Presentation on theme: "3 kinds of elements build a brick Brick becomes building block for a layer of bricks Layer of bricks becomes building block for wall."— Presentation transcript:
3 kinds of elements build a brick Brick becomes building block for a layer of bricks Layer of bricks becomes building block for wall of bricks
The power of building blocks
Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons are the building blocks for elements Hydrogen Nitrogen-7 Carbon-6 Oxygen-8
Organic Building Blocks H N C O S Hydrocarbons/plastic Carbohydrates & Lipids/plastics Amino acids & proteins More amino acids & proteins P Nucleic acids, RNA, & DNA Iron, copper, magnesium
Proteins Hair (keratin) Fingernails (keratin) Skin (collagen) Collagen is made from 3 amino acids that form a helix. These sections spontaneously self- assemble.
Si O O O O O O O O O O
O O O O O O O O O O The other common elements in order of abundance are the metals aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, and potassium.
Nylon was discovered in 1935. The name nylon is derived from two cities where it was discovered namely New York (NY) and London (LON).
Many + Parts
C C O O C C C C
How will you reinforce your knowledge of chemistry building blocks?
H H O C C O H H H H H H N
4 Known Forces 1)Electromagnetic Force a)Electrostatic b)Magnetic c)Light 2)Strong Nuclear Force 3)Weak Nuclear Force 4)Gravity
Electrons dislike other electrons
Electrons love protons Electrons are strongly attracted to protons. The more protons present the stronger the attraction. +
Opposites Attract Likes Repel ++
Radio, TV, Microwaves UV, X-rays, Gamma Rays
The forces at work are: Electrostatic: Repulsion of like charges: proton-proton and electron-electron Attraction of unlike charges: proton-electron. Magnetic: Electron spin introduces magnetic forces. Electrons with opposite spins produce opposite magnetic poles. Opposite magnetic poles attract. Opposite spin is required for electrons to occupy the same orbital.
POTENTIAL ENERGY Energy = Force x Distance
Dividing by 10,000,000 made a distance that was called a meter.
Cubits Yards Miles Nautical Miles Feet Hands Inches Leagues Chains Furlongs
Liter from Litron: Measure of capacity One liter of water has a mass of one kilogram
Since we have 10 fingers, a number system based on 10 was developed.
Sources of confusion Plus sign (+) Addition sign (+) Whats the difference? Addition sign indicates action of combining. Plus sign means something completely different. Negative sign (-) Subtraction sign (-) Whats the difference? Subtraction sign indicates action of taking away. Negative sign means something completely different.
3 14 C +1 6 2 Sources of confusion
Symbols vs. the Real Thing Answer true or false: H 2 O is water___ Formula for water is H 2 O___ H is hydrogen__ H is symbol for hydrogen___ ½ is a fraction___ ¼ is fractional numeral___ The number five has 4 letters ___
Chemical Equations are simple. 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O
If water molecules were grains of sand, a liter of water would cover the entire Earth 30 miles deep with sand.
The numbers under the element names are the relative weights. However, if you consider one mole of the element (6 x 10 23 atoms) then these numbers are read as grams.
Bridge between mass and number
How will you learn all the math you need? How many of you have CD-ROMs?
Of Feel the POWERPOINT
No one likes tests, even teachers. In the old days, when people learned by apprenticeship, there wasnt a need for tests because the master knew how the apprentice was doing by watching them and regularly asking them questions. However, in a classroom of 65 students, the instructor may have no idea how much a student has learned, so a test is one way of finding out.
One philosophy of teaching is that instructors are only sure that they have taught the subject if they find out that students have learned the subject. In other words, I must ask you a lot of questions to see if both you and I are doing a good job.
My expectation is that everyone understands everything on the test and gets it 100% right. Everyone may not get it 100% the first time, but they should get it correct on the 2 nd, or 3 rd time. It makes no sense to go on when there is something critical missing. Much of chemistry builds off the previous material. Of course, a person who takes three tries to get a question right doesnt deserve the same amount of credit of the person who got it right the first time. But getting it right the third time still deserves credit.
On problems you missed, you have the opportunity to be retested with a similar problem. You can get 85% of the score you would have gotten if you got it right the first time. Each time you have to redo it will cost another 15%. For example, if you miss a 20 point question but get a similar one correct on the retest, you make 17 points, which is much better than losing all 20 points. You just have to make an extra effort to do it again. In short, Im more interested in you learning the material than giving you low grades. Im not eager to do extra grading, but Im willing to do that if you are willing to put in the time to restudy and retest on what you missed. Final grades are not based on a curve, so students who ace a test the first time shouldnt worry about the students who retake the test to improve their scores.
I really hate to talk about points for two reasons First it takes your attention away from the subject. Second, it implies that grading is accurate down to the last little point. It would be hard to prove that a person with 524 points knows more than someone with 523 points. Mathematically it seems accurate, but in actuality grading is not that accurate. It is accurate to the level of recognizing failing performance, unsatisfactory work, fair work, good work, and outstanding work. In other words, the grades of F, D, C, B, & A can be determined, its just the points are only accurate to the nearest grade.
With this said, we can use points because it is easy to work with. NOTE: People who focus only on learning the subject do better than those who worry about grades. Thats because when you worry about points and grades, you are not thinking about the subject. Listen and learn in class and grades will take care of themselves.
In case you are still interested, here is the breakdown of points that will serve as a guide to your grade Attendance & quizzes: 175 points 4 tests: 100 points each totaling 400 points Final test: 200 points Poster project: 100 points Miscellaneous homework assignments: 175 points Total Points: 1000
If you have any special learning needs, let me know. For me to try to accommodate your special learning needs, you need to first visit our Disabilities Resources Office for assessment and for making arrangements for assistance.
Textbook 4 th Edition 3 rd Edition
…you wake up in your bed and believe whatever you want to believe…
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Survival Finding & preserving food Finding or building a shelter Temperature (warmth or cooling) (Safety) Awareness of dangers Protection from attack Protection from illness Preservation of personal energies/monies.