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Chemistry is a vast subject, more than you or I could ever know, but fortunately learning the fundamentals of chemistry is possible. One fundamental of.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry is a vast subject, more than you or I could ever know, but fortunately learning the fundamentals of chemistry is possible. One fundamental of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry is a vast subject, more than you or I could ever know, but fortunately learning the fundamentals of chemistry is possible. One fundamental of chemistry is understanding the electrons, neutrons, and protons that make up atoms. Its amazing that everything you can see or touch is made from these three tiny particles. However, their microscopic world is very bizarre, similar but stranger than Hollywoods virtual world called the Matrix. After learning chemistry you will look at the world very differently. Welcome to the Fundamentals of Chemistry. I find that dividing a chemistry topic into three areas of focus makes it easier to understand. The building blocks focus sees chemicals coming from simpler building blocks. Chemistry also involves force and energy. For example, attraction and repulsion of + & - charges guide the assembly of atoms and chemicals. The third part of chemistry involves mathematics. The Earth represents the Metric system which is based on Earth measurements and water. The images shown above represent the evolution of chemistry. For example, on the left the four recognized elements were fire, air, earth, and water but it turned out that none were elements. We now recognize 116 elements. The other images also have their stories, which we will discuss in class.

2 To the left is the textbook. I do not follow it too closely, but it is a good textbook that could supplement my lectures. I cover additional material not in the textbook. There exists a study guide and solutions manual, but I dont require them. The textbook may or may not come with a CD-ROM. It doesnt matter if you get it or not. You will also need a scientific calculator. Not right away but starting the fourth week. 1.Gain an appreciation of chemistry: its value to society, its role in history, the effort to get this far, and the modern marvels. 2.Learn about chemistrys building blocks from light matter/antimatter protons + electrons + neutrons atoms compounds organic vs. inorganic small compounds (CH 4, CO 2, H 2 O, SiO 2 ) large compounds (sugars, amino acids, hydrocarbons) macromolecules (starch, cellulose, proteins, DNA) 3.Learn how to approach a chemistry topic as a blend of building blocks, force & energy, and mathematics. 4.Learn the fundamental behaviors of atoms: Electrostatic forces, the bizarre world of quantum physics, chemical bonding, and the periodic behaviors indicated in the Periodic Table. 5.Smarter consumer of chemical products: Better understanding of labels, smarter at reading past the hype or paranoia, and better at recognizing pseudoscience. 6.Improved chance of survival: Knowledge of neutralizing acids/bases, better avoidance of chemical dangers, better at improvising, better at solving problems, and better at critical thinking. MC185 PS1W Map to Office

3 Approx Date SubjectDetails Related chap/page Activity in Chem Lab Aug 22 First day of class.> Introductions >Syllabus Introduction to the class. Handout and presentation of syllabus. Safety video Aug 24 2nd day: The 3 Barriers to Learning + Approach to learning chemistry. You will learn about the three common barriers to learning a subject and how to use this in learning chemistry. Aug 26 Why did chemistry become a science? (plus group photos) Driven by needs & wants chemistry throughout history improved survival and improved the quality of life. (Group photos to help me learn names) Chap 1.1 Aug 29 Chaos to Order: Periodic Table and where elements came from The Periodic table helps us organize the elements. But first where did elements come from and where are they now? (nuclear chemistry + cosmology) Parts of Chap. 7, Chap 18 Periodic table, names, oxidation numbers Separation of Mixture Aug 30 Chemistry: Its all about building blocks: Light particles atoms Elements Compounds The simplicity of building blocks is the secret of the physical universe. Light builds protons, electrons, neutrons, that builds the elements. Elements build compounds; small compounds build macromolecules. Parts of the following chapters: 2, 18, 19, & 20 Sep 2 Math: So Misunderstood + Dimensional Analysis + Metric System Origin of Math and common misunderstandings. By examining dimensions you can set up problems correctly. + The origin of the metric system Part of Chapter 3, Appendix D Sep 5Labor Day (No Class) Nomenclature - Binary Compounds Lab Measure- ments, Signi- ficant Figures Sep 7 Whats in a name? Nomenclature: Binary compounds. Naming compounds whose two elements share electrons (covalent bonding) plus naming compounds where one element (usually a metal) has given one or more electrons to another element (ionic bonding) Chap. 6. Sep 9 Dimensional Analysis + Metrics (continued) More practice on using dimensional analysis and working with metric units. Include density, temp, & mass. Hand out study guide for first exam. Part of Chapter 3, Appendix D Sep 12 Naming ionic compounds + Polyatomic ions Nomenclature of ionic compounds and polyatomic ions. Learn names and uses. Intro to Lewis structures Chap. 6 Nomenclature -Ternary Temp, Mass, Vol, Density Sep 14First ExamTest on all material covered up to Sept. 9 th. Sep 16 Types of Chemical Reactions Learn about synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, and combustion reactions. Chap. 10 Sept 19 Specific Heat Learn how different substances store different amounts of heat and how to calculate that amount of heat energy. pp. 67, 115, Specific Heat Sep 21 Art of Counting without Counting Moles & Molar Mass Formula and Molecular Weights. Moles and Molar Mass. Avogadro's number. Empirical and Molecular formulas. Chapter 9 Sep 23 Moles & Molar Mass (continued) Do calculations for grams to moles, moles to grams for elements and compounds. Chapter 9 Below is the planned schedule; however, unexpected events may change the schedule. Changes announced in class will override this schedule. Also expect daily short quizzes. On Mondays (shaded) the topic will normally reinforce the concepts that relate to the CHM130LL lab of that week.

4 Approx. Date SubjectDetails Related chap/page Activity in Chem Lab Sep 26Review nomenclature Chap. 6 Major 50pt quiz- Nomenclature Equation Writing & Balancing Sep 28 Equation Writing and Balancing + Solubility Rules Writing chemical equations is two-part. First, will the reaction take place? Second, if so, then how are all the elements accounted for? (Balancing) Chap. 10 Sep 30 Waste Not, Want Not: Stoichiometry Calculations based on chemical equations. Mole to Mole calculations, Mole to Mass calculations, limiting reactant, percent yield. Chapter 11 Oct 3 Activity series, redox reactions Learn what drives single replacement reactions. Learn to use the activity series and what electrons are transferred. Chap 17, p295-9, 528 Single Replacement Reactions. Oct 5Stoichiometry (continued)More practice on stoichiometry problems.Chap 11 Oct 7 Good & Bad news of chemistry Learn what makes chemistry easy or hard. (Recap past concepts and preview future concepts) Oct 10Oxidizers + Stoichiometry Learn uses and chemistry of oxidizers including KClO 3. Do stoichiometry problems that relate to oxidizers. p , Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate Oct 12Acids and Bases Historical significance of acids and bases. Acids as H+ donors. Bases as OH- donors. Other definitions of acids and bases. pH Scale. Chapter 16 Oct 14Review for second testTest will cover all material from Sept. 16 to Oct 12. Oct 17 Hydrates (Stoichiometry applied) Certain salts that have combined with a set amount of water are called hydrates. They are a source of water and can be made to be desiccants (absorbers of water) P174-5, 254, 625 Water in Hydrates Oct 19Second TestTest will cover all material from Sept. 16 to Oct 12. Oct 21 Tips on Poster Making (Hand out 10 homework assignments) Learn to make educational posters that grab and hold attention and teaches. Begin chemistry topic search. (Hand-out 10 homework assignments) Oct 24 Review Reactions & Balancing + Conductivity (electrolytes) Review synthesis, decomposition, single & double replacement, and combustion reactions. Balance equations. Predict products. Learn about electrolytes Chap. 10, 17 Major Quiz on Equation balancing, classification, prediction of products Conductivity lab Oct 26 Discuss second test results Examine strengths & weakness from 2 nd test. Receive prescription of what to study or get tutoring on. Oct 28 Halloween Chemistry Demonstrations Learn the chemistry for magic tricks, special effects, slime, and other attention getters. Oct 31 Chemistry of double replacement reactions Learn the driving forces of double replacement reactions. Learn molecular, total ionic, and net ionic equations. P287, Double replacement Reactions Lab Nov 2 Solubility + polar solvents + ways to measure concentrations Solubility of ionic & covalent compounds. Qualitative terms of concentration. Quantitative measurements: w/w, v/v, w/v, w/v%, ppm, ppb, molarity. Chapter 14 Nov. 4 Fluorides (Electronegativity, MSDS, concentration, acid/base) Special presentation on the use of fluoride to prevent tooth decay and the controversy that surrounds it. Good application of acids and bases, electronegativity, & concentrations calculations. Chap 16. Chap 8.3

5 Approx. Date SubjectDetails Related chap/page Activity in Chem Lab Nov 7 Theory behind lab on qualitative analysis of ions. Solubility rules, acid-base neutralization, decomposition, oxidation/reduction. p. 300, 303, 471 Qualitative analysis of anions Lab Nov 9 Gas and the various laws that govern its behavior. Boyle's law, Charles Law, Guy-Lussac's Law, Combined Gas Law, Avogadro's Law, Ideal Gas Law, Dalton's Law of partial pressures. Kinetic molecular theory. Standard temp, pressure. Chap. 12 Nov 11Veterans Day (No Class) Nov 14Acid/Base titration Learn the theory and math behind acid base titrations p Preparation of a Standard Base Nov 16 Representations of molecular structure Lewis & Couper structures plus molecular, Kekulé, condensed, & shorthand formulas, + VSEPR. Chap 8, p Nov 18 Quantum Model of Atom Third Exam (Take-home) Electrons live in the bizarre world of quantum physics. Pass out third exam (take-home exam) Chap 5.5 thru 5.10 Nov 21 Four forces of nature (electromagnetic, strong & weak nuclear forces, gravity) String theory including quantum mechanics, and the unification of the four forces of nature. p. 127, No Labs. Thanks- giving Nov 23 Educational Posters Due + Review of posters (Posters will be displayed in corridor leading to library) Nov 25Thanksgiving Break Nov 28 Third exam due + Reaction Rates and Equilibrium +refresh titration calculations Collision theory, factors that control reaction rates, catalysts, Le Chatelier's principle. Chapter 15 Determin- ation of Concen- tration of Acid Nov 30 Forensic Chemistry (application of chemistry learned in class) Presentation and demonstration of forensic chemistry. Dec 2 Homework assignments due: Discuss third exam results Examine strengths and weakness from third test. Receive prescription of what to restudy or get tutoring on. Dec 5Chemistry on demand Rapid fire questions regarding wide range of chemical concepts & calculations answered when called upon. Dec 7Review for Final Dec 9To be announced Dec 12Final Exam this week Dec 16Grades turned in

6 My expectation is that everyone understands everything on the test and gets it 100% right. Everyone may not get it 100% the first time, but they should get it correct on the 2 nd, or 3 rd time. It makes no sense to go on when there is something critical missing. Much of chemistry builds off the previous material. Of course, a person who takes three tries to get a question right doesnt deserve the same amount of credit as the person who got it right the first time. But getting it right the third time still deserves credit. On problems you missed, you have the opportunity to be retested with a similar problem. You get 85% of the score you would have gotten if you got it right the first time. For example, if you miss a 10 point question but get a similar one correct on the retest, you make 8.5 points, which is much better than losing all 10 points. You just have to make an extra effort to do it again. In short, Im more interested in you learning the material than giving you low grades. Im not eager to do extra grading, but Im willing to do that if you are willing to put in the time to restudy and retest on what you missed. Final grades are not based on a curve, so students who ace a test the first time shouldnt worry about the students who retake the test to improve their scores. No one likes tests, even teachers. In the old days, when people learned by apprenticeship, there wasnt a need for tests because the master knew how the apprentice was doing by watching him or her and regularly asking questions. However, in a classroom of 40 students, the instructor may have no idea how much a student has learned, so a test is one way of finding out. One philosophy of teaching is that instructors are only sure that they have taught the subject if they find out that students have learned the subject. In other words, I must ask you a lot of questions to see if both you and I are doing a good job. If you have any special learning needs, let me know, but first visit our Disabilities Resources & Services Office. They will work with both you and me to find ways to help. Deaf students will enjoy the many visuals I use in class. Visually impaired students with some vision can get my PowerPoints so they can view them in the librarys Adaptive Lab. Totally blind students will have a bigger challenge, but I am willing to try some alternatives.

7 I really hate to talk about points for two reasons: First it takes your attention away from the subject. Second, it implies that grading is accurate down to the last little point. It would be hard to prove that a person with 524 points actually knows more than someone with 523 points. Mathematically it seems accurate, but in actuality grading is approximate. When a teacher says one question is worth 15 points and another is worth 10 points, the choice is rather arbitrary. With this said, we can use points because it is easy to work with, but it is only approximate. People who focus only on learning the subject do better than those who worry about grades. Thats because when you worry about points and grades, you are not thinking about the subject. Listen and learn in class and grades will take care of themselves. In case you are still interested, here is the breakdown of points that will serve as a guide to your grade Daily quizzes (Attendance): 100 points 3 tests: 100 points each totaling 300 points Final test: 100 points Poster project: 100 points Miscellaneous assignments: 100 points Total: 700 points Grades are %=A, 80-89%=B, 70-79%=C, 60-69%=D, Below 60%=F If your points are close to a better grade, I will always give you the benefit of the doubt and give you the better grade because, like I said, grading is not that accurate. Notice attendance is a big contributor to your grade because of all of the daily quizzes. If you miss an exam, I will handle it on a case-by-case basis. It all depends on the circumstances involved. I again apologize for this much attention drawn to tests and points. Being aware of them is good, but worrying or being fixated on them will actually take attention away from learning and hurt your grade. The best thing is to get interested in the subject and that motivation will help you do good on any tests that come your way. Just like I expect everyone to learn the material well enough to get an A, I also expect everyone to finish the class. However, if you miss three classes in a row without contacting me, I will telephone you and send to find out whats going on. Note I can be pretty flexible when you have circumstances that warrant it. But if I cant reach you, I will have to withdraw you from class. If you disappear a week before class ends, I may just give you a grade based on your work up to that time, but lowered because you missed the final.

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