise leading to more acidity and condition called acidosis. Hyperventilation and too much CO 2 being expelled leads to condition of alkalosis. This same reaction happens in making carbonated drinks. Compressed CO 2 is bubbled through water making carbonic acid.
- - Baking soda is Sodium bicarbonate or NaHCO3. This reacts with acids in the food to form carbon dioxide gas to get the batter to rise. NaHCO 3 + H + -> Na + + H 2 O + CO 2(gas) Baking powder has its own acids to help the reaction to take place. To reduce acidity in the blood, sometimes sodium or potassium bicarbonate are injected into patients that have developed diabetes induced acidosis. Other conditions that cause acidosis may also be treated by bicarbonates.
phthalate phthalic acid Tygon tubing. PVC softened with below ester used for surgical tubing. Good for contact with blood and pumps. Also wound drainage. diethyl phthalate: Plasticizer: Softens polyvinyl chloride plaster for chew toys and for saran wrap. Also used in cosmetics, insecticides, and food wrapping. Concern over it leaching into food.