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What are the building blocks? Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus Chlorine Atoms Methane Formaldehyde Hydrogen cyanide Phosphorus pentachloride.

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Presentation on theme: "What are the building blocks? Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus Chlorine Atoms Methane Formaldehyde Hydrogen cyanide Phosphorus pentachloride."— Presentation transcript:

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2 What are the building blocks? Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus Chlorine Atoms Methane Formaldehyde Hydrogen cyanide Phosphorus pentachloride Molecules Subatomic particles Protons Electrons s orbital p orbital d orbital Hybrids

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5 Its all about building blocks

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8 4 3 2 1 Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Hydrogen Number of available connections (bonds)

9 H H H H C C H H Methane H H

10 H H C C H H Methanol H H O O H H

11 The forces at work are: Electromagnetic: Repulsion of like charges: proton-proton and electron-electron Attraction of unlike charges: proton-electron. Magnetic: Electron spin introduces magnetic forces. Electrons with opposite spins produce opposite magnetic poles. Opposite magnetic poles attract. Opposite spin is required for electrons to occupy the same orbital.

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13 Lewis Structures & Molecular Shape

14 Lewis Structures Gilbert Lewis

15 Lewis Structures Keeps track of valence (bonding) electrons Predicts formula for many compounds Predicts charge of compounds Predicts stability of compounds Predicts molecular shape if combined with other theories. nitrate=NO 3 -

16 Why interest in Molecular Shape? Predicts polar compounds (ones with ends with opposite charges) Predicts solubility Predicts interaction with light (link) Predicts crystal structure δ-δ- δ-δ- δ-δ- δ+δ+ δ-δ- δ-δ- δ-δ- δ+δ+

17 Methane building blocks

18 Carbon 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2

19 2s2p x 2p z 2p y 1s sp 3 sp 3 109.5 o Promote Hybridize x z y Methane: Carbon

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21 VSEPR http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/vsepr/ http://www.shef.ac.uk/chemistry/chempute r/vsepr.htmlhttp://www.shef.ac.uk/chemistry/chempute r/vsepr.html http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~edudev/V sepr/table1.htmlhttp://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~edudev/V sepr/table1.html http://intro.chem.okstate.edu/1314F00/Lec ture/Chapter10/VSEPR.htmlhttp://intro.chem.okstate.edu/1314F00/Lec ture/Chapter10/VSEPR.html

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23 Orbitals http://www.mpcfaculty.net/ron_rinehart/orb itals.htmhttp://www.mpcfaculty.net/ron_rinehart/orb itals.htm

24 Lewis Structures http://www.stolaf.edu/depts/chemistry/cour ses/toolkits/121/js/lewis/http://www.stolaf.edu/depts/chemistry/cour ses/toolkits/121/js/lewis/

25 1234512345 PF 3 5 + 7x3 = 26 valence electrons

26 4 groups of electrons, which will repel each other.

27 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 PF 3 F P F F

28 - 4 groups of electrons, which will repel each other. 1 central atom=A 3 bonding atoms = B 3 1 non-bonding pairs of electrons = N AB 3 N

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33 Hybridization Number of electron groups Hybridization 2sp 3sp 2 4sp 3 5sp 3 d 6sp 3 d 2

34 F Polar? F P F P = 2.1 F = 4.0 Electronegativity δ-δ- δ-δ- δ-δ- δ+

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36 1234512345 SCl 2 6 + 7x3 = 27 valence electrons

37 - 4 groups of electrons, which will repel each other.

38 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 PF 3 F P F F

39 - 4 groups of electrons, which will repel each other. 1 central atom=A 2 bonding atoms = B 2 2 non-bonding pairs of electrons = N 2 AB 2 N 2

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41 Hybridization Number of electron groups Hybridization 2sp 3sp 2 4sp 3 5sp 3 d 6sp 3 d 2

42 Polar ? δ-δ- δ-δ- δ+ S = 2.5 Cl = 3.0 Electronegativity

43 1234512345 CS 2 4 + 6x2 = 16 valence electrons

44 - 2 groups of electrons, which will repel each other.

45 - 1 central atom=A 2 bonding atoms = B 2 Zero non-bonding pairs of electrons AB 2 VESPR Sketch

46 AB 2

47 Hybridization # of electron groups HybridizationElectron geometry 2sp 3sp 2 4sp 3 5sp 3 d 6sp 3 d 2 for carbon for sulfur Straight Trigonal Tetrahedral Trigonal bipyramidal Octahedral

48 2s2p x 2p z 2p y 1s sp Promoted Hybridized Carbon in hydrogen cyanide or carbon disulfide: 2s + 2p x Linear

49 Polar ? S = 2.5 C = 2.5 Electronegativity

50 1234512345 KrF 2 8 + 7x2 = 22 valence electrons

51 - 5 groups of electrons, which will repel each other.

52 - 1 central atom=A 2 bonding atoms = B 2 3 non-bonding pairs of electrons AB 2 N 3 VESPR Sketch

53 AB 2 N 3

54 Polar ? No Kr = 3.0 F = 4.0 Electronegativity δ-δ- δ-δ- δ+

55 1234512345 PO 3 3- 5 + 6x3 + 3 = 26 valence electrons

56 - 4 groups of electrons, which will repel each other. - - - 3-

57 - 2 groups of electrons, which will repel each other. 1 central atom=A 3 bonding atoms = B 3 1 non-bonding pairs of electrons=N AB 2 N VESPR Sketch 3-

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59 Hybridization # of electron groups HybridizationElectron geometry 2sp 3sp 2 4sp 3 5sp 3 d 6sp 3 d 2 for P & O Straight Trigonal Tetrahedral Trigonal bipyramidal Octahedral 3- Trigonal pyramidal

60 Polar ? O = 3.5 P = 2.1 Electronegativity δ-δ- δ-δ- δ+δ+ 3- δ-δ-

61 Now its your turn

62 3s3p x 3p z 3p y 2 Neon 120 o Hybridized Phosphorus Pentachloride: Phosphorus Trigonal Bipyrimidal sp 3 d sp 3 d sp 3 d sp 3 d sp 3 d d xz d yz d xy d x 2 -y 2 d z 2 120 o 90 o Promoted

63 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 PF 3

64 n=1 l=0 m=0 n=2 l=0 m=0 n=2 l=1 m=-1 n=2 l=1 m=-0 n=2 l=1 m=+1 n=2 l=1 m=-1 n=2 l=1 m=0 n=2 l=1 m=+1 n=3 l=0 m=0 n=3 l=1 m=-1 n=3 l=1 m=0 n=3 l=1 m=+1 n=3 l=1 m=-1 n=3 l=1 m=0 n=3 l=1 m=+1 n=4 l=0 m=0 n=3 l=2 m=-2 n=3 l=2 m=-1 n=3 l=2 m=0 n=3 l=2 m=+1 n=3 l=2 m=+2 n=3 l=2 m=-2 n=3 l=2 m=-1 n=3 l=2 m=0 n=3 l=2 m=+1 n=3 l=2 m=+2 n=4 l=1 m=-1 n=4 l=1 m=0 n=4 l=1 m=+1 n=4 l=1 m=-1 n=4 l=1 m=0 n=4 l=1 m=+1 n=5 l=0 m=0 n=4 l=2 m=-2 n=4 l=2 m=-1 n=4 l=2 m=0 n=4 l=2 m=+1 n=4 l=2 m=+2 n=4 l=2 m=-2 n=4 l=2 m=-1 n=4 l=2 m=0 n=4 l=2 m=+1 n=4 l=2 m=+2 n=5 l=1 m=-1 n=5 l=1 m=0 n=5 l=1 m=+1 n=5 l=1 m=-1 n=5 l=1 m=0 n=5 l=1 m=+1 n=6 l=0 m=0 n=5 l=2 m=-2 n=5 l=2 m=-1 n=5 l=2 m=0 n=5 l=2 m=+1 n=5 l=2 m=+2 n=5 l=2 m=-2 n=5 l=2 m=-1 n=5 l=2 m=0 n=5 l=2 m=+1 n=5 l=2 m=+2 n=6 l=1 m=-1 n=6 l=1 m=0 n=6 l=1 m=+1 n=6 l=1 m=-1 n=6 l=1 m=0 n=6 l=1 m=+1 n=7 l=0 m=0 n=6 l=2 m=-2 n=6 l=2 m=-1 n=6 l=2 m=0 n=6 l=2 m=+1 n=6 l=2 m=+2 n=6 l=2 m=-2 n=6 l=2 m=-1 n=6 l=2 m=0 n=6 l=2 m=+1 n=6 l=2 m=+2 n=7 l=1 m=-1 n=7 l=1 m=0 n=7 l=1 m=+1 n=7 l=1 m=-1 n=7 l=1 m=0 n=7 l=1 m=+1 n=4 l=3 m=-3 n=4 l=3 m=-2 n=4 l=3 m=-1 n=4 l=3 m=0 n=4 l=3 m=+1 n=4 l=3 m=+2 n=4 l=3 m=+3 n=4 l=3 m=-3 n=4 l=3 m=-2 n=4 l=3 m=-1 n=4 l=3 m=0 n=4 l=3 m=+1 n=4 l=3 m=+2 n=4 l=3 m=+3 n=5 l=3 m=-3 n=5 l=3 m=-2 n=5 l=3 m=-1 n=5 l=3 m=0 n=5 l=3 m=+1 n=5 l=3 m=+2 n=5 l=3 m=+3 n=5 l=3 m=-3 n=5 l=3 m=-2 n=5 l=3 m=-1 n=5 l=3 m=0 n=5 l=3 m=+1 n=5 l=3 m=+2 n=5 l=3 m=+3 Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 Period 7 Principle number n l=0 l=1 l=2 l=3

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66 He Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 Period 7

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